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Tissue is a group of cells that have similar structure and that function together as a

unit. A nonliving material, called the intercellular matrix, fills the spaces between the
cells. This may be abundant in some tissues and minimal in others. The intercellular
matrix may contain special substances such as salts and fibers that are unique to a
specific tissue and gives that tissue distinctive characteristics. There are four main
tissue types in the body: epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous. Each is designed
for specific functions. Use the hyperlinks below to branch into a tissue type and learn
more about the topic.

Epithelial tissues are widespread throughout the body. They form the covering of all
body surfaces, line body cavities and hollow organs, and are the major tissue in
glands. They perform a variety of functions that include protection, secretion,
absorption, excretion, filtration, diffusion, and sensory reception.

The cells in epithelial tissue are tightly packed together with very little intercellular
matrix. Because the tissues form coverings and linings, the cells have one free surface
that is not in contact with other cells. Opposite the free surface, the cells are attached
to underlying connective tissue by a non-cellular basement membrane. This
membrane is a mixture of carbohydrates and proteins secreted by the epithelial and
connective tissue cells.

Epithelial cells may be squamous, cuboidal, or columnar in shape and may be


arranged in single or multiple layers.

Simple cuboidal epithelium is found in glandular tissue and in the kidney tubules.
Simple columnar epithelium lines the stomach and intestines. Pseudostratified
columnar epithelium lines portions of the respiratory tract and some of the tubes of
the male reproductive tract. Transitional epithelium can be distended or stretched.
Glandular epithelium is specialized to produce and secrete substances.

Connective tissues bind structures together, form a framework and support for organs
and the body as a whole, store fat, transport substances, protect against disease, and
help repair tissue damage. They occur throughout the body. Connective tissues are
characterized by an abundance of intercellular matrix with relatively few cells.
Connective tissue cells are able to reproduce but not as rapidly as epithelial cells.
Most connective tissues have a good blood supply but some do not.
Numerous cell types are found in connective tissue. Three of the most common are
the fibroblast, macrophage, and mast cell. The types of connective tissue include
loose connective tissue, adipose tissue, dense fibrous connective tissue, elastic
connective tissue, cartilage, osseous tissue (bone), and blood.

Muscle tissue is composed of cells that have the special ability to shorten or contract
in order to produce movement of the body parts. The tissue is highly cellular and is
well supplied with blood vessels. The cells are long and slender so they are sometimes
called muscle fibers, and these are usually arranged in bundles or layers that are
surrounded by connective tissue. Actin and myosin are contractile proteins in muscle
tissue.

Muscle tissue can be categorized into skeletal muscle tissue, smooth muscle tissue,
and cardiac muscle tissue.

Skeletal muscle fibers are cylindrical, multinucleated, striated, and under voluntary
control. Smooth muscle cells are spindle shaped, have a single, centrally located
nucleus, and lack striations. They are called involuntary muscles. Cardiac muscle has
branching fibers, one nucleus per cell, striations, and intercalated disks. Its contraction
is not under voluntary control.
Nervous tissue is found in the brain, spinal cord, and
nerves. It is responsible for coordinating and
controlling many body activities. It stimulates muscle
contraction, creates an awareness of the environment,
and plays a major role in emotions, memory, and
reasoning. To do all these things, cells in nervous tissue
need to be able to communicate with each other by
way of electrical nerve impulses.

The cells in nervous tissue that generate and conduct impulses are called neurons or
nerve cells. These cells have three principal parts: the dendrites, the cell body, and one
axon. The main part of the cell, the part that carries on the general functions, is the
cell body. Dendrites are extensions, or processes, of the cytoplasm that carry impulses
to the cell body. An extension or process called an axon carries impulses away from
the cell body.

Nervous tissue also includes cells that do not transmit impulses, but instead support
the activities of the neurons. These are the glial cells (neuroglial cells), together
termed the neuroglia. Supporting, or glia, cells bind neurons together and insulate the
neurons. Some are phagocytic and protect against bacterial invasion, while others
provide nutrients by binding blood vessels to the neurons.

Tissues
Cells group together in the body to form tissues - a collection of similar cells that
group together to perform a specialized function. There are 4 primary tissue types in
the human body: epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue and nerve tissue.

1. Epithelial Tissue - The cells of epithelial tissue pack tightly together and form
continuous sheets that serve as linings in different parts of the body. Epithelial
tissue serve as membranes lining organs and helping to keep the body's organs
separate, in place and protected. Some examples of epithelial tissue are the
outer layer of the skin, the inside of the mouth and stomach, and the tissue
surrounding the body's organs.
2. Connective Tissue - There are many types of connective tissue in the body.
Generally speaking, connective tissue adds support and structure to the body.
Most types of connective tissue contain fibrous strands of the protein collagen
that add strength to connective tissue. Some examples of connective tissue
include the inner layers of skin, tendons, ligaments, cartilage, bone and fat
tissue. In addition to these more recognizable forms of connective tissue,
blood is also considered a form of connective tissue.
3. Muscle Tissue - Muscle tissue is a specialized tissue that can contract. Muscle
tissue contains the specialized proteins actin and myosin that slide past one
another and allow movement. Examples of muscle tissue are contained in the
muscles throughout your body.
4. Nerve Tissue - Nerve tissue contains two types of cells: neurons and glial
cells. Nerve tissue has the ability to generate and conduct electrical signals in
the body. These electrical messages are managed by nerve tissue in the brain
and transmitted down the spinal cord to the body.
The liver is a vital organ in the human body and is present in vertebrates and some
other animals. The liver is necessary for survival; a human can only last up to 24
hours without liver function.[citation needed] It plays a major role in metabolism and has a
number of functions in the body, including glycogen storage, decomposition of red
blood cells, plasma protein synthesis, and detoxification. The liver is also the largest
gland in the human body. It lies below the diaphragm in the thoracic region of the
abdomen. It produces bile, an alkaline compound which aids in digestion, via the
emulsification of lipids. It also performs and regulates a wide variety of high-volume
biochemical reactions requiring very specialized tissues.[2]

Medical terms related to the liver often start in hepato- or hepatic from the Greek
word for liver, hēpar (ήπαρ).[3]

The liver is constantly exposed to gut-derived


antigens that enter via the portal vein, and it must
modulate immune responses so that harmful
pathogens are cleared but necessary food antigens
are ignored. The liver contains a large resident and
migratory population of lymphocytes and
macrophages that provide immune surveillance
against foreign antigen. This population of cells
can be rapidly expanded in response to infection or
injury by recruiting leukocytes from the circulation, a process that is dependent
on the ability of lymphocytes to recognise, bind to and migrate across the
endothelial cells that line the vasculature. Lymphocytes can enter the liver at
several sites: the vascular endothelium in the portal tracts (comprising the
hepatic artery, portal vein and bile ductule), the sinusoids (through which the
blood percolates past the hepatocytes) or the central hepatic veins (through
which the blood exits). The requirements and physical conditions at each site
vary and there is evidence that different combinations of adhesion proteins are
involved at these different sites. This article discusses the expression and function
of adhesion molecules within the liver and demonstrates how specific populations
of effector lymphocytes can be selectively recruited to the liver.

The liver is responsible for the uptake, metabolism, detoxification and storage of
macromolecules such as food products, as well as the clearance of pathogens and
foreign antigens entering the body by the gastrointestinal tract. Mechanisms have
evolved to ensure that the liver is patrolled by populations of lymphocytes that can
respond rapidly upon detection of foreign antigen. In order to review these processes,
this article begins with a brief summary of the structure and function of the liver
before discussing the general principles of lymphocyte recruitment and the specific
factors involved in the context of the liver microvasculature. Finally, the clinical
implications of lymphocyte recruitment and the developments that might aid the
clinician treating liver disease are discussed.