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Dr.

Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas turbines applications Aircraft Power plants Standby equipment Boat and ship propulsion Gas pipeline compressor drives Railroad (have been used but are not common) Automotive (extensive experimentation in the past) Heavy mobile equipment (experimentation)

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Simplified Air-Flow Turbine Diagram

Major Gas Turbine Components

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

When the turbine starting system is actuated ambient air is drawn through the air inlet plenum assembly by the Compressor through Variable compressor Inlet Guide Vanes (IGVs). The inlet casing is located at the forward end of the gas turbine. Its prime function is to uniformly direct air into the compressor. The inlet casing also supports the No. 1 bearing assembly.

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Basic Turbine Operation

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Comparison of Events in Gas Turbine and Piston Engines

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Axial Flow Design


The axial flow gas turbine is one of the most common gas turbine engine designs. The figure shows the simplified airflow through an axial flow gas turbine. As you can see from the red flow lines, the air flows in a straight or axial path from one end of the gas turbine to the other.

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Axial Flow Design


The purpose of the engine case in an axial flow gas turbine engine is to house and protect internal engine parts. The engine case usually consists of two parts, a top half and a bottom half. This type of construction allows easy access to the internal engine parts.

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Air Inlet System: Purpose


Another main component of a gas turbine engine is the air inlet system. Air is delivered to the gas turbine engine air inlet through the air inlet system. The purpose of the air inlet system is to carry clean, dry air to the compressor with minimum turbulence and energy loss. The outside covering of the air inlet system is called ducting and is usually made of galvanized or stainless steel. The exterior of the ducting and the inlet support structure should be painted to protect them from damage caused by corrosion. Salt air will quickly corrode any unprotected exterior surfaces.
Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Air intake system


The air intake system ensures that clean air is provided to the gas turbine. To achieve this, air filter are installed in the intake to filter the air. The type of air intake system is dependent in the environmental condition encountered at the gas turbine location. Special challenges are posed when a gas turbine is installed on an offshore platform, close to the ocean, in a desert or dusty location, or in an arctic environment. The intake system become more complicated if intake cooling (to increase power at high ambient temperatures) is required, or if icing condition may occur.
Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System
Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Air intake system


A typical intake system is shown in Fig. Note that in this design, the air intake is positioned above the enclosure both to save space and to place the intake in a higher position where the air may be cleaner. The intake is designed to allow the installation of intake cooling and/or anti-icing. The first stage of filtration is a stainless steel screen to prevent entry of major debris. The main filtration is achieved by a series of cylindrical filters mounted inside the air intake. Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Typical Air Intake System (Courtesy General Electric)

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Air intake system Air Filtration


In the past, many filter systems were based on inertial filtering which consisted of a series of vanes that deflected the air to separate the contaminants, using centrifugal force. The current approach is to use many small cylindrical filters such as the ones shown in Fig. In this system, compressed air is used to backflow individual filters and dislodges the dust that has collected on them. These pulse cleaning systems are commonly called huff and puff, and operate automatically, based on pressure differential. They work well in both dusty and cold weather conditions
Pulse Cleaning Filter (Courtesy Donaldson Filters)
Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System
Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Air intake system Inlet Cooling


Inlet cooling systems that decrease the temperature of the inlet air and thereby increase power output have been available for a long time but are now seeing renewed interest. They are based on the principle of evaporative cooling. When water evaporates, it requires a large amount of latent heat, which is provided by the warmer air. The result is a drop in air temperature. Various methods are used today: Spray cooling where air is sprayed into the intake in fine droplets Fog cooling where a very fine fog is produced using a high pressure spray Special evaporative pads

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

A New Gas Turbine Cycle for Economical Power Boosting


(WAC System : Water Atomizing Cooling)

Water Atomizing Cooling


Concept of WAC System: 1) Gas turbine power augmentation with water injection atomized at compressor inlet 2) Injected water fog reduces gas turbine inlet air temperature due to evaporation, which results in air flow rate increase. 3) The rest of water reduces compressor work through evaporating and cooling compressor internal air. 4) Evaporated water can increase turbine work due to the same principles of steam injection into combustor.

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Water Atomizing Cooling


WAC System Schematic
Atomizing Air Fuel

Compressor

Turbine

HRB

Spray Nozzle Inlet Duct

Feed Water (Demineralized)


Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System
Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Water Atomizing Cooling


Benefits of WAC for Gas Turbines 1) Increased Capacity 2) Improved Efficiency 3) Good Application for Peaking Generation 4) More Effective Use of Base Capacity 5) On Demand, on Line Operability 6) Reduced NOx Emission Level and NH3 Consumption 7) Compressor Washing Effect
Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System
Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Water Atomizing Cooling


WAC System Mechanism
Mechanism Compressor Mass Flow Increase Power Increase

Inlet Air Cooling

6%

Compressor Work Compressor Decrease Inter-cooling Turbine Mass Flow Increase Larger Specific Heat Total
Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

2%

Steam Injection

2%

10%
Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Water Atomizing Cooling


Psychometric Chart
Evaporation in Compressor C 100%R.H. 60%R.H.

Specific Humidity (kg/kgDA)

B (Compressor Inlet) A (Ambient Condition)

Evaporation in Inlet Duct 23 30

Equi - Wet Bulb Temperature

Dry Bulb Temperature


Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System
Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Water Atomizing Cooling


Calculated Evaporation Profile in Compressor
100 Total Evaporation Rate (%) 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112131415 1617 IGV Compressor Stage Number Inlet Duct (Axial Position) Atmosphere
Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Machine : F9E Comp.Inlet Temp. : 15 Droplet Size : 10m

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Water Atomizing Cooling


WAC Test Facility (1/2)

Water Fog from Water Spray Nozzles

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Water Atomizing Cooling


Water Atomization Technology for WAC 1) Water droplets must evaporate completely in compressor stages within the residential time of approximately 0.02 seconds. 2) Hitachi has developed new water atomization nozzle which can make water droplets fine enough to meet WAC system requirements.

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Water Atomizing Cooling


Heat Cycle Comparison
Normal Breton cycle Breton cycle with WAC Turbine Work Compressor Work

T (Temperature)

Compressor Work Inlet Air Cooling

Turbine Work

S (Entropy)
Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System
Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Water Atomizing Cooling


Power Increment Characteristics of WAC
Ambient Condition : 30 ,60%R.H. Water Injection Ratio WAC Operation C Normal Operatio n 8 5 0 5 B (3) 2% (2) 2% (1) 6% A 2 3 (Wet Bulb 3 0 (Dry Bulb Temp.) Temp.) Ambient Temperature ( ) : 1% to Air

100 Power (%)

Rated

Power Incremen t

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Water Atomizing Cooling


Heat Recovery Steam Generator No.2&3 Gas Turbine

No.1 Gas Turbine

No.2&3 Steam Turbine Cooling System

WAC Validation Test Plant


Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System
Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Water Atomizing Cooling


WAC Test Facility (1/2)

Water & Air Header


Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System
Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Water Atomizing Cooling


WAC Test Facility (2/2)

Spray Nozzle Header


Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Compressor Inlet
Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Water Atomizing Cooling


Example of WAC Validation Test Results
Test Condition 1) Ambient Condition : 33.9 C, 53%RH 2) Load : 95.4 MW
10 8 6 4 2 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 Water Flow Rate (%) 0.63% (+) 7.7% Thermal Efficiency (% relative) 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 Water Flow Rate (%)
Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Power Increment (%)

(+) 2.1%

0.63%

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Water Atomizing Cooling


Measured transient behavior of GT performance
Water Flow Rate : 105 l / min (0.45%)
653 l / min

Fuel flow

630 l / min 26. 2 353.1 539.4 343.5 536.6

22. 6

TCI TEX

TCD
339.2

106.5MW 102.5MW

107.5M W

Gen. power

15:45
Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

16:00 Water Spray on Water Spray off

16:15
Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Water Atomizing Cooling


Hitachi WAC System Validation 1) WAC system validation test was completed successfully using 130MW simple cycle power station. 2) Test results showed 7.7% power increase at 0.63% water injection. 3) Thermal efficiency was also improved by 2.1% on relative value basis. 4) All GT operating conditions were good during WAC operation.

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Air intake system Anti-Icing Systems

The formation of ice in the air intake or on the first few stages of the compressor can occur if a combination of temperature and humidity takes place (see Fig). If chunks of ice are ingested into the compressor, major damage can result including catastrophic destruction of the compressor section balding.

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Air intake system


Anti-Icing Systems
Anti-icing systems may operate by: Bleeding air from the compressor and injecting it into the front of the compressor through the nose cone and the first few stator vanes Installing heating coils in the air intake Feeding heated air from some other source (such as the exhaust) into the air intake Introducing warm air into the gas turbine intake will reduce the capacity of the unit, because warm air is less dense than cold air. The increase in air temperature means less mass will flow through the turbine. Because of this, anti-icing systems are activated only when icing conditions are present.

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Air intake system


Anti-Icing Systems

Anti-Icing System (Courtesy Rolls Royce)


Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System
Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Air Inlet System: Main Assemblies

The air inlet system controls the air quality and directs a steady flow of air to the compressor air inlet. The amount and quality of air affects engine performance and reliability. The air inlet system has two main assemblies: filter assembly inlet ducting assembly

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Filter Assembly

The first component of the air inlet system is the filter assembly. The filter assembly consists of the following parts: weather louvers inlet screens filters ( Contd. )

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Filter Assembly
The filter assembly separates moisture and particles such as dirt, dust, and insects from the inlet air. This prevents contamination and foreign object damage to the compressor. Weather Louvers, Screens, & Filters The purpose of the weather louvers is to prevent direct rainfall from entering the air inlet system. Inlet screens, usually constructed of wire mesh, are designed to prevent large items and other contaminants from entering the compressor inlet. The inlet screens are located behind the weather louvers. Filters trap small particles of dust, dirt, and other contaminants to prevent them from entering the compressor section. Filters are constructed of materials which meet the specific operating and climatic conditions of the gas turbine location.

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Air Inlet System: Main Assemblies

The air inlet system controls the air quality and directs a steady flow of air to the compressor air inlet. The amount and quality of air affects engine performance and reliability. The air inlet system has two main assemblies: filter assembly inlet ducting assembly

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Air Filtering

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Inlet Ducting Assembly


The second main assembly in the air inlet system is the inlet ducting assembly which consists of the following parts: bypass door(s) inlet silencer trash screens air plenum

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Bypass Doors
Some air inlet systems have bypass doors located just downstream of the air filters. The purpose of the bypass doors is to protect the air inlet from excessive differential pressure. High differential pressure is usually caused by excessively dirty air inlet filters or some other abnormal blockage of the air inlet system restricting airflow through the filter. ( Contd. )
Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System
Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Bypass Doors
Anytime the bypass doors are open during gas turbine operation, the engine is unprotected and is operating with unfiltered air. Operating under these conditions reduces engine reliability and operating life. Operators should take immediate action to determine why the bypass doors are open and take corrective action.

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Silencers
The inlet silencer is a baffle arrangement intended to quiet the noise vibration of the compressor blading.

Silencers are usually installed in both the air inlet system and the exhaust section of the gas turbine to reduce operating noise. Silencing is accomplished by baffles covered with sound-absorbing material. In some air inlet ducts, the interior walls of the ducting and air plenum chambers are also lined with this sound-absorbing material. ( Contd. )
Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System
Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Silencers
Gas turbine operating noise is harmful to the human ear. Silencers help but do not totally eliminate gas turbine noise. If you work near a gas turbine that is operating, you should wear ear protection to avoid hearing loss.
Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System
Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Trash Screens
The trash screens are the next component in the inlet ducting assembly. Trash screens prevent foreign objects from entering the compressor inlet. Trash screens are installed downstream in the ducting before the compressor inlet. Cont. )

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Trash Screens

Access doors are provided to allow cleaning and servicing of the trash screens. Trash screens are constructed of stainless steel and should not require maintenance other than periodic cleaning and inspection.

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Air Plenum
The final component in the duct assembly is the air plenum. The purpose of the air plenum is to provide equal distribution of ducted air to the compressor inlet. The air plenum is located just forward of the compressor inlet. One of the most common types of compressor inlets is the bellmouth inlet.
Air Plenum

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Bellmouth Compressor Inlet


The bellmouth inlet is a bell-shaped funnel with rounded shoulders that reduce air resistance. A bellmouth inlet is designed to direct the outside air to the inlet guide vanes of the compressor. In some gas turbines, the inlets are fitted with protective screens to prevent foreign objects from entering the compressor.

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine- Air Inlet System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar