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7)Define the term Dielectric loss and loss angle?

When a dielectric material is subjected to electric field , the electrical energy is absorbed by the dielectric and the certain amount of electrical energy is dissipated in the form of heat energy.This loss in energy in the form of heat is called dielectric loss. The power loss PL directly proportional to tan ,where tan is called loss tangent and is called loss angle. 8)What are the requirements of good insulting material? 1. It should have low dielectric constant. 2. It should posses low dielectric loss. 3. It must have high resistance. 4. It must posses high dielectric strength . 5. It should have adequate chemical stability. 6. It must have moisture resistance. PART-B 12) a) i) What is hall effect?. Derive an expression for the hall coefficient .Describe an experimental setup for the determination of hall coefficient and hall voltage? HALL EFFECT When a conductor carrying current is placed in a transverse magnetic field an electric field is produced inside a conductor in a direction normal to both the current and the magnetic field. This phenomenon is known as hall effect and the generated voltage is called hall voltage. HALL EFFECT IN n-TYPE SEMICONDUCTOR Let us consider an n-type material to which the current is allowed to pass along x direction from left to right and the magnetic field is applied along z direction.As a result hall voltage is produced in y direction.

Since the direction of current is from left to right and the electron move from right to left in x direction. Now due to the magnetic field applied the electrons moves towards downward direction with the velocity V and cause negative charge to accumulate at face (1) of the material. Therefore a potential difference is established between face (2) and face(1) of the specimen which gives rise to field EH in the negative Y direction. Here the force due to potential difference = -eEH.......(1) Force due to magnetic field At equilibrium condition (1)=(2) -eEH=-Bev EH=Bv..(3) We know the current density Jx in x direction is JX=-neev V=-Jx/ nee (4) Sub (4 )in (3) we get EH =-BJx / nee..(5) EH=RH.JX.B.(6) Where RH is known as the hall coefficient,given by RH =-(1/nee) The negative sign indicates that the field is developed in negative direction. = -Bev..(2)

HALL EFFECT IN p-TYPE SEMICONDUCTOR Let us consider an p-type material to which the current is allowed to pass along x direction from left to right and the magnetic field is applied along z direction.As a result hall voltage is produced in y direction

Since the direction of current is from left to right and the holewill also move from left to right in x direction. Now due to the magnetic field applied the electrons moves towards downward direction with the velocity v and cause positive charge to accumulate at face (1) of the material. Therefore a potential difference is established between face (2) and face(1) of the specimen which gives rise to field EH in the positive Y direction. Here the force due to potential difference = eEH.......(7) Force due to magnetic field At equilibrium condition (7)=(8) eEH=Bev EH=Bv..(9) We know the current density Jx in x direction is JX=nhev V=-Jx/ nhe (10) Where nh=hole density Sub (10 )in (9) we get EH =-BJx / nhe..(11) EH=RH.JX.B.(12) Where RH is known as the hall coefficient,given by RH =(1/nhe) The positive sign indicates that the field is developed in positive direction. HALL COFFICIENT INTERMS OF HALL VOLTAGE If the thickness of the sample is t and the voltage developed is vH ,then Hall voltage vH=EH.t..(12) Sub (6) in (12),we get VH=RHJXB.t..(13) If b is the width of the sample then Area of the sample=b.t Current density=Jx=Ix/bt..(14) = Bev..(8)

Sub (14) in (13) we get VH=RHIxBt/bt VH=RHIxB/b Therefore, hall coefficient ,RH=vHb/IxB

EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF HALL EFFECT A semiconductor slab of thickness t and breadth b is taken and current is passed using the battery.

The slab this placed between the pole pieces of an electromagnet so that current direction coincides with x axis and magnetic field coincides with z axis. The Hall voltage (vH) is measured by placing two probes at the center of the top and bottom face of the slab( y-axis). IF B is a magnetic field applied and the vH is the hall voltage produced, then the hall coefficient can be calculated from the formula . RH =VHb / IxB. ii) A n- type semiconductor specimen has hall coefficient RH=3.66x10-4m3 /coulomb. The conductivity of specimen is found to be 112 mho m-1.Calculate the charge carrier density ne and electron mobility at room temperature.? Given RH = 3.66x10-4 m3C-1 =112 mho m-1. ne=? e=? For n- type semiconductor the charge carrier density ne =-1/eRH. Here the negative sign indicates the field direction alone.Therefore ne =3 /8eRH ne=3x3.14/8x1.602x10-19x3.66x10-4 ne=2.0107x1022/m3

The charge carrier density =2.0107x1022/m3 Electron mobility e=e/nee e=112/2.0107x1022x1.602x10-19 e=0.0348m2V-1S-1. The mobility is =0.0348m2V-1S-1.