You are on page 1of 15


What is Critical Thinking?

Critical thinking is a widely used term whose meaning lacks clear consensus. Critical thinking skills
can include any or all of the following thinking skills.
Application is the ability to use knowledge and understanding in a new context. It includes the
abilities to understand cause-and-effect relationships, understand the meaning of various logical propositions,
criticize literary works, and apply scientific and economic principles to everyday life, provided that these
relationships, propositions, works and principles are new to the student. Many word problems in mathematics
require skill in application.
Locate online resources on a particular topic or issue.
Apply scientific and economic principles to everyday life.
Analysis is the ability to break a complex concept apart to see the relationships of its components.
Students who can analyze can identify the elements, relationships, and underlying principles of a complex
process. Analysis is not merely understanding the components of a process or concept explained in class; that
would be simple understanding. Students who can analyze can understand the structure of concepts they
haven’t seen before. They can think holistically, make a case, discover the underlying principles of a
relationship, and understand organizational structure. They can integrate their learning, relating what they’ve
just learned to what they already know.
Explain chemical reactions not explicitly introduced in prior study.
Explain the impact of the Korean War on U.S.-Far East relations today.
Analyze errors.
Analyze perspectives and values.
Explain why a research paper is structured the way it is.
Synthesis is the ability to put what one has learned together in a new, original way. It includes the
ability to theorize, generalize, reflect, construct hypotheses, and suggest alternatives.
Write a poem that used imagery and structure typical of Romantic poets.
Explain what is likely to happen when Chemicals A and B are combined and justify the
Use writing and research skills to write a term paper.
Design and conduct a research study.
Design a community service project.
Create a work of art that uses color effectively.
Evaluation, problem-solving, and decision-making skills are the ability to make an informed
judgment about the merits of something the student hasn’t seen before. These skills include the abilities to
conduct research, make appropriate choices, solve problems with no single correct answer, and make and
justify persuasive arguments. As with analysis, evaluation does not consist of merely understanding and
reflecting arguments that have been presented in coursework; that would be simple comprehension.
Judge the effectiveness of the use of color in a work of art.
Evaluate the validity of information on a particular Web site.
Research, identify and justify potential careers.
Choose the appropriate mathematical procedure for a given problem.
Identify an audit problem and recommend ways to address it.
Creative thinking skills are the abilities to invent, generate new ideas, be flexible, take intellectual
risks, and generate new ways of viewing a situation.
Develop modifications to a system that improves its performance.
Metacognition is learning how to learn and how to manage one’s own learning by understanding how
one learns. Because, as noted earlier, knowledge is growing at an exponential pace, there is increasing
recognition that we must not only educate our students with what we know today but also prepare them for a
lifetime of learning, often on their own. Metacognition is thus becoming an increasingly valued skill.
Metacognition includes the abilities to use efficient learning techniques, discuss and evaluate one’s problem-
solving strategies, form efficient plans for completing work, and evaluating the effectiveness of one’s actions.
Metacognition is often taught and assessed by having students write reflections on what and how they’ve
Develop a personal study strategy that makes the most of one’s learning style.
Reflect on one’s writing process.
Reflect on one’s completed work.
Other productive dispositions or habits of mind include the abilities to work independently, set
personal goals, persevere, organize, be clear and accurate, visualize, be curious, and be open-minded to new
Develop and use effective time management skills.
Follow directions correctly.
Critical thinking skills can also include the abilities to seek truth, clarity and accuracy, distinguish
facts from opinions, and have a healthy skepticism about arguments and claims.

Suggested Readings
Anderson, L. W. (Ed.), Krathwohl, D. R. (Ed.), & Bloom, B. S. (2000). Taxonomy for learning, teaching, and
assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. New York: Longman.
Angelo, T.A. (1991). Ten easy pieces: Assessing higher learning in four dimensions. In Classroom research:
Early lessons from success. New Directions in Teaching and Learning No. 46. San Francisco: Jossey-
Biggs, J. (2001). Assessing for quality in learning. In Suskie, L. (Ed.), Assessment to promote deep learning.
Washington: American Association for Higher Education.
Erwin, T. Dary. (2000). The NPEC sourcebook on assessment, volume 1: Definitions and assessment methods
for critical thinking, problem solving, and writing [Electronic version]. Washington: National Center
for Education Statistics. Retrieved May 1, 2003, from
Facione, P. A. (1998). Critical thinking: What it is and why it counts. Retrieved May 1, 2003, from
Greenwood, A. (Ed.). (1994). The national assessment of college student learning: Identification of the skills
to be taught, learned, and assessed: A report on the proceedings of the second study design workshop.
Research and Development Report NCES 94-286. Washington: U.S. Department of Education, Office
of Educational Research and Improvement, National Center for Education Statistics.
Gronlund, N. E. (1999). How to write and use instructional objectives (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Prentice Hall.
Herman, J. L., Aschbacher, P. R., & Winters, L. (1992). A practical guide to alternative assessment.
Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Marzano, R., Pickering, D., & McTighe, J. (1993). Assessing student outcomes: Performance assessment using
the dimensions of learning model. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum
Tittle, C. K., Hecht, T., & Moore, P. (1993). Assessment theory and research for classrooms: From
‘taxonomies’ to constructing meaning in context. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice,
12(4), 13-19.

Prepared by Linda Suskie, Director of Assessment, Towson University

May 1, 2003

Items in boldface are particularly suitable for assessing student learning within a course.
• Test “blueprints” (outlines of the concepts
Direct Evidence of What Students Are Learning and skills covered on tests)
• Ratings by cooperative education/internship • Documentation of the match between
supervisors of student skills course/program objectives and assessments
• Employer ratings of satisfaction with the • Percent of freshman-level classes taught by full
program and employee skills professors
• Pass rates on appropriate licensure/certification • Number or percent of courses with service
exams (e.g., Praxis, NLN) or exit exams (e.g., learning opportunities
MFATs, Test of Critical Thinking Ability) that • Number or percent of courses with
assess key learning outcomes collaborative learning opportunities
• “Blind” or externally-scored rubric (rating scale) • Number or percent of courses taught using
scores on “capstone” projects such as research culturally-responsive teaching techniques
papers, class presentations, exhibitions, or • Percent of class time spent in active learning
performances • Number of student hours spent in community
• Portfolios of student work service activities
• Rubric (rating scale) scores for written work, • Percent of student majors participating in
oral presentations, or performances relevant co-curricular activities (e.g., club in
• Scores on locally-designed multiple choice discipline)
and/or essay tests, accompanied by test • Voluntary attendance at intellectual/cultural
“blueprints” describing what the test assesses events germane to the course or program
• Score gains between entry and exit on
published or local tests or writing samples Insights into Why Students Are or Aren’t
• Electronic discussion threads Learning
• Student reflections on what they have learned • Length of time to degree
over the course of the program • Student/alumni satisfaction, collected through
• Student reflections on their values, attitudes surveys, exit interviews, or focus groups
and beliefs, if developing those are intended • Student feedback via Angelo & Cross’s
outcomes of the course or program Classroom Assessment Techniques
• Student publications and conference • Course portfolios
presentations • Library holdings in the program’s discipline(s)
• Expenditures for faculty professional
Indirect Evidence of Student Learning development
(Signs that Students Are Probably Learning, But • Department-sponsored opportunities for faculty
Exactly What They Are Learning is Less Clear) professional development
• Graduate program admission rate • Number and/or dollar value of grants awarded to
• Graduate program success (completion) rate faculty whose purpose is improved student
• Quality/reputation of graduate and professional learning
programs into which students are accepted
• Placement into career positions Evidence of Other Aspects of Academic Quality
• Honors, awards, and scholarships awarded to • Specialized accreditation
students and graduates • Retention and graduation rates
• Transcript analyses • Percent of students in the program who are
• List of the major learning outcomes of the students of color
program, distributed to all students in the • Percent of faculty in the program who are faculty
program of color
• Percent of courses whose syllabi include a list • Cost and cost-effectiveness of the program (e.g.,
of the major learning outcomes of the course budget, student/faculty ratios, average class size)
• Percent of courses whose syllabi state learning • Number and/or dollar value of grants awarded to
outcomes that include thinking skills (not just faculty
simple understanding of facts and principles) • Number and/or dollar value of gifts to the
• Average proportion of final grade based on department
assessments of thinking skills
• Ratio of paper-and-pencil tests to Linda Suskie
performance assessments June 19, 2003
A Rating Scale Rubric for an Oral Presentation

Strongly Strongly
Agree Agree Disagree Disagree
The presenter…
Clearly stated the purpose
of the presentation. □ □ □ □
Was well organized. □ □ □ □
Was knowledgeable about
the subject. □ □ □ □
Answered questions
authoritatively. □ □ □ □
Spoke clearly and loudly. □ □ □ □
Maintained eye contact
with the audience. □ □ □ □
Appeared confident. □ □ □ □
Adhered to time
constraints. □ □ □ □
Had main points that were
appropriate to the central
topic. □ □ □ □
Accomplished the stated
objectives. □ □ □ □

Adapted with permission from a rubric used by the Department of Health Science, Towson
A Rating Scale Rubric for an Information Literacy Assignment

Please indicate the student’s skill in each of the following respects, as evidenced by this
assignment, by checking the appropriate box. If this assignment is not intended to elicit a
particular skill, please check the “N/A” box.

Very Good (B)

Inadequate (F)
Adequate (D)
Adequate (C)


1. Identify, locate, and access □ □ □ □ □ □
sources of information.
2. Critically evaluate □ □ □ □ □ □
information, including its
legitimacy, validity, and
3. Organize information to □ □ □ □ □ □
present a sound central idea
supported by relevant material
in a logical order.
4. Use information to answer □ □ □ □ □ □
questions and/or solve problems.
5. Clearly articulate information □ □ □ □ □ □
and ideas.
6. Use information technologies □ □ □ □ □ □
to communicate, manage, and
process information.
7. Use information technologies □ □ □ □ □ □
to solve problems.
8. Use the work of others □ □ □ □ □ □
accurately and ethically.
9. What grade are you awarding □ □ □ □ □ □
this assignment?
10. If you had to assign a final □ □ □ □ □ □
course grade for this student
today, what would it be?

Source: Office of Assessment, Towson University

An Example of a Rubric for a Research Paper

Novice Intermediate Proficient Distinguished

Voice and tone Limited An attempt to Evidence of Evidence of
awareness of communicate voice and/or distinguished
audience with the suitable tone voice and/or
audience appropriate tone
Purpose Limited An attempt to Focused on a Establishes and
awareness of establish and purpose maintains clear
purpose maintain focus
Development of Minimal idea Unelaborated Deep idea Deep and complex
ideas development, idea development ideas supported by
limited and/or development; supported by rich, engaging,
unrelated unelaborated elaborated, and pertinent
details and/or relevant details details; evidence
repetitious of analysis,
details reflection and
References Few references Some Use of Use of references
references references indicates
indicates ample substantial
research research
Organization Random or Lapses in focus Logical Careful and/or
weak and/or organization suitable
organization coherence organization
Wording and Incorrect and/or Simplistic Controlled and Variety of
sentence ineffective and/or awkward varied sentence sentence structure
structure wording and/or sentence structure and length
sentence structure
Language Incorrect or Simplistic Acceptable, Precise and/or rich
lack of topic and/or effective language
and/or imprecise language
transition language
Grammar and Errors in Some errors in Few errors in Control of surface
format grammar and grammar and/or grammar or features
format (e.g., format that do format relative
spelling, not interfere to length and
punctuation, with complexity
capitalization, communication

Adapted from: 6/6/2003

A Descriptive Rubric
for Research Reports in Speech-Language Pathology & Audiology

Introduction The introduction smoothly pulls the The introduction is organized The introduction presents the The introduction is disorganized
(10 points) reader into the topic, is organized, but does not adequately main argument and the and difficult to follow. The main
presents the main argument clearly, present the main argument or author’s views but is disor- argument and the author’s views
and states the author’s views. (10) does not state the author’s ganized and does not flow are not introduced. (5)
views. (8) smoothly. (7)
Content Information is presented clearly, Information is unclear and Information is unclear and The paper is unclear and difficult
(20 points) completely and accurately across all difficult to understand in 1 difficult to understand in 2-3 to understand across 4 or more
sections. At least 3 major sections; section. (18) sections. (16) sections. (12)
at least 1 major section has 2-3
subsections. (20)
Organization Organization is clear; good Organization is unclear in 1 Organization is unclear in 2-3 Organization is unclear in 4 or
(20 points) framework. Headers, preview section (unfocused paragraphs, sections OR headers and more sections. (12)
paragraphs, topic sentences, and poor topic sentences, poor preview paragraphs or
transitions aid in understanding transitions). All other sections sentences are missing. (16)
main points. Information is are logically organized. (18)
presented logically. (20)
Conclusion/ Specific ideas for improving Specific ideas are presented Ideas are presented but in a Fewer than 3 original ideas
Original research or other ideas are presented but the rationales for 1 idea vague, generic format related to the topic are presented
Thought in an organized manner with logical may be weak. (18) OR rationales for 2 or more OR all ideas are not well
(20 points) rationales. (20) ideas are weak. (16) explained. (12)
Writing Style Tone is professional, vocabulary Syntax or vocabulary is Syntax or vocabulary is Writing style makes more than 4
(10 points) and syntax are mature, and easy to complex, awkward, or filled complex, awkward, or filled sections of the paper difficult to
understand terms are used with jargon in 1-2 sections of with jargon in 3-4 sections of read and understand. (3)
throughout the paper (10) the paper OR words are used the paper OR words are used
incorrectly in 1-2 sections of incorrectly in 3-4 sections of
the paper. (7) the paper. (5)
Writing Use/ The paper is free of spelling, The paper has less than 5 The paper has 6-15 spelling, More than 16 errors across the
Mechanics (10 syntax, formatting, punctuation spelling, punctuation, for- punctuation, formatting, paper make it difficult to follow.
points) errors. (10) matting, syntax errors. (7) syntax errors. (5) (3)
APA Rules All APA rules are followed for Fewer than 3 violations of 4-10 violations of APA rules 11 or more violations of APA
(10 points) citations, headers, numbers, series, APA rules, or 1-2 missing or and/or 3-5 missing or incorrect rules and/or 6 or more missing or
quotes, references, etc. (10) incorrect citations and citations and references (5) incorrect citations and references.
references (7) (3)

Adapted with permission from a rubric used by the Department of Communication Sciences & Disorders, Towson University.
A Descriptive Rubric
for a Slide Presentation on Findings from Research Sources

Well Done (5) Satisfactory (4-3) Needs Improvement (2-1) Incomplete (0)
Organization Clearly, concisely written. Logical progression Vague in conveying view- Lacks a clear point of view
Logical, intuitive progression of ideas & point and purpose. Some and logical sequence of in-
of ideas & supporting supporting infor- logical progression of ideas formation. Cues to infor-
information. Clear & direct mation. Most cues to & supporting information, mation are not evident.
cues to all information. information are clear but cues are confusing or
and direct. flawed.
Persuasiveness Motivating questions & ad- Includes persuasive Includes persuasive infor- Information is incomplete,
vance organizers convey information. mation with few facts. out of date, and/or incor-
main idea. Information is rect.
Introduction Presents overall topic. Clear, coherent, and Some structure but does not Does not orient audience
Draws in audience with related to topic. create a sense of what fol- to what will follow.
compelling questions or by lows. May be overly detailed
relating to audience’s inter- or incomplete. Somewhat
ests or goals. appealing.
Clarity Readable, well-sized fonts. Sometimes fonts are Overall readability is diffi- Text is very difficult to
Italics, boldface, and inden- readable, but in a cult with lengthy para- read. Long blocks of text,
tations enhance readability. few places fonts, graphs, too many fonts, small fonts, inappropriate
Text is appropriate length. italics, boldface, long dark or busy background, colors, or poor use of
Background and colors en- paragraphs, color, or overuse of boldface, or lack headings, indentations, or
hance readability. background detract. of appropriate indentations. boldface.
Layout Aesthetically pleasing. Con- Uses white space ap- Shows some structure but is Cluttered and confusing.
tributes to message with ap- propriately. cluttered, busy or Spacing and headings do
propriate use of headings distracting. not enhance readability.
and white space.

Adapted with permission from a rubric developed by Patricia Ryan, Lecturer, Department of Reading, Special Education, and
Instructional Technology, Towson University
Critical Thinking Holistic Scoring Guide
by Peter and Noreen Facione

4 Consistently does all or almost all of the following:

• Accurately interprets evidence, statements, graphics, questions, etc.
• Identifies the salient arguments (reasons and claims) pro and con.
• Thoughtfully analyzes and evaluates major alternative points of view.
• Draws warranted, judicious, non-fallacious conclusions.
• Justifies key results and procedures, explains assumptions.
• Fair-mindedly follows where evidence and reasons lead.

3 Does most or many of the following:

• Accurately interprets evidence, statements, graphics, questions, etc.
• Identifies relevant arguments (reasons and claims) pro and con.
• Offers analyses and evaluations of obvious alternative points of view.
• Draws warranted, non-fallacious conclusions.
• Justifies some results or procedures, explains reasons.
• Fair-mindedly follows where evidence and reasons lead.

2 Does most or many of the following:

• Misinterprets evidence, statements, graphics, questions, etc.
• Fails to identify strong, relevant counter-arguments.
• Ignores or superficially evaluates obvious alternative points of view.
• Draws unwarranted or fallacious conclusions.
• Justifies few results or procedures, seldom explains reasons.
• Regardless of the evidence or reasons, maintains or defends views based on self-
interest or preconceptions.

1 Consistently does all or almost all of the following:

• Offers biased interpretations of evidence, statements, graphics, questions,
information, or the points of view of others.
• Fails to identify or hastily dismisses strong, relevant counter-arguments.
• Ignores or superficially evaluates obvious alternative points of view.
• Argues using fallacious or irrelevant reasons, and unwarranted claims.
• Does not justify results or procedures, nor explain reasons.
• Regardless of the evidence or reasons, maintains or defends views based on self-
interest or preconceptions.
• Exhibits close-mindedness or hostility to reason.

Examples of Assignments
Beyond Essays, Term Papers, and Research Reports

Abstract or executive summary

Advertisement or commercial
Annotated bibliography
Autobiography or realistic fictional diary from a historical period
Briefing paper
Brochure or pamphlet
Campaign speech
Case study/analysis
Client report
Collaborative group activity
Debate or discussion (plan, participation, and/or leadership)
Debriefing interview preparation
Dramatization of an event or scenario, in writing or a presentation
Editing and revision of a poorly written paper
Evaluation of opposing points of view or the pros and cons of alternative solutions to a problem
Experiment or other laboratory experience
Field notes
Game invention
Graph, chart, diagram, flowchart, or other visual aid
Graphic organizer, taxonomy, or classification scheme
Handbook or instructional manual
Journal or log (see Chapter 9)
Letter to an editor or business
Model, simulation, or illustration
Newspaper story or news report on a concept or from a historical period
Oral history recording of an event
Plan to research and solve a problem
Plan to conduct a project or provide a service
Portfolio (Chapter 10)
Poster, display, or exhibit
Presentation, demonstration, or slide show
Process description
Proposal for and justification of a solution to a problem
Reflection on what and how one has learned (Chapter 12)
Review and critique of one’s own work, that of a peer, a performance, an exhibit, a work of art, a writer’s
arguments, or how something could have been done better
Selected portions of an essay or term paper (e.g., only the problem statement and the review of literature)
Survey, including and analysis of the results
Teaching a concept to a peer or a child
Video or audio recording
Web site
Writing Effective Prompts (Assignments)

Identify specific, important learning goals for the assignment.

‰ What do you want your students to learn from the assignment?
‰ Focus students on those skills and conceptual understandings that you consider most important.
‰ Develop a rubric.
‰ Ask students to demonstrate thinking skills as well as understanding.

Create a meaningful task or problem that corresponds to those goals.

‰ Think of a task that might be done by someone “in real life.”
‰ Try “You are there” scenarios: “You are an expert chemist (statistician, anthropologist, whatever) asked to help
with the following situation…”

Make the assignment a worthwhile use of learning time.

‰ Will the time students put into your assignment will yield an appropriate payoff in terms of their learning? Will
students learn twice as much from an assignment that takes 20 hours of out-of-class time as from one that takes
10 hours?

Aim students at the desired outcome.

‰ Give your students clear, written directions and scaffolding upon which they can successfully create their best
‰ Begin with an introductory sentence that’s an overview of what you want them to do.
‰ Answer the following questions:
□ Why are you giving students this assignment? What do you expect them to learn by completing it?
□ What should the completed assignment look like?
▪ What skills and knowledge you want students to demonstrate? (Define terms that may be
fuzzy to your students, even if they’re clear to you, such as compare, evaluate, discuss,
and explain.)
▪ What should be included in completed assignment?
▪ How should the completed assignments be formatted?
□ How are students to complete the assignment? How do you expect them to devote their time and
▪ How much time do you expect them to spend on this assignment? If this is a class
assignment, how much will it count toward their final course grade?
▪ If the assignment is to write something, what is an optimal length for the paper?
▪ What reference materials and technologies are they expected to use?
▪ Can they collaborate with others? If so, to what extent?
▪ What assistance can you provide while they’re working on the assignment? (Are you
willing to critique drafts, for example?)
□ How will the assignment will be scored or graded? The best way to do this is to give students a
copy of the rubric you will use to evaluate their completed assignments (Chapter 7).

Give the assignment a meaningful name.

Set clear, challenging (but realistic) expectations.

‰ State clearly what you consider outstanding work.

Break apart large assignments.

Encourage students to reflect on their work.

Share your prompt with colleagues.

Linda Suskie, Director of Assessment, Towson University

June 19, 2003
Introduction to Statistics
Test Blueprint for Final Examination

4 points Determine the value of t needed to find a confidence interval of a given size.
4 points Given a proportion and a sample size, decide if the normal distribution can be
used instead of the binomial.
4 points Calculate a “sample error” or “error margin” for a proportion.
4 points Understand the effect of p on the standard error of a proportion.

Given a research problem…

24 points —Choose the appropriate statistical analysis from those studied in this course.
16 points —Decide on the appropriate null and alternative hypotheses and statement
them correctly.
8 points —Identify the critical value(s) bordering the critical region (this involves
deciding if the test is one- or two-tailed and perhaps computing the degrees of
24 points —Choose the appropriate standard error formula.
12 points —Choose the appropriate test statistic.
8 points —Decide whether to retain or reject the null hypothesis.
16 points —Write a paragraph summarizing the study, your findings, and your
4 points Understand the effect of n and s on your chances of getting statistically significant

1. How do you feel about writing/teaching/biology/sociology/etc.?

2. What will you say, if you have a chance to speak to your friends, about this course?

3. What suggestions would you give other students on ways to get the most out this course?

4. How do you feel about yourself as a writer/teacher/biologist/sociologist/etc.?

5. What are your strengths as a writer/teacher/biologist/sociologist/etc.?

6. What makes a person a good writer/teacher/biologist/sociologist/etc.?

7. What was the one most useful or meaningful thing you learned in this course?

8. What was your biggest achievement in this course?

9. In what area did you improve the most? What improvement(s) did you make?

10. What one assignment for this course was your best work? What makes it your best work? What did you learn
by creating it? What does it say about you as a writer/teacher/biologist/sociologist/etc.?

11. Describe something major that you’ve learned about yourself in this course.

12. List three ways you think you have grown or developed as a result of this course.

13. In what ways have you improved as a writer/teacher/biologist/sociologist/etc.?

14. What have you learned in this course that will help you continue to grow as a

15. What was your favorite aspect of this course? Why?

16. What goals did you set for yourself in this course? How well did you accomplish them?

17. If you were to start this course over, what would you do differently next time?

18. What strategies you used to learn the material in this course? Which were most effective? Why?

19. What risks did you take in this course?

20. If you could change any one of the assignments you did for this course, which one would it be? What would
you change about it?

21. What problems did you encounter in this course? How did you solve them?

22. What one question about this course is uppermost on your mind?

23. What would you like to learn further about this subject/discipline?

24. In what area would you like to continue to strengthen your knowledge or skills?

25. Write one goal for next semester and tell how you plan to reach it.

Linda Suskie
June 19, 2003

American Association for Higher Education. (undated). 9 Principles of good practice for assessing student
learning [On-line]. Available:
Anderson, R. S., & Speck, B. W. (Eds.) (1998, Summer). Changing the way we grade student
performance: Classroom assessment and the new learning paradigm. New Directions for
Teaching and Learning, No. 74. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Andrade, H. G. (2000). Using rubrics to promote thinking and learning. Educational Leadership, 57(5).
Retrieved June 2, 2003, from
Angelo, T. A., & Cross, K. P. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers
(2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Astin, A. W. (1996). Assessment for excellence: The philosophy and practice of assessment and
evaluation in higher education. Portland: Oryx and American Council on Education.
Banta, T. W., Lund, J. P., Black, K. E., & Oblander, F. W. (1996). Assessment in practice: Putting
principles to work on college campuses. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Boud, D. (1995). Enhancing learning through self assessment. London, United Kingdom: Kogan Page.
Cashin, W. E. (1987). Improving essay tests (IDEA Paper No. 17). Manhattan, KS: Kansas State
University, Center for Faculty Evaluation and Development.
Catholic Community Forum. (2000, November 18). Assessing metacognition. Ballwin, MO: Author.
Retrieved June 2, 2003, from
Chicago Board of Education. (2000). How to create a rubric from scratch: A guide for rugged
individualists. Chicago, IL: Author. Retrieved June 2, 2003, from
Chicago Board of Education. (2000). Performance assessment tasks. Chicago, IL: Author. Retrieved June
2, 2003, from
Coalition of Essential Schools. (n.d.). How to analyze a curriculum unit or project and provide the
scaffolding students need to succeed. Oakland, CA: Author. Retrieved June 2, 2003, from
Coalition of Essential Schools. (2002, May 14). Overview of alternative assessment approaches.
Oakland, CA: Author. Retrieved June 2, 2003, from
Costa, A. L., & Kallick, B. (2000). Getting into the habit of reflection. Educational Leadership, 57(7), 60-
Diamond, R. M. (1998). Designing and assessing courses and curricula: A practical guide. San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation. (1999, December 23). Scoring rubrics – Definitions
& construction. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved June 2, 2003, from
Gardiner, L. F., Anderson, C., & Cambridge, B. L. (Eds.) (1997). Learning through assessment: A
resource guide for higher education. Washington: American Association for Higher Education.
Haladyna, T. M. (1997). Writing test items to evaluate higher order thinking. Boston, MA: Allyn &
Herman, J. L., Aschbacher, P. R., & Winters, L. (1992). A practical guide to alternative assessment.
Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development.
Huba, M. E., & Freed, J. E. (2000). Learner-centered assessment on college campuses: Shifting the focus
from teaching to learning. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Jones, E., & Voorhees, R., with Paulson, K. (2002). Defining and assessing learning: Exploring
competency-based initiatives. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.
Retrieved June 2, 2003, from
Mertler, C. A. (2001). Designing scoring rubrics for your classroom. Practical Assessment, Research, &
Evaluation, 7(25). Retrieved June 2, 2003, from
Middle States Commission on Higher Education. (2003). Student learning assessment: Options and
resources. Philadelphia: Author.
Moskal, B. M. (2003). Recommendations for developing classroom performance assessments and scoring
rubrics. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 8(14). Retrieved June 2, 2003, from
Moskal, B. M. (2000). Scoring rubrics: What, when and how? Practical Assessment, Research, &
Evaluation, 7(3). Retrieved June 2, 2003, from
Moskal, B. M., & Leydens, J. A. (2000). Scoring rubric development: Validity and reliability. Practical
Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 7(10). Retrieved June 2, 2003, from
Palomba, C. A., & Banta, T. W. (1999). Assessment essentials: Planning, implementing, improving. San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Pickett, N. (1999, March 31). Guidelines for rubric development. San Diego, CA: San Diego State
University, Educational Technology Department. Retrieved June 2, 2003, from
Prus, J., & Johnson, R. (1994). A critical review of student assessment options. In Bers, T. H., & Mittler,
M. L. (Eds.), Assessment and testing: Myths and realities (pp. 69-83) (New Directions for
Community Colleges, No. 88). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Relearning by Design, Inc. (2000). Rubric sampler. Ewing, NJ: Author. Retrieved June 2, 2003, from
Rudner, L. M., & Boston, C. (1994). Performance assessment. ERIC Review, 3(1), 1-12.
Suskie, L. (2000, May). Fair assessment practices: Giving students equitable opportunities to demonstrate
learning. AAHE Bulletin, 52(9), 7-9.
Taggart, G. L., Phifer, S. J., Nixon, J. A., & Wood, M. (Eds.). (1998). Rubrics: A handbook for
construction and use. Nevada City, CA: Performance Learning Systems.
Walvoord, B. E., & Anderson, V. J. (1998). Effective grading: A tool for learning and assessment. San
Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Weaver, R. L., & Cotrell, H. W. (1985, Fall/Winter). Mental aerobics: The half-sheet response. Innovative
Higher Education, 10, 23-31.

Compiled by Linda Suskie

June 19, 2003