eign policy ons or urity and f d policy opti ational sec idance, an u Essential n message g , ackground b 012 Edition Spring 2


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Veterans and military families are nearly 20% of the population. Bridge the civilian-military gap by focusing on shared values. Create a Military Advisory Council.

Veterans are not victims. Today’s force is all-volunteer, highly educated, highly trained, and proud to serve.

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Health costs are rising because new battlefield medicine is saving more lives. Traumatic Brain Injury is the signature injury of today’s wars. PTS, unemployment, homelessness, and high suicide rates are interrelated issues for many veterans. Women are in combat and face new challenges. Access to care can be difficult for rural veterans & those waiting for claims to be processed.

The VA’s Veterans Crisis Line:

Veteran homelessness was down 10% in 2011 thanks to VA programs and the President’s commitment to end the problem entirely.

No one who fought for our country should have to fight for a job when they get home.

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The Post-9/11 GI Bill & GI Bill 2.0. Largest increase in VA funding in 30 years. Advanced funding for veteran services. Support for caregivers. Coordination between the VA and DoD.

Caring for the troops doesn’t end with the servicemember. Their families serve and sacrifice as well.

Do not include Active Duty military in your Military Advisory Council. Active Duty service members cannot participate in political activity. This could potentially be seen as politicizing the military and can cause harm to those individuals.

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Values are a matter of life and death in the U.S. military. The U.S. military is apolitical. The U.S. military is highly educated and representative of the U.S. population. The U.S. military does not choose wars; only civilian leaders have that power.

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Loyalty Duty Respect Selfless Service Honor Integrity Personal Courage

By law, Active Duty servicemembers may not appear at political events in uniform or endorse candidates.

The “chain of command” runs from the President through the Secretary of Defense to the Combatant Commanders.

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Army = soldier Navy = sailor Marines = Marine Air Force = airman Coast Guard = coastguardsman

When in doubt, use ‘servicemember’ or ‘troops.’

Reserves comprised 28% of all U.S. forces in Iraq during the surge.

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The threats to the U.S. are changing and new threats defy traditional tools. Strategic spending must match tools to threats. A strong, modern military is essential. We can cut some outdated defense programs without hurting security. Diplomacy and development are dramatically underfunded. Non-military security spending gives us a lot of bang for our buck.

A plot hatched in the poverty-stricken villages of Afghanistan can change the Manhattan skyline.

You can’t bomb a contagious disease or use a tank to stop a cyberattack.

From the internet to GPS to the microwave, military R&D spurred economic growth and created millions of jobs.

Our system rewards military contractors for being late and expensive rather than on-time and under budget.

Development ensures threats stay small and far away.

Development funding is not writing a check to a foreign government. Much of our development money goes towards programs that make weak countries safer and more stable— things like training police to secure borders against arms traffickers and funding watchdog groups that protect the free press.

1. Oil money funds terrorism and supports unfriendly nations. 2. We can’t drill our way to independence – we don’t have the reserves. 3. Oil is the biggest contributor to our foreign debt. 4. The DoD and CIA say climate change makes the world a more dangerous place. 5. The military is leading the charge for clean energy for security reasons.

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Disease Disaster Dislocation Migration

All of these lead to extremism and help terrorist recruiters.

Oil money ends up in the hands of terrorists, funding the same groups who attacked us on 9/11.

Our oil addiction forces us into bed with countries that don’t share our values or interests.

20% of the world’s oil travels through the Strait of Hormuz, which Iran has threatened to close.

The U.S. military is leading the way toward clean energy research as a way to decrease combat casualties from fuel convoys. Marine Corps units are currently testing portable solar power systems in Afghanistan.

India’s fence along the border with Bangladesh is designed in part to keep climate refugees out.

Generating electricity and fueling transportation are largely separate issues. Petroleum fuels 96% of our transportation. To move away from oil we have to change how we power our cars.

Rather than competing with countries like China for scarce and out-dated energy technology, America should leverage our competitive advantage in innovation and skilled manufacturing to create new technology.

The Department of Defense, the CIA, and the intelligence community all say that climate change is a security threat.

“In 2008, we sent $386 billion overseas to pay for oil—much of it going to nations that wish us harm. This is an unprecedented and unsustainable transfer of wealth to other nations. It puts us in the untenable position of funding both sides of the conflict and directly undermines our fight against terror.” - Vice Admiral Dennis McGinn, 2009 Senate testimony

Comprehensive reform requires illegal immigrants to earn American citizenship. Earning citizenship includes going to the back of the line, learning English, and paying back taxes.

Bring people out of the shadows so we know who is in the country. Focus on all of our borders, airports, and sea ports—not just the south. Close loopholes in the system.

Use the term “illegal immigrant” rather than “undocumented.” Message research shows that voters who are persuadable on immigration issues immediately dismiss you as someone who doesn’t care about law and order if you use a euphemism.

Avoid starting your defense of immigration by reminding the audience that we’re a nation of immigrants. While this is an important point to make, leading with it can cause the audience to think you don’t take the problem seriously and don’t have a real solution. Instead, lead with support for law and order.

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Walls and deportation are not practical and don’t solve the problem. The most important asset is information: we need to know who is here. We need to fix the system so illegal immigration is less attractive. Security begins overseas, not at our borders. We have to crack down on employers who break the rules. We should create a temporary immigration system. We need government agencies that work well together.

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Terrorists will exploit any border, not just the south. Drug dealers and criminals have already tunneled under existing border fences. Intelligence is our best asset. The border fence approach encourages people to stay in the shadows. It doesn’t help us solve legal immigration problems. It doesn’t help us solve interagency problems.

The goal is to keep us safe and to secure the border. We need a comprehensive approach, not just a wall at the expense of everything else.

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Native born: 266 million Legal immigrants: 28 million Illegal immigrants: 11 million

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During the Cold War, nuclear weapons kept us safe. Today, nuclear terrorism poses the greatest threat to U.S. security. Nuclear proliferation increases the chances of theft or sale on the black market.

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Reduce our stockpile & those around the world. Secure loose nuclear material and technology. Maintain our “nuclear umbrella” so our allies feel secure.

9 countries have nuclear weapons. Nuclear Inventories (as of 2010) Russia 12,000 United States 9,600 France 300 China 240 United Kingdom 225 Israel 80* Pakistan 70-90 India 60-80 North Korea 10

Nuclear weapons don’t help in the fight against terrorists. They are more a part of the past than the future.

Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) programs are a bipartisan approach to securing loose nuclear material. They purchase nuclear material from countries which no longer want a robust nuclear program or have no way to store or protect it. This ensures that poorly guarded weapons and material aren’t vulnerable to theft or sale on the black market.

Without an enemy like the Soviet Union, we don’t need as many nukes. And they’re incredibly expensive to maintain.

The Department of Energy designs, tests, and builds nuclear weapons. The Department of Defense secures our arsenal and builds and maintains our nuclear delivery systems.

Conservatives keen on cutting the Department of Energy have recently attempted to reduce funding for the National Nuclear Security Administration, which secures loose nuclear material around the world.

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Afghanistan was the right fight. Now, Al Qaeda is spreading to places like Yemen, Somalia, and Pakistan. We need to be agile to pursue our enemies. Leaving immediately could return Afghanistan to a terrorist safe haven. Staying indefinitely is not in our strategic or financial interest.

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We must pay for Afghan security sector training so they can keep the peace. Long term development is essential. Promote economic growth.

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There are few al Qaeda fighters left in Afghanistan. A government that can deliver is essential to preventing the Taliban’s return to power. Government corruption remains a key obstacle. Developing a capable Afghan National Security Force is a necessity. Pakistan greatly complicates the situation in Afghanistan.

Insurgencies like the Taliban often deliver public services and create judicial systems to undermine the local government. International development programs can strengthen government capacity to prevent these occurrences.

Pakistan uses extremist groups as proxies against India, but those same groups threaten Pakistan as well. Pakistan’s support for extremists destabilizes Afghanistan and causes American casualties.

It’s time for a responsible transition out of Afghanistan so we can focus on new threats and opportunities.

A strong and stable Afghanistan means terrorists can’t use it as a launching pad again.

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Strike a balance between leaving quickly and staying too long. Transfer, carefully, to Afghan control. Build an Afghan economy—the key to long-term stability. Fight Afghan corruption. Invest in multi-year development packages to Afghanistan.

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The Arab Spring is an opportunity for us to align our democratic values with our policies. Change will be messy; it has to be driven by the people, not us. Democracies produce fewer terrorists than dictatorships.

There is no one solution; different countries will need different types of support. Take the side of the people and support democracy and individual rights. Reduce oil dependence and focus on trade with regional partners.

Islamist parties are not all extreme; political Islam tends to reduce support for radical and violent Islamist groups since a political party can be destroyed if fringe elements hijack its agenda.

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Islamist parties will win elections, but they aren’t all extreme. Democracies produce fewer terrorists than dictatorships. Less regional stability gives Israel legitimate concerns. Economic growth—via trade—is essential to demonstrating the promise of democracy.

Remember: America can’t and shouldn’t try to explicitly direct change in the Middle East; that would backfire. There’s no one solution. Each of the Arab Spring countries is different and will have different challenges. Support democracy, even when it’s tough. Change will be messy, but building relationships with the people, rather than dictators, will be better for us in the long run. Support civil society. Our support for governance, watchdog groups, small businesses, and individual freedoms will improve our reputation and promote stability. Reduce our dependence on oil. Our oil money helps prop up dictatorships, permitting them to buy off domestic opposition and hold on to power. Less oil spending here means more stability and democracy there.

A one-size-fits-all approach is not helpful. Distinct countries will need distinct kinds of support and will respond to U.S. assistance in different ways. U.S. policymakers must be mindful of how U.S. funding might affect local efforts and work to help local populations in ways they welcome.

Our dependence on oil has been propping up hostile regimes and funding terrorism for too long.

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America and China depend on each other. We need China to buy our debt and goods; they need our market to sell their products. China embraces capitalism, but doesn’t share human rights values. China is focused on stability. Economic growth is essential for China’s domestic political stability. China’s drive for growth is leading to unfair trade practices and intellectual property theft.

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We should not recreate the Cold War with China. We should stand up for human rights and democracy and encourage fair trade practices. Engage in military to military relations to cool possible conflicts. Reduce China’s hold on neighbors.

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Economic growth to ensure internal political stability. Expanding their military as their global interests expand. Returning Taiwan to mainland control remains China’s top “core national interest.” China’s foreign policy serves its need for resources, not a set of values.

America and China need each war with China would do A tradeother. The global great harm toties us together. economy America’s economy. We would loseneeds to play by But China access to their market for our goods, and the cost of many the in the US would increase. itemssame rules everyone else does.

Most of America’s debt is not held by China—or even foreign counties. Only one-third of American debt is held by other countries, and China and Japan hold roughly the same share.

American military spending is over six times that of China and U.S. military training and technology remain years, if not decades, ahead.

We do not recognize Taiwan as a separate country, nor do we recognize mainland China’s control over it.

China’s assertiveness in the region is focused on ensuring access to resources and trade, not necessarily military dominance.

The better friends we are with China’s neighbors, the more we can blunt their influence.

A trade war, just as we’re climbing out of the ditch, would be disastrous for America’s economy.

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It is developing and spreading nuclear weapons and missile technology. It supports and funds terrorist groups. It stifles democratic movements. It is a serial human rights abuser.

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Strong sanctions: ensure Iran doesn’t have the materials, technology, or money to produce a nuclear weapon. Tough diplomacy: ensures that the world is united against them. Reduce our oil dependence: ensures that the primary source of funding for Iran’s dangerous activities are cut.

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Trying to build a nuclear weapon; Supporting terrorist groups; Capacity to choke global oil supplies; Opposing democratic movements in the region; Spreading missile and nuclear technology to unfriendly states.

Recognize that the Iranian regime is dangerous. Your goal is to keep America safe. Only after you have made that point should you discuss policy options. Avoid answering questions with policy solutions before confirming that you take the threat seriously.

America’s demand for oil enriches Iran. Decreasing our oil dependence will help drive down prices and defund Iran.

Military strikes would only delay Iran’s nuclear program by a few years. Saber-rattling may scare Iran into acquiring a nuclear weapon. Today, an international coalition has Iran surrounded and isolated. Sanctions are working.

Iran would swiftly retaliate against Israel through its terrorist proxies. It would also probably attack U.S. citizens and military bases. Military strikes will rally the Iranian people around a regime they currently dislike and only set the nuclear program back by 2 or 3 years.

Sanctions force countries and businesses to choose between doing business with the U.S. or with Iran. Sanctions:  Bar firms that do business with Iran’s Central Bank from doing business with U.S. financial institutions  Ban companies that provide bulk amounts of refined petroleum to Iran from doing business in the U.S.  Freeze the U.S. assets and travel visas for officials who have committed human rights abuses.  International sanctions have ended Iran’s access to the entire international financial (SWIFT) system.

Today, Iran is surrounded by our allies, isolated from the world, and internally divided.

Be careful not to confuse the elected leadership of Iran with its religious leadership. The President of Iran, Ahmadinejad, is not a religious leader; the Supreme Leader is.

It is often difficult to know who is in control of Iran. The Supreme Leader has been clashing with the president recently, and seems to have won an internal power struggle.

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War must be an option of last resort. Unilateral military action undermines American credibility and leaves us to cover all of the costs.

America now has a new relationship with a sovereign Iraq that will face real challenges. President Obama ended the war by keeping an agreement made by the Bush administration.

The transition to Iraqi sovereignty allows America to adapt to changing threats around the world.

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War must be an option of last resort. Wars have real costs. Going it alone hurt America’s credibility. The wrong fight distracts us from true threats. Wars have unintended consequences. War is a poor tool for spreading democracy and human rights.

President Obama refocused the military on the fight against al Qaeda, with clear results.

Iran and Iraq are historical enemies. They have different ethnic traditions and fought a brutal 10-year war against each other in the 1980’s.

The Bush administration negotiated the Status of Forces Agreement that called for the removal of all U.S. troops by December 31, 2011.

After nine years of American service and sacrifice, it’s time for the Iraqi people to determine their own fate.

Iraq will face new challenges, and we will stand by them as a good friend.

Over 65,000 Iraqis have applied to come to the U.S. under the Refugee Crisis in Iraq Act of 2007 but only a little over 10,000 have made it here.

Elections in Iraq have been difficult and fractious. There are many parties that often split along religious and ethnic lines, making governing coalitions difficult to form and maintain.

The State Department is now the lead U.S. authority in Iraq, running America’s largest diplomatic mission since the end of World War II.

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Pakistan poses a serious threat to American security. It is a nuclear-armed country with an unstable civilian government. Pakistan is the most likely place for a terrorist to get a nuclear weapon. Pakistan’s military and intelligence agencies have connections to terrorist groups.

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Pakistani support is essential to ending the war in Afghanistan. Making our aid to Pakistan more effective is a better choice than cutting it. Our long term focus should be building the strength and influence of the civilian government.

Pakistan is the place terrorists are most likely to get a nuclear weapon. The military and intelligence services support terrorism as a hedge against India. Drone strikes eliminate individual terrorists but don’t solve state support for terrorism and government instability.

Pakistan is essential to ensuring Afghanistan doesn’t become a terrorist safe haven again.

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Work with Pakistan to stabilize Afghanistan, restart peace talks, and secure their nuclear weapons. Cutting aid would make things worse. Make our assistance smarter and predicated on improvements in governance. Work with the civilian government to create a more stable partner.

The civilian leadership of Pakistan has considerably less power and influence than the military—which has overthrown civilian governments multiple times since the country’s independence in 1947.

We can’t leave Pakistan to the terrorist groups that would recruit kids against us. Smart aid can help us change minds.

Osama bin Laden’s death does not guarantee al Qaeda’s demise. They are weakened, but still operating in the region.

Unless we work to increase civilian control and bolster a free press, a young generation of Pakistanis will grow up in a nuclear country hating America.

TRUMAN NATIONAL SECURITY PROJECT Washington, DC Atlanta, GA Boston, MA Chicago, IL Denver, CO Philadelphia, PA Los Angeles, CA New York, NY San Francisco, CA www.TrumanProject.org

202.216.9723 202.289.4199


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