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ORACLE DB CHANGES
Redo Undo Archive
Therefore. the database reads the change vectors in the redo records and applies the changes to the relevant blocks. and assigns a system change number (SCN) to identify the redo records for each committed transaction. even though some redo records may not be committed. If the redo log buffer fills. or another transaction commits. thereby eliminating a potential performance bottleneck. Redo records can also be written to a redo log file before the corresponding transaction is committed. the redo log also protects rollback data. Redo entries record data that you can use to reconstruct all changes made to the database. A separate redo thread for each instance avoids contention for a single set of redo log files. A redo record. is made up of a group of change vectors. If necessary. Only when all redo records associated with a given transaction are safely on disk in the online logs is the user process notified that the transaction has been committed. In an Oracle Real Application Clusters environment. . What is Redo Log files? Files are filled with redo records(redo entry). Every instance of an Oracle Database has an associated redo log to protect the database in case of an instance failure. each of which is a description of a change made to a single block in the database. two or more instances concurrently access a single database and each instance has its own thread of redo.What is Redo Log? Two or more pre-allocated files that store all changes made to the database as they occur. LGWR flushes all of the redo log entries in the redo log buffer to a redo log file. Redo records are buffered in a circular fashion in the redo log buffer of the SGA and are written to one of the redo log files by the Log Writer (LGWR) database background process. LGWR writes the transaction redo records from the redo log buffer of the SGA to a redo log file. What is Redo thread? RAC. including the undo segments. the database can roll back these changes. When you recover the database using redo data. the redo log for each database instance is also referred to as a redo thread. Whenever a transaction is committed.
A redo log file that is cycled back for use is given the next available log sequence number. The numbers next to each line indicate the sequence in which LGWR writes to each redo log file. However. a filled redo log file is available after the changes recorded in it have been written to the datafiles. starting the cycle again. If archiving is disabled (the database is in NOARCHIVELOG mode). Normally. the archived log retains its log sequence number. LGWR writes to redo log files in a circular fashion. regardless of whether the current redo log file is completely filled. When the last available redo log file is filled. When the database archives redo log files. Redo log files that are required for instance recovery are called active redo log files. Each online or archived redo log file is uniquely identified by its log sequence number. During crash. Redo log files that are no longer required for instance recovery are called inactive redo log files. LGWR returns to the first redo log file and writes to it. If you have enabled archiving (the database is in ARCHIVELOG mode). You can also force log switches manually. Log Switches A log switch is the point at which the database stops writing to one redo log file and begins writing to another. you can configure log switches to occur at regular intervals. Filled redo log files are available to LGWR for reuse depending on whether archiving is enabled. . What is active and offline Redo log files? Oracle Database uses only one redo log files at a time to store redo records written from the redo log buffer. If archiving is enabled (the database is in ARCHIVELOG mode). instance. a filled redo log file is available to LGWR after the changes recorded in it have been written to the datafiles and the file has been archived. then when the last redo log file is full. The redo log file that LGWR is actively writing to is called the current redo log file. Log Sequence Numbers Oracle Database assigns each redo log file a new log sequence number every time a log switch occurs and LGWR begins writing to it. then the database cannot reuse or overwrite an active online log file until one of the archiver background processes (ARCn) has archived its contents.How Oracle Writes to Redo Log Files? The redo log of a database consists of two or more redo log files. LGWR continues by overwriting the first available active file. The database requires a minimum of two files to guarantee that one is always available for writing while the other is being archived (if the database is in ARCHIVELOG mode). the database properly applies redo log files in ascending order by using the log sequence number of the necessary archived and redo log files. When the current redo log file fills. If archiving is disabled (the database is in NOARCHIVELOG mode). a log switch occurs when the current redo log file is completely filled and writing must continue to the next redo log file. LGWR begins writing to the next available redo log file. or media recovery.
and so on. such as group 1. Multiplexing is implemented by creating groups of redo log files. Each identical copy is said to be a member of the group. A_LOG2 and B_LOG2 are both members of Group 2. then only one member of a group becomes unavailable to LGWR and other members remain accessible to LGWR. Then it writes concurrently to both A_LOG2 and B_LOG2. A group consists of a redo log file and its multiplexed copies. If a single disk fails. LGWR concurrently writes the same redo log information to multiple identical redo log files. group 2. When redo log files are multiplexed. When setting up a multiplexed redo log. meaning that two or more identical copies of the redo log can be automatically maintained in separate locations. . For example. and so on. Doing so will avoid contention between LGWR (writing to the members) and ARCn (reading the members). thereby eliminating a single point of redo log failure. Each redo log group is defined by a number. to A_LOG1 and B_LOG2). A_LOG1 and B_LOG1 are both members of Group 1. and so forth. For the most benefit. however. If you archive the redo log. Datafiles should also be placed on different disks from redo log files to reduce contention in writing data blocks and redo records. if you have two groups of multiplexed redo log members (a duplexed redo log). and so on. Each member of a log file group is concurrently active—that is. these locations should be on separate disks. place each member on a different disk and set your archiving destination to a fifth disk. LGWR never writes concurrently to members of different groups (for example. so the instance can continue to function.first LGWR writes concurrently to both A_LOG1 and B_LOG1. Oracle Database allows a multiplexed redo log. Each member in a group must be exactly the same size. the redundancy can help protect against I/O errors. Even if all copies of the redo log are on the same disk. place members of a group on different physical disks.Multiplexing Redo Log Files To protect against a failure involving the redo log itself. file corruption. spread redo log members across disks to eliminate contention between the LGWR and ARCn background processes. concurrently written to by LGWR—as indicated by the identical log sequence numbers assigned by LGWR.
The archived redo log contains a copy of every group created since you enabled archiving. you disable the archiving of the redo log. You can choose automatic or manual archiving. guarantees that you can recover all committed transactions in the event of an operating system or disk failure. you can only restore the database to the point of the most recent full database backup. The archiving of filled groups has these advantages: ■ A database backup. An archived redo log file is a copy of one of the filled members of a redo log group. then ARCn can still archive the identical b_log1. Therefore. and if group 1 contains identical member files a_log1 and b_log1. The background process ARCn automates archiving operations when automatic archiving is enabled. known collectively as the archived redo log. NOARCHIVELOG mode protects a database from instance failure but not from media failure. You cannot recover transactions subsequent to that backup. the group is available for reuse by LGWR. When the database is running in ARCHIVELOG mode. You can use archived redo logs to: ■ Recover a database ■ Update a standby database ■ Get information about the history of a database using the LogMiner utility NOARCHIVELOG Mode When you run your database in NOARCHIVELOG mode.Redo Log Data Dictionary Views V$LOG Displays the redo log file information from the control file V$LOGFILE Identifies redo log groups and members and member status V$LOG_HISTORY Contains log history information What Is the Archived Redo Log? Oracle Database lets you save filled groups of redo log files to one or more offline destinations. This process is only possible if the database is running in ARCHIVELOG mode. if you are multiplexing your redo log. For example. The database control file indicates that a group of filled redo log files cannot be reused by LGWR until the group is archived. ARCHIVELOG Mode When you run a database in ARCHIVELOG mode. together with online and archived redo log files. The process of turning redo log files into archived redo log files is called archiving. It includes the redo entries and the unique log sequence number of the identical member of the redo log group. you enable the archiving of the redo log. Only the most recent changes made to the database. then the archiver process (ARCn) will archive one of these member files. . are available for instance recovery. Should a_log1 become corrupted. If a media failure occurs while the database is in NOARCHIVELOG mode. the log writer process (LGWR) cannot reuse and hence overwrite a redo log group until it has been archived. when a filled group becomes inactive after a log switch. which are stored in the online redo log groups. The database starts multiple archiver processes as needed to ensure that the archiving of filled redo logs does not fall behind. A filled group becomes available for archiving immediately after a redo log switch occurs. The database control file indicates that filled groups are not required to be archived.
so you can change it using the ALTER SYSTEM statement. There is usually no need specify this initialization parameter or to change its default value. to avoid any runtime overhead of starting additional ARCn processes. Redo Log to Archived Log Number of Archiver Processes The LOG_ARCHIVE_MAX_PROCESSES initialization parameter specifies the number of ARCn processes that the database initially starts. The statement also has an immediate effect on the currently running instance. However. you can set the LOG_ARCHIVE_MAX_PROCESSES initialization parameter to specify that up to ten ARCn processes be started at instance startup. It increases or decreases the current number of running ARCn processes to six. The default is two processes. because the database starts additional archiver processes (ARCn) as needed to ensure that the automatic processing of filled redo log files does not fall behind.■ If you keep an archived log. The LOG_ARCHIVE_MAX_PROCESSES parameter is dynamic. you can use a backup taken while the database is open and in normal system use. . ■ You can keep a standby database current with its original database by continuously applying the original archived redo logs to the standby. The following statement configures the database to start six ARCn processes upon startup: ALTER SYSTEM SET LOG_ARCHIVE_MAX_PROCESSES=6.
and status of these destinations. If you use a recovery catalog. all archive destinations. and the current value. During database recovery. V$LOG_HISTORY Contains log history information such as which logs have been archived and the SCN range for each archived log. undo records are used to undo any uncommitted changes applied from the redo log to the datafiles. If you use a recovery catalog. . the RC_ARCHIVED_LOG view contains similar information. the RC_BACKUP_REDOLOG contains similar information. V$ARCHIVE_DEST Describes the current instance. Undo records provide read consistency by maintaining the before image of the data for users who are accessing the data at the same time that another user is changing it. primarily before they are committed. V$LOG Displays all redo log groups for the database and indicates which need to be archived. V$ARCHIVE_PROCESSES Displays information about the state of the various archive processes for an instance. Undo records are used to: ■ Roll back transactions when a ROLLBACK statement is issued ■ Recover the database ■ Provide read consistency ■ Analyze data as of an earlier point in time by using Oracle Flashback Query ■ Recover from logical corruptions using Oracle Flashback features When a ROLLBACK statement is issued. V$ARCHIVED_LOG Displays historical archived log information from the control file.V$DATABASE. What Is Undo? Oracle Database creates and manages information that is used to roll back. changes to the database. These records are collectively referred to as undo. V$BACKUP_REDOLOG Contains information about any backups of archived logs. mode. undo records are used to undo changes that were made to the database by the uncommitted transaction. or undo. Such information consists of records of the actions of transactions.Archived Redo Logs Views V$DATABASE Shows if the database is in ARCHIVELOG or NOARCHIVELOG mode and if MANUAL (archiving mode) has been specified. SELECT LOG_MODE FROM SYS.
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