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Fluid Dynamics of Turbomachinery

Anupam Sharma
Department of Aerospace Engineering Iowa State University

Lecture # 1, Spring 2012

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Quiz

Fig: What engine is this?

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Quiz - Answer

Answer J35 engine built by GE and Allison First axial-ow machine used by the US airforce You can nd it on the ground oor of Howe Hall! Question for next time How many compressor and how many turbine stages does this machine have?

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Introduction

About Me

Introduction

Something about me . . . B.Tech (Aerospace) from Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay [1995-1999] M.S. and Ph.D. (Aerospace) from Penn State university [1999-2004] Research Engineer at General Electric Reseach Center, New York [2004-2011]
Turbomachinery noise: buzzsaw, fan tone, broadband, . . . Wind turbine aerodynamics and noise

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Introduction

About Me

Ground Rules

Attend all lectures - not all the material covered in class is in the text book No eating in class please No use of cell phones, email checking etc when class in progress - it distracts you and others Turn in your homeworks/projects on time Be engaged in class - the lectures should more be like dialogues Provide feedback (anonymous is welcome) - I will look into how we can arrange this You are absolutely required to enjoy this course . . . please leave now if you do not intend to put in some eort towards this

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Introduction

About You

Introduction

Something about you . . . Name - will try to remember by the end of semester Major, thesis topic/research area (graduate) Why are you interested in this course? What do you expect to get out of this course?

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Grading, etc.

Grading, Course hours, etc.


Grading
1 2 3 4

Homeworks - [25%] Midterm - [25%] Endterm - [25%] Course project - tentative [25%]

Lecture hours: 12:40 - 1:55 PM [Tu,Thu] in Rm# 2228 Howe Hall Oce hours: 10:00 AM - noon [Wed] in Rm# 2341 Howe Hall Teaching Assistant: None Course website: TBD . . . will be using blackboard learn Make-up classes We will have to make-up some classes due to some un-avoidable travel for me what 1 hour slot would work for you?

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Syllabus

Syllabus
Introduction to Turbomachinery with examples Wind turbine aerodynamics History of aircraft engines - from Whittle to the current high-bypass engines Revision of Thermodynamics - TD laws, enthalpy, entropy, rhothalpy, gas turbine cycles, etc. Dimensional analysis (Similitude) Basics of axial, radial compressor aerodynamics
Vector diagrams Blade-to-blade, throughow design approach, radial equilibrium equation, 3-D ows Aerodynamic losses Stall and Surge

Turbomachinery design cycle Axial and radial ow turbines Aeromechanics & Aerodynamic Noise
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Appendix

For Further Reading

Reference material I
HIH Sarvanamuttoo, GRC Rogers, H. Cohen. Gas Turbine Theory, 6th edition. Prentice Hall, ISBN-10: 0132224372, 2008. N.A. Cumpsty. Jet Propulsion 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-54144-2 P. Hill and C. Peterson Mechanical and Thermodynamics of Propulsion 2nd edition. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, ISBN 0-201-14659-2 N.A. Cumpsty. Compressor Aerodynamics. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida, 2004. D.G. Wilson The Design of High-Eciency Turbomachinery and Gas Turbines MIT Press, ISBN 0-262-23114-X
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Appendix

For Further Reading

Reference material II

S.L. Dixon Fluid Mechanics, Thermodynamics of Turbomachinery 5th edition Elsevier, ISBN: 0-7506-7870-4 M.O.L. Hansen Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines 2nd edition Earthscan, ISBN: 978-1-84407-438-9 Dont need to buy all the books listed here (quite a few are available on knovel.com for you)

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Turbomachines

What is a turbomachine?
Machine that transfers energy between a rotor and a uid aircraft engines, gas turbines, steam turbines, wind turbines, . . .

compressor: rotor (blade) works on the uid turbine: uid works on the blade combustor: heat (energy) source

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Turbomachines

Cycles

Gas Turbine Cycles


Simple gas turbine: compressor, combustor, turbine + power extraction/jet thrust Turbine drives the compressor + maybe a generator, propeller, fan Two sets of turbines: one drives compressor, the other for work generation (two-shaft arrangement) Simple turbojet: net power used to accelerate air thrust generation by Newtons third law Bypass jet engine: two (sometimes three shaft arrangement); combination of turbojet and turboprop
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Fig: Gas Turbines - Schematic


Anupam Sharma (Iowa State University)

Notes/Summary

Notes/Summary

J35 engine - students asked to nd out how many compressor/turbine stages that machine has. Introductions and ground rules about the lectures Make-up classes (if any) to be held Wed 9:00 10:00 AM (Rm# TBD) Dierence between a compressor blade and a turbine blade (samples shared) Dierent cycles of a gas turbine - turbojet, power generation, turbofan, etc. Emphasis on high-pressure turbine material and cooling technology in advancing turbomachinery state-of-the-art.

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