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Author G L Prasad
A new Aluminum alloy conductor having higher conductivity has been developed. By using these special alloy conductors, electric utility can achieve significant saving in both transmission and distribution lines
Alloy, Swedish conductors, AL-59, ACSR, AAAC
Sterlite ®. Sterlite is a registered trademark of Sterlite Technologies Limited
sterlitetechnologies. distribution and transmission lines have been designed using aluminum conductors steel reinforced (ACSR) or in some countries all aluminum alloy conductors (AAAC). within about 20 years of introducing ACSR. Sterlite is a registered trademark of Sterlite Technologies Limited www. IEC recommendation number 208 provides an internationally acceptable standard for AAAC (Aluminium Alloy Conductors) Figure 1 – Power Conductor Manufacturing Process: Rod Manufacture Sterlite ®. HISTORY In 1920’s.com . leading to an increase in the cost of losses. An attempt to find new conductor material producing fewer losses in the network was started in Sweden at the beginning of the 1970s and led in 1979 to the release of a new conductor standard called Al-59. where “59” stands for its conductivity (IACS). Other European countries also developed similar material as their conductor material US also followed the same in 1960’s The electrical conductor made of such alloy had higher strength than EC grade aluminium of equal size with slight loss in conductivity.INTRODUCTION The categories of conventional type of Aluminium and Aluminium alloy overhead conductors available globally are: Homogeneous Conductors AAC – All Aluminium Conductors AAAC – All Aluminium Alloy Conductors Non – Homogeneous Conductors ACSR – Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced AACSR-Aluminium Alloy Conductor Steel Reinforced ACAR – Aluminium Conductor Alloy Reinforced For several years. France introduced for the first time a new type of electrical conductor made of an alloy of aluminium with magnesium and silicon alloy. Due to the increased strength the conductors did not require steel reinforced. Both types normally have a conductivity calculated on the total area of 53-54% copper (IACS). Since the mid-1970s the cost of producing electric energy has grown rapidly. AAAC thus made its advent as the most suitable current carrier in transmission and distribution.
Sterlite is a registered trademark of Sterlite Technologies Limited www. self damping and fatigue strength. Figure 2 – Power Conductor Manufacturing Process: Rolling Mill This new conductor alloy was laboratory tested at the Swedish State Power Board with respect to creep.com . corrosion resistance.At the beginning of 70’s AB Electrokopper in Helinsburg developed an alloy with the trade name DUCTALEX. It has a better conductivity than the alloys developed by the France but a slightly lower mechanical strength. Figure 3 – Power Conductor Manufacturing Process: Wire Drawing Figure 4 – Conductor Manufacturing Process: Wire Stranding Sterlite ®. all tests showed the same or better properties than the ordinary alloy.sterlitetechnologies.
Average resistivity: 29. MATERIAL PROPERTIES Size of the Conductor AL-59 conductors range from AL-59 31 sq-mm (7/2.30 n m .5 mm: 230 MPA Resistivity of the wire .38 mm) to AL-59 910 sq-mm (61/4.Individual resistivity: 29. The measurement of sag after five years showed a high degree of agreement with what was predicted. strength and creep irrespective of the chemical composition which is not discussed in this standard.com .For diameter less than 3. ALREFERENCE OF USE OF AL-59 ALLOY CONDUCTORS Al-59 Alloy Conductors have been used extensively by Swedish Electricity. Strength of the wire .Tests were made on actual distribution lines starting in 1975.For diameter less than 4 mm: 240 MPA .low voltage to Ultra high Voltage.36 mm). As only satisfactory results were obtained the new alloy was installed in 400 KV line.7 strands: 350 mm/Km Sterlite ®. Concurrent with all trials the Swedish Standardization Committee worked out and issued the standards SS4240813 for AL-59 wires and SS4240814 for AL-59 conductors.5 mm: 250 MPA . COMPLIANCE WITH STANDARDS AL-59 alloy conductor complies with the standard SS4240814 and AL-59 alloy wires complies with standard SS4240813 that specifies the limits for conductivity. Swedish Railways and Norway Electricity. ALAPPLICATION OF AL-59 ALLOY CONDUCTORS Figure 5 – AL-59 Alloy Conductor Al-59 Alloy Conductors are used in power transmission and distribution lines for a wide voltage range .For diameter less than 4.08 n m Creep of the conductor Maximum conductor Creep at 23 oC at 40 % of rated tensile strength and 1500 hours are as follows .sterlitetechnologies. Other properties are similar to conventional AAAC conductors. Sterlite is a registered trademark of Sterlite Technologies Limited www.
- 19 and 37 strands: 400 mm/Km 61 strands: 450 mm/Km Figure 6 – Specialized Laboratory for Quality Testing COMPARISION WITH CONVENTIONAL ACSR AND AAAC The comparison is based on the current carrying capacity.68 593.Comparison of various Transmission conductors ACSR MOOSE Typical Factors Reference Specification Conductor Diameter (mm) Cross Sectional Area (sqmm) Ambient Temperature (oC) Current Carrying Capacity (Amperes) at 80oC Current Carrying Capacity (Amperes) at 100oC Sag (meter) At 350 meter span.515 11.55 IS 398 PART IV 31.402 10.917 *** 9. Sterlite is a registered trademark of Sterlite Technologies Limited www.77 596.472 10.69 40 1092 *** 1343 1620 10. 100oC Mass per unit length Sterlite ®. strength of the conductor and sag.com AAAC MOOSE 61/3.95 603.31 40 1313 54/7/3.52 SS 4240814 31. The comparison for transmission as well as for the distribution is as detailed below: Table 1 .53 IS 398 PART II 31.47 40 1089 AL-59 Alloy 61/3.sterlitetechnologies. 80oC At 350 meter span.387 .
80oC At 350 meter span.85 72.34 40 176 AL-59 Alloy 7/2.9289 0.9900 0.com .77 36.99 86. 100oC Mass per unit length kg/km Tensile Strength Kgf DC Resistance Ohm/km 0.74 86.05595 0.0501 Note: Current Carrying Capacity calculation based on wind velocity of 1 m/sec and solar absorption coefficient is 0. Sterlite is a registered trademark of Sterlite Technologies Limited www.kg/km Tensile Strength Kgf DC Resistance Ohm/km 1998 1666 1640 16269 17124 14577 0.Comparison of 7 strand Distribution conductors ACSR WEASEL AAAC WEASEL Typical Factors Reference Specification Conductor Diameter (mm) Cross Sectional Area (sqmm) Ambient Temperature (oC) Current Carrying Capacity (Amperes) at 80oC Current Carrying Capacity (Amperes) at 100oC Sag (meter) At 350 meter span.59 IS 398 PART II 7.09 99.50 34.86 6/1/2.50 34.8777 109.50 IS 398 PART IV 7.sterlitetechnologies.86 40 183 7/2.50 SS 4240814 7.6 Table 2 .03 *** 72.0568 0.34 40 187 *** 212 225 Sterlite ®.10 128 94 94 90.18 84.
Comparison of AAAC Moose.sterlitetechnologies. 2000 1750 1500 CURRENT(Amps) 1250 1000 750 500 250 0 50 60 AL-59 61/3.36 AAAC 61/4.53+7/3. 2500 AL-59 61/4. Sterlite is a registered trademark of Sterlite Technologies Limited www.Comparison of AAAC 61/4.26 2000 CURRENT(Amps) ACSR BERSIMIS /42/4.com .Comparison of AAAC Weasel.59 AL 59 7/2.65 70 80 90 100 TEMPERATURE (Degrees C) 110 Figure 9 .57 +7/2.54 1500 1000 500 0 50 60 70 80 90 100 TEMPERATURE (Degrees C) 110 Figure 8 .52 ACSR 54/3. ACSR Moose and AL-59 conductors.50 ACSR Weasel 7/2. Sterlite ®.26.50 60 70 80 90 100 TEMPERATURE (Degrees C) 110 Figure 7 . ACSR Weasel and AL-59 conductors.53 AAAC 61/3.mm conductors. ACSR Bersimis and AL-59 910 sq.300 250 CURRENT(Amps) 200 150 100 50 0 50 AAAC Weasel 7/2.
Higher power transfer capacity with lesser cross sectional area. The result of creep achieved was 436 mm/Km which superior to the specified requirement of 450 mm/Km. Government of India. Sterlite received the ‘Best Product Award’ from by IEEMA for AL59 Alloy Conductors. ABS Research. UK reports that the global market for power transmission conductors was valued at about US$12. Figure 10 – IEEMA Best Product Award CONCLUSION Power for all by the year 2012 is the vision of the Ministry of Power. The Government of India’s Transmission Perspective Plan focuses on the creation of a ‘National Grid’ in a phased manner by adding over 60.3 Billion in 2006 and has a CAGR of 7% from 2004 through 2006. Japan.000 km of Transmission Network by 2012. which is to be further enhanced to 30. On a global level. ABS Research also anticipates a stable demand growth in the global market from 2007 through 2010 at a CAGR of about 7%. The Important factor for choosing tension from the vibrating point of view is tension divided by the conductor mass. Sterlite is a registered trademark of Sterlite Technologies Limited www.com .sterlitetechnologies. Al-59 Alloy Conductors would have a special significance while designing Sterlite ®. The existing inter-regional power transfer capacity is 9.000 MW. In view of development of new power transmission and distribution grids by global power incumbents. Such an integrated grid is envisaged to evacuate additional 1. 00.000 MW by 2012 through creation of “Transmission Super Highways”. AL-59 is strung at the same tension as like conventional AAAC. ADVANTAGES OVER ACSR AND AAAC ADVANTAGES Higher current carrying capacity with lesser cross sectional area. This value is independent of Ultimate tensile strength. Sterlite has supplied these conductors globally.Even though strength of the AL-59 conductor is less compared to conventional AAAC.000 MW by the year 2012 and carry 60% of the power generated in the country. Commercial benefits due to lower power loss and higher power transfer capacity. AWARDS APPROVALS AND AWARDS Sterlite’s 774 sq-mm AL-59 sample was type tested (for creep and ultimate tensile strength) and approved by J-Power Systems Corporation.
as the properties of these conductors enable superior power evacuation while optimizing the cost of the entire grid.transmission line networks. Sterlite is a registered trademark of Sterlite Technologies Limited www. Sterlite ®.com . SS4240813: Aluminium alloy wire for stranded conductors for overhead lines – Al 59 Wires.sterlitetechnologies. REFERENCE STANDARDS Swedish Standards: SS4240814: Aluminium alloy stranded conductors for overhead lines – Al 59 Conductors.
Sterlite is a registered trademark of Sterlite Technologies Limited www.sterlitetechnolo www. Sterlite is a registered trademark of Sterlite Technologies Limited Sterlite ®.Sterlite Technologies Limited Aurangabad Bangkok Beijing Boston Haridwar Johannesburg Dadra London Moscow Mumbai New Delhi Piparia Pune Rakholi Shanghai Phone: +91-20-30514000 email@example.com .sterlitetechnologies.sterlitetechnologies.com www.com Sterlite ®.