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5/3/2009 . but a protoplanetary disc. Importance : Density used in basically all processes of planet formation.1) MMSN : definition. A. recipe Minimum Mass Solar Nebula Little reminder : It is not a nebula. Minimum Mass : just enough solid material to build the 8 planets. Crida Tübingen. Solar : from which the Solar System is born.
Cover with a power law profile. Crida Tübingen. You get the Solar System. Multiply the obtained density by 100 (add gas). He (25%). 5/3/2009 .1) MMSN : definition.01 solar mass of the famous mixture H (75%). recipe Recipe of the Minimum Mass Solar Nebula Ingredients for 8 planets : ~ 60 Earth masses of solids (chondritic composition). ~ 0. Preparation : Spread the appropriate mass of solids around the orbit of each planet. Enjoy ! A. Dispose around the Sun for 10 million years.
They formed where they presently orbit.5 g. ... Crida Tübingen. recipe Weidenschilling (1977).cm-2 Main assumptions : The planets accreted all the solids (therefore «minimum»).1) MMSN : definition. Hayashi (1981) : Σ ( r ) = 1700 r 1AU − 1. 5/3/2009 . did they ? A.
2005 . When Jupiter and Saturn reach their 2:1 resonance. the system is destabilized : → Late Heavy Bombardement. 5/3/2009 . A.2) The Nice model After the protoplanetary disc dispersal. (Gomes et al. the giant planets were on circular orbits. → The planets reach their present orbits. 2005) Planetesimal scattering perturbs the orbits of the planets. Crida Tübingen. Tsiganis et al. in a compact configuration. surrounded by a disc of planetesimals.
Time [years] A. 5/3/2009 . Crida Tübingen.2) The Nice model The Nice model explains : The eccentricities of the giants the Late Heavy Bombardement.
Crida . Tübingen. 5/3/2009 ✔ A. 2005). ✔ ✔ The capture of the irregular satellites by the giants (Nesvorny et al. Trojans on inclined orbits (Morbidelli et al. The Kuiper Belt architecture (Levison et al. 2007).2) The Nice model The Nice model explains : And also : The eccentricities of the giants ✔ The capture of Jupiter's the Late Heavy Bombardement. The Hildas and D-type asteroids (Bottke et al. 08). 2007).
Uranus: 14-17 AU. Crida Tübingen.2 AU . they were located at : Jupiter : 5. Desch applied the recipe with these positions (and improved the cooking). Then. After the gas disc phase.3) Return of the MMSN If the Nice model holds.45 AU . Neptune: 11-12 AU . the Hayashi density profile is out of date. Saturn : ~8. the giant planets didn't form where they now orbit. 5/3/2009 . A.
Crida Tübingen. Much steeper slope. .3) Return of the MMSN Desch (2007) : a MMSN based on the Nice model .cm-2 10 times more dense at 5 AU than Hayashi's MMSN.168 g.Compact configuration.Disc of planetesimals. A. → Excellent fit with : Σ(r) = 50500 r 1AU − 2. .Uranus ↔ Neptune. 5/3/2009 .
Crida Tübingen. Planets in a gaseous disc : migration (type I. 5/3/2009 . III) through tidal interaction (this session).Migration. ● ● None is taken into account in the Hayashi (1981) MMSN. How about migration inside the MMSN ? A. did you say migration ? The orbital radius may change through 3 different processes : ● Small size bodies (<km) : radial drift (or type 0) through gas drag. II. Planets after the gas disc : discontinuous change through scattering (ex: in the Nice model). Only the 3rd one is considered in the Desch (2007) MMSN.
5/3/2009 Uranus Neptune Saturn Jupiter . then type III migration. Uranus : type I. lost. Neptune & Uranus in Desch (2007) disc. lost.4) Migration strikes back Jupiter. 100 Jupiter orbits on a fixed orbit. Saturn : type I. Jupiter: runaway. Neptune : type I. type III migration. then released. Saturn. lost. Crida Tübingen. A. lost.
Neptune & Uranus in Desch (2007) disc. lost. 5/3/2009 . radiative cooling. Non localy isothermal EOS: viscous heating. Uranus. Neptune. Crida time [years] 16000 Tübingen. ( Crida. Saturn. submitted) 14 12 Neptune Uranus 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 Saturn Jupiter This is the case for any disc. type III migration. ApJ. lost. 2009. Saturn. The planets can't survive more than 20 000 yrs. insn't it ? 2000 A.4) Migration strikes back Jupiter. semi major axis [AU] Jupiter: runaway.
Jupiter. α as in Desch (2007). Crida 3. Saturn enter in 3:2 mean motion resonance. no runaway. 10 No type III. localy isothermal EOS.4) Migration strikes back Jupiter & Saturn in Hayashi (1981) density profile.5x104 time [years] Tübingen. with same H/r. 5/3/2009 . and stop ! semi major axis [AU] Saturn 9 Sa 8 7 6 5 Jupiter 4 0 104 A.
stop. Neptune & Uranus in Hayashi (1981) disc. after type I migration. On longer term. Neptune. Crida time [years] 105 Tübingen. ( Crida.Uranus.4) Migration strikes back Jupiter. ApJ. 5/3/2009 . submitted) 30 Neptune Masset & Snellgrove (2001) Morbidelli & Crida (2007) semi major axis [AU] 25 20 Uranus 15 10 5 0 Saturn Jupiter 0 104 A. also caught in resonance. 2009. with other disc parameters : Jupiter-Saturn: in resonance. Saturn.
A. 5/3/2009 . With a planetesimals disc. This is the « Nice model II ». Crida Tübingen. a (late) global instability can take place. (2007) : 6 possible resonant configurations in the gas disc.5) A new hope Morbidelli et al. 2 are stable over 108-9 yrs without gas disc.
In a very dense disc. 5/3/2009 . then. Radial drift and migration make the recipe of the MMSN irrelevant. approach. Nice model II. in a low density disc. no resonance). Formation of the giant planets over a wide radial range. 2007). Crida Tübingen. nor the newer one (Desch. are consistent with planetary migration. A.CONCLUSION Neither the standard MMSN (Hayashi. then. migration. 1981). the giants can't survive (runaway migration of Jupiter and Saturn. and resonances.