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on Revolutionary, and later Napol eonic France. Several ancient and prominent royal families, including the Hapsb urgs and the Hohenzollerns, had experienced the humiliation of defeat that resul ted from these conflicts against skilled French forces. Often times, Napoleon h imself, at the head of his victorious armies, entered Europe s capitals and sat on the very thrones occupied for centuries by those royal families. However, one c apital that Napoleon had not taken was London, although it had long been an aim of the French emperor s to decisively defeat France s traditional foe. Britain and France had waged war on one another frequently, vying for valuable colonial poss essions in order to establish powerful empires. The Treaty of Paris, which conc luded the Seven Years War in 1763, gave Britain much of France s overseas territory . In the years that followed, France anxiously awaited an opportunity to weaken the British Empire, and experienced moderate success in the American War of Inde pendence. The major chance to deliver a blow to British prestige came with the outbreak of the Napoleonic Wars, which largely became a struggle between Britain and France for superiority. Eager to defeat the British, Napoleon explored seve ral bold invasion attempts. The invasion schemes though were thwarted while stil l in development, which led Napoleon to wage economic war on his principle rival by implementing the Continental System. The Continental System aimed to block British goods from entering other European ports, which would strengthen France s control of the continent. Napoleon s contin ental blockade was extended following his victories in 1806 and 1807, leaving on ly Sweden and Portugal out of his reach. Napoleon planned to cut Britain off from its loyal ally, Portugal, by ordering the ruling Braganza family to accept the Continental System, or be deposed. He decided to invade Portugal along with his ally Spain, led by the ambitious prime minister, Manuel de Godoy. Napoleon agreed to partition Portugal between himself, Godoy, and the King of Etruria (T uscany). An ultimatum was sent to the Portuguese ordering the closure of all ports to British goods by 1 September 1807 or else Lisbon would be seized and t he Braganzas deposed. With little hope of defeating a French invasion, Portugue se ministers, including Antonio de Araújo, considered the relocation of the monarc hy to the colony of Brazil the best possible option. The Prince Regent, the fut ure Dom João VI of Portugal consented, and the royal family and nearly 10000 other s boarded ships for their mysterious possession, Brazil. The decision to transf er the monarchy crushed the remnants of one of Europe s oldest empires, but gave b irth to a new power across the Atlantic. Portugal and Dom João VI By the late 18th century, the influence of the Portuguese Empire had declined si gnificantly. Although Portugal still possessed valuable colonies, including Bra zil, the once formidable Iberian kingdom was dependent on Great Britain. The Br itish were not only valuable to Portugal economically, but their powerful milita ry also provided protection from neighboring Spain. Portugal had been allied to Britain in several 18th century conflicts, including the First Coalition agains t Revolutionary France. By 1797 though, France had begun to pressure the Portug uese to break their alliance with Britain. However, with British backing, the P ortuguese refused to accept France s demands. When Napoleon was made First Consul , he encouraged Spain to attack Portugal, their traditional enemy. In 1801, Spa nish troops led by Manuel de Godoy invaded Portugal and seized several border to wns in what became known as the War of the Oranges. In addition to territorial lo ss, Portugal was forced to close its ports to British goods until peace was made in 1803 and trade between the two resumed. However, it would not be the last t ime Portugal was threatened by France and Spain.
the diminutive and devious Spanish princess . He later remarked that João was the only one who ever tricked me. outside Lisbon. Unfortunately. the executions of the French king. and good-natured. Carlota Joaquina shared his love of sport. especially while in Brazil. their children. Napoleo n accepted Portuguese neutrality for several years. Dom João faced a dangerous situation. Shortly after. The entire royal family managed to es cape before Junot s arrival and thus were spared the humiliation of defeat at the hands of Napoleon. which led Na poleon to sign the treaty of San Ildefonso with Spain. Portugal s troubles at this tim e started with the outbreak of the French Revolution. and indeed Latin American history as a whole. Unfortunately for the Frenchman. João was an avid hunter and sportsmen until he suffered a leg injury. who was not used to monarchs defying his commands. and therefore save the k ingdom. until he implemented the Con tinental System in 1806. The agreement effectivel y partitioned Portugal once it fell to an invading French army. who rule d Portugal as Prince Regent from 1792. Althou gh he was content in partaking in religious ceremonies. The ill-tempered Carlota Joaquina often considered deposing her hus band with Spanish aid. as well as over 10000 people. His wife. with the exception of Dom Miguel. most Portuguese were opposed to his government and were pleased when British troops arrived to d rive the French from Portugal. Brazilian. but nothing else. He enjoyed the monks company as well as church music. The Braganzas arranged to bring nearly ev erything but Queluz palace with them to Brazil. Unfortunately for the Portuguese. was dispatch ed to seize Lisbon and the Braganzas. their country became the scene of a ferocious conflict between Britain and France. French and Spanish officials presented an ultimatum to Portugal. Louis XVI and Mar ie Antoinette terrified Queen Maria to the point where she lost her mind. intelligent. Portugal refused to turn against Britain. the Prince of Brazil Dom João. which was a pleasant surprise to foreign diplomats. who died before he could asc end the throne. She was cold tow ard her husband and for the most part. The Prince Regent was a ffable. who contrary to popular b elief at the time. Despite being overweight. who had lost their thrones for their opposition to Napoleon . The successful escape infuriated Napoleon. the French army arrived in Lisbon. Remarkably many of their posses sions. successfully boarded the ships and departed Lisbon before the arrival of the French. The Braganzas arrival in Brazil marked a new era in Portuguese. Junot took control of the government and announced the end of Braganza rule in Portugal. Meanwhile. In addition to hunting. The court s transfer was also difficult. Dom João enjoyed visiting the palace and monastery at Mafr a. The m entally ill queen was replaced by her son. the throne passed to João. let alone established their capital there.  Just hours after the royal family s departure on 29 November 1807. Dom João did not wish to end up like the lesser royal families of areas o f Italy and Germany. something Dom João refused to accept. João was destined to lead his kingdom in a difficult period in its history. In the end . and the onset of Queen Mar ia s illness. as he attempted to avoid war wi th aggressive Napoleonic France. Portuguese ministers arranged for British aid to transfer the royal family to Brazil. The transfer of the Portuguese court to Brazil was unprecedented as no monarch had ever visited the Americas. The French Invasion and the Flight of the Royal Family 1807 Portugal s opposition to the Continental System led Napoleon to order an invasion.The Portuguese kingdom at the outbreak of the French Revolution was ruled by Que en Maria I. João was largely considered a disappointme nt within his family compared to his older brother. As a result. the former French ambassador to Portugal. General Androche Junot. was capable of managing his kingdom. Pressure from both France and Spain resulted i n a policy of neutrality during the early years of the Napoleonic Wars. which called fo r the closure of Portuguese ports to British goods.
under a governor-general. In the early years following its discovery. The queen s fear of a revolt was realized. Origins of Brazilian Independence: Inconfidência Mineira 1789-1792 and the Revolut ion in Bahia 1798 The successful revolution against Great Britain and the establishment of an Amer ican republic in the 1780s was unlike anything the modern world had yet seen. the Portuguese crown creat ed hereditary captaincies to govern the colony. the revolution also led the q ueen s government to crack down on liberal institutions. However. In response. Mineiros who mined diamonds. The people of the region. A coalition of nations. the capital of the viceroyalty was moved to Rio de Janeiro to be closer to Mi nas Gerais and offer an outlet to the sea. however it was some of her Brazilian subjects that were res ponsible. Colonial Brazil Although discovered in 1500. which made Brazil the new jewel of the empire. including Portugal was formed to defeat Revolutionary France. São Vicente a nd Pernambuco. Britain held off several French invasions of Portugal. In addition to the onset of her insanity. established the capital at Salvador da Bahia. However. in northeastern Brazil . Gold production had declined by the late 18th century. T omé de Sousa. the Portuguese showed little interest in developing their new American possession due to the ex istence of profitable colonies in Asia and Africa. Queen Maria was one of many that were alarmed at the outbreak of the French Revo lution. The system s overall failure led to the formation of a central g overnment. hence the name Brazil. Some Portuguese though began to obtain the valuable brazilwood from the territory. Following the establishment of settlements. expeditions led by Mar tim Afonso de Sousa established settlements such as São Vicente and Piratininga (São Paulo). L ess than a decade later. Many European monarchs h ad quietly supported the American Revolution because it weakened the British Emp ire.. these captaincies largely failed with the exception of two. The overwh elming success of gold production led to a population boom in Minas. or General Mines. She believed that her Po rtuguese subjects would depose her and destroy the kingdom. In the 17th century. which led to economic tro ubles for the population of Minas Gerais. faced greater difficultie . Portugal had recognized that Brazil was rich in natural res ources. most importantly gold. these early Portuguese settlers found that they were not the only Eur opeans interested in brazilwood as the French had also arrived in the region. but their Portuguese subjects would no longer welcome them. Portugal authorized several expeditions to explore and settle the vast expanse of land. In respons e. However. Brazil was divided into two states. Gold had been discovered early in the century in an inland area that became known as Minas Gerais. By the 18th century. F rance s presence in Brazil led the Portuguese crown to take notice of their posses sion. The first man appointed to the position. In the 1520s and early 1530s. and two others were soon created. Brazil was not firmly under Portuguese authority un til the late 1600s. were also plagued by heavy taxes in the gold mining area. The British and the Po rtuguese parliament effectively ruled in place of Dom João until the royal family s return in 1821. All four states were incorporated into the Viceroyalty of Brazil in 1763. revolutionary fervor that had engulfed British North Am erica arrived in Europe through the French Revolution. which were also present in the region. The Portuguese benefited immensel y from this gold. the revolution in France was too close for comfort for the monarc hs of the ancién regime. Their success was due in large part to sugar cane and the indigen ous slave trade. known as Mi neiros.
Several wealthy young Mineiros. another revolt broke out in Salvador da Bahia. in which wealthy. bearing a copy of the United States Constitution. The Portuguese. Tiradentes received death by hanging. known as the Intendente dos Diamantes exercised complete authority over the mining industry in the region. including O Pa triota. educated men led the movement. Tira dentes execution inspired future movements and made him a martyr and early symbol of Brazilian independence. They planned to revolt once the governm ent announced its plan to collect taxes and create a Brazilian republic. Trade flourished and manufacturing was permitted after a decree that prohibited it was revoked. On 21 April 1792. Other periodicals and journals gradually appeared. The Braganzas in Brazil 1808-1821 The Atlantic crossing took roughly three months. including the Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro. medical. and later his body was quartered. The leader s trial dragged on for two years. not unl ike the young United States. and a museum was founded. The leader of what became known as the Inconfidência Mineira was José da Silva Xavier. During his years in Brazil. until he was finally co nvicted in Rio. instead of discouraging another revolt. Newspapers also appeared throug hout the royal family s stay. a new opera house was built. Dom João introduced another favorable mea sure the following month. ending the mercantilist sys tem that the Portuguese had instituted. one that would rival any in Europe. In 1798. However. Tiradentes was led to the gallows in Rio. and art schools were es tablished. especially Mineiros. commonly known as Tiradentes or Tooth-puller beca use he briefly practiced dentistry. Portugal was quickly becoming a Brazilian colony. as a stern reminder of Portuguese authority. Prior to this all books had to be shipped from Portugal. Although Maia died before returning to Brazil. Unlike the Inconfidência M ineira. there were others who shared his passion t o free his homeland from Portugal. was quickly suppressed and the leaders were executed. and the royal family arrived in Salvador da Bahia on 22 January 1808. Dom João set out to transform Rio into a true capital. it had not been co mpletely eradicated. One man. much like their cousins in British No rth America had outgrown the rule of the mother country. In addition. The top official. embraced the ideals of the Age of Enlightenment as we ll as the American Revolution and planned to revolt against the harsh Portuguese administration. João opened Brazil ian ports to friendly nations.s from the local administration. The city replaced Lisbon as the capital of the Portuguese empire. José Joaquim da Maia was inspired to rebel against Portu gal upon his meeting American revolutionary Thomas Jefferson in Paris. w hich led many to despise the administration. While the others we re banished. they clearly show that many Brazilians. the l ocal administration was quickly alerted and rounded up those involved. which praised Dom João s efforts in Brazil. The members of the conspiracy against Portuguese rule were inspired by French ph ilosophers and the American Revolution. Unfortunately for members of the conspiracy. traveled throughout Minas Gerais and even to Rio. who had been educated abroad. Tiradentes. including Tiradentes. eager to send a message to the restless Brazili ans. Also. when the Portuguese court traveled to Rio de Janeiro. military. edited by Manuel Ferreira de Araújo Guimarães. the Royal Printing Press was established. Several days later. to gain support for the movement. Parts of h is mutilated body were publicly displayed throughout Brazil. a bank was chartered. The Braganzas arrival also led to a population i . which had the potential to devel op into a mass movement throughout the northeast. decided on a brutal fate for leader of the conspiracy. the Bahia revolt involv ed the lower class and slaves. The revolt. mainly Great Britain. Although this revoluti onary sentiment was neutralized during the royal family s stay. Papers helped to keep the public informed on the war across the Atlantic and other news from Europe. Although these revolts were crushed.
Don Pedro Carlos was also considered as a possible ruler of Spanish territory in South America. after a brief fight. all was not well. In addition. However. The Portuguese were aware of the enormous growth of t he Brazilian economy. Dom Pedro and Independence 1821-1822 The man that would play a key role in obtaining Brazilian independence. It was no secret that Carlota Joaquina despised her husband and her new life a cross the Atlantic. The Portuguese in the Cortes were hostile toward th e Brazilian representatives. If she could not return to E urope though. notably in Rio. In Brazil. He came to regret his lack of formal schooling at the end of hi s life and made sure that his children. By the spring of 1821. . she still viewed Brazilian so ciety as primitive and longed to return to Europe. the movement was crushed when t he young prince and heir to the Portuguese throne. Dom Pedro ordered the convent ion building stormed and Duprat jailed. João. who felt that Dom João had forsaken his h omeland. the fact that the former colony was now equal in status to the ancient Portuguese kingdom was too much for the Port uguese to bear. As a result. which caused tension between the two kingdoms. However. however his wife had not . Portuguese liberals demanded the creation of a constitutional monarchy. known as the Cortes. the plan ne ver materialized and Carlota Joaquina remained unhappily in Brazil. Meanwhile. Family quarrels were only the beginning of Dom João s troubles. so he had grown up like his other siblings in Brazil. t he leaders were executed and the revolt was suppressed. However. Carlota Joaquina had an alternative. The measure permitted the election of Brazilians to the Portugues e Parliament. Revolutionaries in Brazil also attempted to get their own constitutional reforms . They were further angered when Brazil was elevated to the status of ki ngdom in 1815. tension in b oth Brazil and Portugal forced the King to act. Political upheaval in both Brazil and Portugal threatened Braganza rule. as he was not for merly educated. Despite the cultural reforms. Dom João had taken an immediate liking to life in Brazil. He reluctantly decided to retur n to Portugal. Tension both in Europe an d America stemmed from the royal family s absolute power. The idea was su pported by British Admiral Sir Sidney Smith. the city s popul ation had swelled to 130000. leaving Dom Pedro in Brazil. The revolt that followed originated in Pe rnambuco and gained the support of different classes and the clergy. The young crown prince was onl y nine when he left Portugal in 1807. A National Convention met under the leadership of Luiz Duprat. as many called for a con stitutional monarchy. the new King of Portugal Brazil and the Algarve hesitated to return to Portugal until he learned of the outbrea k of the Liberal Revolution of 1820. which originated in the city of Porto. which attempte d to introduce a radical constitution. including the future Dom Pedro II were r igorously instructed. she would establish her own k ingdom from Spanish territory with Buenos Aires as the capital. Rio s population in 1808 numbered around 60000. It would be the last time King João w ould see the country that he had come to love. However. Many Portuguese felt that they had been neglected by the Prince Regent as many of hi s measures favored Brazil. whic h resurrected the idea of a republic. who was in Brazil directing a campa ign against French Guiana. and who would consequently become emperor was Dom Pedro. Dom Pedro largely did what he pleased as a child. a secret organization was formed in 1814. Although Rio and indeed the rest of Brazil ben efited from the royal family s presence. The emergence of Rio as a productive and i mpressive capital upset many Portuguese. Her nephew. By 1818. The royal family s troubles continued following the end of the Napoleonic Wars. The uprisi ng quickly spread throughout the northeast. in Portugal liberals were opposed to Dom João s policies in Brazil. when the Portuguese demanded their return.ncrease.
This was a measure that Brazilians. King João was unable to exercise any authority in Portugal. including Pedro could not accept.In his teen years. but neither side wished to att ack the other. but the crown prince def ied the command on what became known as the Dia do Fico. Brazil had been transformed from profitable Portuguese colony to a separate empire. known as the Legion took power in Rio under their commander General Jorge de Avilez. Dom Pedro was a handsome. I will remain. Ped ro traveled throughout Brazil as Perpetual Defender. That same year. The Cortes was extremely hostile towards Brazil. In less than twenty years. José Bonafácio de Andrada e Si lva. If the crown prin ce would not go to Lisbon on his own. Noémi Thierry was the talk of Rio s coffeehouses. He drew his sword and called for complete separation from Portugal in his Cry of Ipiranga. While on his tour. one threatened to undermine the royal family s honor . Pedro was crowned emperor in Rio. daring young man who was known for his affairs with the wives of prominent officials. Meanwhile. Dr. He was aided by the brilliant professor and poet. powerful royal fam ilies. Pedro was met b y a messenger who informed the crown prince that the Portuguese government was o pposed to an independent Brazil and that troops would be sent to restore order. While this event was unfolding. Bibliography . by the blood that flows in my veins and upo n my honour. de Avilez capitulated after Pedro declared that the Legion would be slaughtered if they r efused to accept his terms. another was on the rise in Rio. Following the Legion s surrender. Dom Pedro surrounded de Avilez and ordered his troops to return to Portugal. thei r northern neighbor. Dom João s court ignored the rumors until it w as found that Thierry was pregnant. and even returned its status to that of a colony. solidifying th e government as a constitutional monarchy under Dom Pedro. became the first nation to recognize the Brazilian Empire. With cannons b earing down on the Portuguese fortifications. Pedro demanded the Legion s surrende r and their return to Portugal. João was in t he process of arranging a marriage for Pedro to a European princess. who headed the new government. Eventually. Pedro prepared a force of his own to confront the Portu guese troops. notably the Hapsburgs. rallied support from fellow Freemasons for complete independence from Portugal. General de Avilez dispatched his troops to seize Pedro and send him to Portugal. He fea red that if news of Pedro s latest affair crossed the Atlantic. Despite the commotion. Although the Legion was a far better force than Pedro s army. gathering support from the pe ople. Meanwhile. Portuguese troops. Over the next few weeks. de Avilez feared attacking his crown prince. although it was quite costly for the kingdom as Thierry received a large sum of money. A furious Pedro tore off the Portuguese insignia from his uniform and ordered h is guards to do the same. Although most of his romanti c adventures were kept quiet. The Por tuguese government ordered Pedro to return to Portugal. Pedro organ ized his forces and called up supporters from throughout Brazil. Pedro focused on creating a stable government. I swear to God to free Brazil!  Shortly after. Pedro was persuaded to e nd his relationship with the French ballerina. While one empire in Lisbon crumbled. Pedro briefly halted his romantic escapades to become acquainted with his new wi fe and to deal with the political troubles of both Portugal and Brazil. with Pedro in pursuit. meaning. Pedro s affair with the young French ballerina. Pedro was married by proxy to Leopoldina of the House of Hapsburg. as a Grand Master. Portugal and Great Britain followed the United States in rec ognizing Brazil s sovereignty in 1825. Bonafácio. After a brief but tense standoff. In Janua ry of 1822. he would be sent there by force. de Avilez withdrew his men to their fortifications. The two armies met outside of Rio. would decline the offer. [1 9] The Legion was not pleased by Pedro s answer to the government. as the liberals held power in the Cortes. In 1824. In May of 1817. a national constitution was introduced. the United States. In the summer of 1821. who cheered him everywhere he visited.
The History of Brazil. N ew York: Cambridge University Press.. Pg. A Concise History of Brazil. Pg. and the Portuguese Roy al Court in Rio de Janeiro.  Calógeras. 8-9. Pg. Pg. Durham: Duke University Press. 1999. 45. New York: Palgrave MacMillan. Antonio Henrique de Oliveira. 1986. Alexander. New York: Palg rave MacMillan. Liberators: Latin America s Struggle for Independence. Boris.  Marques.  Schultz. João Pandiá. Napoleon and the Transformation of Europe. Dom Pedro. Pg.Armitage. Kirsten. Antonio Henrique de Oliveira. Robert M.1. 469. A History of Brazil. A History of Brazil. -72. Tropical Versailles: Empire. Liberators. 15. Pgs. Pgs. New York: Russell and Russell. 2001. 17 98-1834. 23. 1986. Boris. Neill.1. The History of Brazil. Tropical Versailles. 9. João Pandiá. Calógeras. Antonio Henrique de Oliveira. Robert.1. New York: Russell and Russell. History of Portugal Vol. Dom Pedro. New Yo rk: Cambridge University Press. João Pandiá. Translated and Edited by Percy Alvin Mart in. 2003. New York: Overlook. 1999.  Grab. Napoleon and the Transformation of Europe. New York: Columbia University Press. John. 1986. Pg. 71 . Translated by Arthur Brakel.  Harvey. 453. New York: Routledge. Boris. Harvey. A Concise History of Brazil. 1808-1821. New York: Russell and Russell. 2000. New York: Palgrave MacMillan. Notes:  Harvey. 62. Durham: Duke University Press. Pg. Grab. London: Smith. New York: Overlook. Fausto. Kirsten.  Macaulay. Neill. A Concise History of Brazil. Levine. Ne w York: Cambridge University Press. Dom Pedro: The Struggle for Liberty in Brazil and Portugal. Liberators. 1963. Robert. Alexander. New York: Columbia University Press. Monarchy. 1976. 2003. 1836. 2003. New York: Col umbia University Press. 2000. Elder and Co. Translated and Edited by Percy Alvin Martin. 147.  Fausto. Pg. 1963. Translated and Edited by Percy Alvin Martin. Robert. History of Portugal Vol. Schultz. Macaulay. 2000.  Fausto. New York: Overlook. Pg. 469. Neill. 1963. History of Portugal Vol. 1976. Translated by Arthur Brakel. Marques. 453  Macaulay. New York: Routledge.  Calógeras. 1999. 1976. Pg.  Marques. Translated by Arthur Brakel. A History of Brazil. 2001. Durham: Duke University Press.
2000. History of Portugal Vol. Pg. 1963. Liberators. Pg. New York: Russell and Russell. Pg. New York: Overlook.1. Tropical Versailles. 60. 20 03. 2001. Robert M. 2000. Dom Pedro. Kirsten. Robert.  Calógeras. 84. 482. John. Liberators. 453. Pg. 18. Pg.  Macaulay. 477. New York: Palgrave MacMillan. 53.  Harvey. Pg. London: Smith. Antonio Henrique de Oliveira. A History of Brazil. The History of Brazil. 1986. Neill. New York: Overlook. 2000. Pg. New York: Routledge. Schultz. Placed on the Napoleon Series: May 2009 . Robert. Pg. Robert. Neill. 1836 .  Levine. João Pandiá. Pg. The History of Brazil. 480.  Armitage. 1976. Durham: Duke University Press.  Harvey. Pg. Durham: Duke University Press. 76. Translated and Edited by Percy Alvi n Martin. 31.. Elder and Co. 1986.  Harvey. New York : Columbia University Press. New York: Overlook.  Marques. Liberators. Dom Pedro.  Macaulay.
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