MANUAL OF PRACTICALS

FOR

GENERAL LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT (LPM-111)
FOR

B.V.Sc.&A.H. PROGRAMMES (VCI Regulations)
BY
Dr. P.K. Dogra Associate Professor Dr. (Mrs.) Saroj Bala Assistant Professor Dr. Y.P. Thakur Associate Professor

DEPARTMENT OF LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT COLLEGE OF VETERINARY AND ANIMAL SCIENCES C.S.K. HIMACHAL PRADESH KRISHI VISHVAVIDYALAYA PALAMPUR- 176062 (H. P.)

TABLE OF CONTENTS Sr. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Name of the exercise Page number 1-3 4-6 7-13 14-16 17-23 24-28 29-31 32-33 34-35 36-37 38-40 41-42 43-44 45-46 47-48 49-53 54-55 56-61 62-64 Signature of Instructor

A visit to the Livestock Farm, identification of various breeds and familiarizing with various farm routines. Approaching and handling of farm animals. Familiarizing with body points/parts of different domesticated animals. Identification of animals by branding, tattooing, notching and tagging. Methods of restraining and casting of animals. Determination of age of farm animals. Washing, grooming and exercising of animals. Dipping and spraying of animals. Clipping and shearing of animals. Recording body temperature, pulse rate and respiration . Weighing of farm animals, estimation of body weight by formulae and their correspondence or discrepancy. Management of animals during transportation. Preparation of animals for show. Milking of dairy animals. Training of breeding males. Methods of administration of medicines. Different types of bandages and bandaging of horses. Administering first aid to animals. Appendix

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GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS TO THE STUDENTS 1. Be regular and punctual. 2. Bring the practical manual, notebook, apron, pencil, rubber, pen, scale and any other article as specifically directed by the teacher. 3. Go through the exercise in advance and also consult the reference before the class. 4. Clarify the doubts as and when they arise. 5. Practice the exercise after the demonstration, until you have become quite proficient. 6. Record your observations in the space provided. 7. Complete the practical notebook towards the end of the class and get the signatures of the instructor. 8. Do not make noise when you are at the farm for the practical class. 9. Do not chase the animals and observe the rules for approaching the animals. 10. Dip your feet in the footbath provided, while entering the class. 11. Leave the class only after getting the permission from the instructor.

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K. students.Dogra.HIMACHAL PRADEH KRISHI VISHVAVIDYALAYA PALAMPUR . The manual has been designed to provide scientific knowledge of the subject and to encourage the students to think of Animal Management as a practical subject.COLLEGE OF VETERINARY & ANIMAL SCIENCES C.176 062 (HP) Prof. This manual covers the entire course contents set out by the Veterinary Council of India for the subject of Livestock Production and Management (Course No.Thakur. I congratulate the authors for the efforts put in by them in bringing out this manual in the present form.H. P.Katoch ) 4 . & A. The language used is very simple which the students can easily understand.P. B.Katoch Dean FOREWORD I am very glad to go through the contents of the Practical Manual entitled “Manual of Practicals for General Livestock Management (LPM-111)” which is a very good attempt of its kind by Drs.V.K. Saroj Bala and Y. LPM-111) for 1st year B.S.S. I hope this manual will find its own place in the libraries of Agricultural Universities in the near future. ( B.Sc.S.

To encourage operational research and teaching of Animal Science and to encourage the adoption of improved management practices by the farmers of the state. identification of various breeds and familiarizing with various farm routines. Crossbreeding programme using genetically superior Jersey stock from New Zealand. Observations 1. Procedure: The students would be taken to the different sections of the dairy farm and would be explained the history & day to day working of the farm. 5. Augmentation of income of hill farmers alongwith the nutritional level of the people by improving milk production through crossbreeding of Jersey blood into local indigenous cattle. Total no. ii) Familiarization with various farm routines. 2. of calf pens 5 . 1975. This nucleus herd consisted of 64 pregnant heifers. 3. The main objectives of the project were: 1. 2. 3. of sheds Total no. History of the farm: The present Livestock Farm was established as component of "Indo New Zealand Livestock Improvement Project" (INLIP) with the arrival of a nucleus Jersey herd during March. To test the profitability and credit-worthiness of the project with a view to eliciting the support of nationalized banks. Breeds of cattle maintained at the farm. 4.EXERCISE .I Title: A visit to the Livestock Farm. Type of housing system being followed. 111 weaners and 5 quality proven bulls. Area under dairy farm a) Roads & buildings b) Farm i) Under cultivation ii) Under grassland 4. Objectives: i) Identification of various breeds of cattle and other domesticated species maintained at the farm.

14. of adult cows ( dry & pregnant. Quantity harvested (qt) 11.6. of lactating cows Total no. of silo pits Main feed ingredients used in the concentrate ration 9. Fodder crops grown at the farm 7. Total milk production (lit) Total herd strength Total no. 15. v) Drivers vi) Electrician vii) Regular beldars viii) Daily paid workers Fodder Production: Name of the Fodder 10. Man power at the farm i) Scientists ii) Office Staff iii) Veterinary Pharmacists iv) Technical/Field Assistants. 13. 14. 15. 8. 12. -------------------) 6 . heifers) Wet average Herd average Highest milk yield (lit) (Animal No. No.

30 . 7 . 2. Do not make noise while visiting the farm.00 AM 8.30 AM 10. vaccination.5. Milking cows at the rate of one milker per 12 cows. treatment of minor diseases. are also carried out time to time. Workers assigned their duties.2.00 AM 6. 2.1.00 PM Note: Other miscellaneous farm routines such as disinfection.00-10. chaffing and providing fodder to all the animals. washing. 12.30-6.30-4. A. Segregation of sick animals.FARM ROUTINES 3. Distribution of milk. Cleaning of all the sheds.30 PM Treatment of sick animals.I. Supply of remaining quota of concentrate mixture. Dip your feet in the footbath while entering the cowsheds.30 PM Lunch break Marking. 3.00 AM Bringing the cows from paddocks to milking barn and cleaning of cows in milk. and disposal of carcass.30 AM 5. dehorning. of the cows in heat.00-8. feeding milk to weaners.30 . Supply of half the amount of concentrate mixture prior to milking.30 . Harvesting. Feeding concentrate mixture to all cows (dry and pregnant) Entries in the record books. Disposal of milk and cleaning of barn. Do not chase the animals. Cleaning of cows and milking.30 PM 1.00-5. Feeding milk to weaners. Supply of green fodder. 4. grooming. isolation. Precautions 1. deworming etc. preparation of concentrate mixture etc. Milkers come on duty.30 AM-12.

2. while handling them. 2. Speak few words. Always approach from the left side. Be careful and don't be nervous. aids in handling furious animals. The animal should not know that you are afraid of him. First of all speak some kind words to the animal and then scratch its back and dewlap. The use of food as bait. approach from front side. Never approach from the backside until one of the fore legs is raised by some attendant. bull leader. 3. The following points must be taken into account while approaching and handling different species of farm animals: CATTLE 1. Moreover. Never carry any stick because it frightens the animal. In order to remove the animal’s fear. Cattle prefer to be handled by the same person as per routine. 8 . General principles of handling Animals vary in their behaviour and temperament and the pattern of behaviour of a particular species has to be considered while approaching and handling them.the side on which it is generally milked. use of drugs and certain equipments etc. 6. 5. 3.2 Title : Approaching and handling of farm animals. 4. HORSE 1. 5. firmness and confidence in one's ability to handle animals are the most essential qualities required of an animal handler. pat the animal and groom its head & neck. Before approaching and handling. 4. it is useful to know the temperament and other peculiarities of the animal from its attendant. gentleness.EXERCISE . Remember that cattle can kick both sideways and backwards and be careful of horns. Always approach the cow from left side . Take the help of equipments like bull holder. a kind spoken word or a hand pat is required. Put some green grass or concentrate in front of the animal before approaching. So let the owner remain with you while handling the animals. bull nose rings etc. Objectives : To acquaint the students with various methods of approaching and handling of different species of farm animals. Bulls should never be trusted.

the other fingers should slightly spread apart for support to its body. 3. Sudden change of mind without apparent or adequate notice is very common with goats. 2. 9 . Piglets can be caught by their hind limbs. So it is a golden rule to always face sheep and goats. the thumb and third finger encircling them. The females of the species are generally docile while males are aggressive. These animals seldom attack a person who is facing them.SHEEP and GOAT 1. FOWL 1. PIG 1. Birds are generally docile and easy to manage. Pick up the bird with both hands to keep wings close to the body and held under one of the arms so as to prevent fluttering. A sense of humor and patience are the requisite qualities of the handler and excitement in any case must be avoided. In ducks and geese. For this. pig-rings etc. the moment a person turns his back. 5. Various devices like pig catcher. they may attack and butt him. the weapon of offence is beak and claws. must be used while handling them. The other hand should be placed across the back to hold down the wings. 3. as they are very temperamental. Pigs should never be held by their tail as it can be uprooted very easily. Approach the animals carefully. 4. 4. 4. 2. 2. They may be held on the palm also. 3. So it is advisable to wear long leather gloves covering the wrist. thus could be easily managed even by ladies and children. Hens are usually docile but cocks may attack with the beak and with spur. pass the fore finger between legs.

so do not approach them suddenly. 10 . Let the hind quarter of the animal rest on one palm of your second hand. Approach the animal quietly and place your hand over its body for some time.RABBIT 1. Rabbits gets excited very quickly. 4. 3. 2. keeping it as close to your body as you can. Hold the rabbit from the loose skin of the neck around base of the ears with one hand.

trunk. Nostrils: Two natural openings for breathing. starting from poll. CATTLE HEAD 1. 9. 13. Temporal fossa: Depression between the base of the horn and outer angle of the eye. Eyes: An organ of sight. Fore head: From the poll down to the level of the eyes. 12. Throat: The upper part of the esophagus just behind the jowl. 15. Dewlap: A pendulous fold of the skin hanging down the lower part of the neck.3 Title : Familiarizing with body points/parts of different domesticated animals. 16. 11. 18. and THIRD EYELID (less developed). which is generally hair-less and black in colour.EXERCISE . Apex of neck: Attachment of the neck to the head. situated just behind and below the horns. Muzzle: The lower part including nostrils. Bridge of nose: Area of nasal bone. 22. 8. 3. 11 . Base of the neck: The place where neck joins the body. Crest: Upper ridge of the neck. inner canthus and outer canthus. Face: From the level of the eyes downward to the nostrils. Jaw: Upper jaw is formed by maxilla and premaxilla. NECK 17. 2. Poll: The part immediately between and behind the horns.head. mouth and a chin. Muffle: Area between the nostrils. Jugular groove: Running down the lower part on each side of the neck from the angle of the jaw to just infront of the shoulder. fore limbs and hind limbs. 21. Horns: Paired bony processes that emerge from either side of the poll. (Canthus is an angle formed by both lids on either end of the eye). 14. 10. and lower jaw by mandible bone. 6. Hollow of the neck: Hollow area at the base of the neck. the body of the animal can be divided into five major parts. 19. UPPER EYELID. Cheeks: Area of masseter muscle. Ears: The organ of hearing. the side of the face below the eye and above and to the side of the mouth. Observations: For the study of the points of the body. Procedure: The students would be explained various external parts of the body (points of the body) of cattle and their comparative names in other species. Facial crest: Ridge of bone on the face below the eyes on either side. Objectives: To acquaint the students with the names of various external parts of the body of different domesticated animals. neck. 7. 4. Jowl: Space between the branches of the lower jaw. 20. 5. LOWER EYELID. It includes EYEBALL.

46. 29. POINTS PRESENT ONLY IN MALES 41. 49. Switch of tail: Tuft of hair at the end of the tail. Penis: The male organ of copulation. Elbow joint: Formed by the dorsal end of humerus and proximal end of radius and ulna. Udder: Mammary gland. Fore Arm: Region of radius and ulna between elbow and knee joint. Sheath (Prepuce): Flap of skin in the abdominal region. POINTS PRESENT ONLY IN FEMALES 45. which lie in the scrotum. 34. Loin: The part of the body lying on each side of the spinal column between the hip bone and last rib. belly and flank. Shoulder joint: The joint formed between the scapula and upper end of the humerus. FORE LIMB 52. it is just behind the point of elbow. 40. Belly (Abdomen): The area behind chest carrying alimentary canal and other organs. 38. Vulva: External opening of the female genital organs situated below the anus. Scrotum: Pouch of skin in which the testicles are lodged. 27. 54. Breast: Lower part of the neck where it joins the body. 42. Girth: Circumference around the chest. Flank: Hollow area between the ribs and hip or hook bone. point of rump is the highest point formed by the sacral tuber. 51. 37. 30. 47. Rump: Region of sacrum. 28. 12 . 50. 43. Dock: The part of the body of animals adjacent to the base of the tail.TRUNK (BODY) 23. Anus: The posterior opening of alimentary canal under the root of the tail. 31. Barrel: Comprises belly and flank. Brisket: The part of the lower chest of the animal between the two fore legs. the anterior part is called the fore udder and posterior as rear udder. Teats: Through which the milk is drawn. 25. 32. Fold of flank: The flap of the skin on its lower border. 24. 36. Escutcheon: A triangular pinkish area below the vulva extending on both sides upto pin bones. Testicles: Male generative glands. 26. 48. Back: Just behind the withers to the head of the last rib. Arm: The region of massive muscle lying over the humerus. 39. 33. Tail: The posterior extremity of an animal. Withers: Just behind the hump. Chest: Ribs springing from the backbone above and attached to the breastbone below. 55. 53. Body: Comprises the chest. Hump: Fleshy protuberance on the top or shoulder of the animal. 35. Milk well: The place from where the milk veins enters into the abdominal wall. 44. (region of lumber vertebrae). Naval flap: Loose skin below the abdomen. Milk vein: Veins on the udder. It includes the point of shoulder and shoulder blade.

68. carpal bones and metacarpal bones. 64. 3. Cleft of the hoof: Space between the two claws. Thigh: Region of femur bone. tarsal bones and metatarsal bones. Pin bones: The projection of the quarter just below the root of the tail. 67. 62. Each claw is having a HORNY WALL. Dew claws: Two horny callosities behind the fetlock joint. 58. SOLE. Fetlock joint: Joint formed by the lower end of the metacarpal bone and the first phalanx with its sessamoides. except hind cannon for fore cannon. 13 . patella and tibia. 75. which runs from the hip joint to the stifle joint.56. 61. Hindquarter: Region bounded by rump and dock. BUFFALO 1. about ½ inch deep. Pastern: The region below fetlock and above coronet. SHEEP The points peculiar to sheep are: 1. Hoof: The outer horny covering of the foot. 73. Axilla: The cavity beneath the junction of the arm (region inside the elbow). 66. The lining of this pouch has glands which produces a waxy secretion. Stifle joint: The joint formed by femur. shin or fore cannon: Portion of the limb below knee joint to fetlock joint. which on drying forms a yellow sticky covering on the skin. 59. 71. 60. Buttocks: The mass of muscles lying on either side of anus and extending downwards to the level of stifle to behind and flank in front. Hamstring: The strong tendon running from the muscles of the back of the thigh to the point of hock. 57. Rest points are same as in cattle. 70. Thurl (Hip joint): Midway between hook bones and pin bones (formed by ischiatic tuber). Lachrymal pouch: A pouch situated below the inner canthus of the eye. Shank. Brisket is more developed in buffaloes as compared to cattle. HIND LIMB 65. 74. 72. Note: Below the hock the same terms are used as in the forelimb. Hook bones: Bony prominence formed by the external angle of ileum. 63. Knee-joint: Formed by radius. which is divided into two parts called claws. BULB OF HEEL and HOLLOW OF THE HEEL. Coronet: Region round the top of the hoof. 2. Point of hock: The upper most extremity of hock formed by tuber calcis. Groin: The Inner aspect of thigh. Hump and dewlap are not present in buffaloes. Hock: Joint formed between the tibia. 69.

Chin groove: Depression behind the chin. Tassels: Throat folds found in certain breeds only. The points peculiar to horse are: 1. Horns are generally absent in both sexes. milk vein. Poll: Region lying between the ears. milk well. The points peculiar to goats are: 1. Mane: Long hairs springing from the crest of the neck. dewlap. It produces a similar secretion as that of lachrymal pouch. point of hip (hook bones). 5. Bag: Term applied to the udder of goats. switch of tail. Beard: A bunch of hairs hanging from the chin. naval flap. muffle. dewlap. False nostrils: A blind pouch on the upper angle of nostril. mammary gland (udder). The lining of this pouch is pale and thin having fine colourless hairs. switch of tail. 2. Withers: It is the highest point of the trunk formed by spinous processes of 4th & 5th thoracic vertebrae. 4. 4. found in certain breeds only. Chestnuts: Horny growths situated in the forelimbs above the knee on the inside about a hand’s breadth below the point of hock. 6. 7. 7. dental pad.2. Inter digital pouch: A pouch situated in the inter-digital space. which hangs forward from the poll. The secretion is colourless and waxy in nature. 2. but when present they are found in males. Knob: The ram has an increased growth on the nose just above the nostrils. hump. HORSE The points not found in horse are: Horns. hump. escutcheon. hip joint (thurl). 8. Opening of naso-lacrymal duct: A small hole inside the true nostril. 3. long tail or short tail. inter digital space. Forelock: Tuft of hairs. GOAT The points not found in goat are: Muffle. Tassels: These are two appendages of skin hanging from the throat. point of croup (point of rump). also called as THROAT FOLDS or DODDLES or WATTLES in certain breeds of sheep only. 8. 4. Mammary gland: Only one gland secreting milk with two teats. 6. dewclaws. 5. point of buttock (pin bones). 14 . Scrag: Name given to the crest of the neck. 3. The tail of sheep may have thin tail or fat tail. Mane: Hair springing from the crest of the neck. escutcheon and naval flap. 5. generally seen in male goats of certain breeds only. Gigot: The name applied to the thigh of sheep. 3. The points synonymous to that of cattle are: Croup (Rump). Inguinal pouch: A shallow depression in the inguinal region in both sexes. 9. The points better developed as compared to cattle are: Facial crest and nictitating membrane (third eyelid).

body. WHITE LINE. 9. Nostrils: Two narrow oval openings on the base of the upper part of the beak. It has UPPER EYELID. Mouth: In birds it is characterized by the absence of lips and cheeks. SOLE. 7. 5. Eye: The organ of sight. 8. Sometimes an additional spike is found which is called SPRIG. Feet: The foot of a horse has a solid one hoof consisting of WALL. BARS. behind and around the eyes. FOWL The body of a fowl can be divided into four major parts for the study of its points. Front seat: Area from withers to hump. 8. Stop: It is the well-developed temporal fossa in certain breeds of camel. Face: The area in front of. The beak has BASE OF THE BEAK and APEX (TIP) OF THE BEAK. 6. Comb: The fleshy part on the head. Tongue: It is shaped like an arrow. Back seat: Area from hump to rump. legs and wings. It has SERRATIONS (NOTHES) and SPIKES or POINTS. 4. 2. The lower part of the comb. 3. CAMEL The points peculiar to camel are: 1. INNER and OUTER CANTHUS. Cap: Feathers above the eyes forming a cap. 15 . Stifle-callosity: A callosity at the stifle-joint. EYE BALL and EYE LASHES (replaced by fine feathers). 2. HEAD 1. These are head. which rests on the head. 9. 11. 3. each having two orifices. LOWER EYE LID (better-developed and more movable). Stifle fold: The fold of the flank. Ergot: Horny callosity situated at the back of the fetlock joint. 6. Pedestal: The chest pad in camel. 4. Teats: Four in number. The jaws are replaced by BEAK (UPPER and LOWER) which is a dense horny structure. NICTITATING MEMBRANE (THIRD EYE LID). FROG. Eye ring: The name given to the bony ring at the union of cornea and sclera of the eye ball peculiar to the birds. Pole-glands: Glands in the poll region whose secretions became hyperactive during the breeding season. is called BASE. their margins being guarded by small feathers. Ear: In birds it does not form any external appendage to the head and an opening surrounded by a fringe of feather leads into a canal. The teeth are absent in fowl.10. Knee-callosity: A callosity at the knee-joint. 7. 10. The back loose part of the comb is called BLADE. CLEFT OF FROG (central and lateral) and BULB OF HEEL. 5. Ear lobe or Deaf ear: A colourless and featherless fold of skin attached on either side of the head below ears. which is a colourless and featherless body.

Sometimes one or two pairs falling below are termed LESSER SICKLES. Hock: Joint between the thigh and the shank. urinary and genital systems. Web of the foot: The skin in between the toes of the fowl. Cape: The bottom of the neck hackles. 39. featherless fleshy fold of skin hanging below the beak. Shank: Formed by metatarsal bone and is covered by the scales. 27. Fluff: The fine under coat feathers covering abdomen and upper part between pubic bones and legs. Wattles: Two fleshy coloured. 26.11. 20. 12. Tail coverts or Hangers: The soft covered sickles like feathers at the base of the cock’s tail. Saddle: The part behind the back reaching upto the tail (corresponding to CUSHION in female fowl). Abdomen: The part beneath the vent and down to the loose end of breast bone. Neck hackles: The feathers around the neck. Vent: The opening of the cloaca. Keel: The posterior end of the breast bone 30. Throat: The area between the wattles. Sickles: The top pair of curved feathers on a cock’s tail. Oil gland: Under the tail in the muscles in which the feathers are attached. 41. BODY 15. Beard: Bunch of feathers beneath the throat found in certain breeds. Main tail feathers: Stiff and straight feathers. Scale: The name given to the horny covering of the shank and toes. Pads: The cushions on the planter side of the toes for absorption of the shock. 24. 18. 23. 22. which droop from the saddle of the cock (CUSHION FAETHERS in female). Spur: Bony protuberance on the inside of the cock’s shank not developed in female fowl. Crest: A tuft of feathers on the head of fowl in certain breeds. Saddle hackles: The long slender feathers. 29. LEGS 34. 21. 33. Breast: The parts of the body from the point of breast bone upto the throat. Toes: Four in number and formed by phalanges having TOE NAILS on their ends. Back: The area of the thoracic vertebrae. 17. 16. Pubic bones: The bones projecting backwards below the vent and can be felt easily. 38. 25. 13. which is common for the digestive. 35. 32. 36. 37. 19. 40. 31. Thigh: Formed by the bulge of gastrocnemius muscle on tibia. 28. glands are situated which secret oily secretion used by the birds occasionally to dress up its feathers for giving a glossy appearance. Brisket: Region between the legs. Cloaca: The last tubular structure of the large intestine opening on the exterior. Chest: The area surrounded by the ribs and covered by wings. Sometimes the two top ones are slightly curved. Parson’s nose: The portion of the body to which tail is fixed at the end of the body. 14. 16 .

which is round. Coverts: Covered. Wing coverts: These are the broad feathers covering the roots of secondary feathers. Hackles: These are narrow lance shaped feathers on the neck of fowl and the saddle of a cock. 4. The upper end is called SHOULDER BUTT and the lower end as LOWER BUTT. four sided. 45. 7. soft fur or down-feathery stuff given off by blanket. 48. tapering and elastic with a longitudinal groove running along that surface which looks towards the body when the feather is in position. Wing butts: The end or corners of the wing. 2. Accessory Plume: It is small variable tuft found in mature feathers at the junction of quill and vane. 47. Wing bar: Any dark line of colour or marking across the middle of the wing caused by lower wing coverts. 44.WING 42. Wing way: The three cornered part of the folded wing above the bar. transparent and hollow. neck hackles. POINTS OF A FEATHER 1. The vane consists of two rows of narrow slender lamellae or barbs springing from the axis of the vane (shaft) and sloping obliquely outwards and towards the tip of the feather. 17 . Fluff: The downy part of the feather. concealed or secret feathers on the wings and tail. They have fine hooklets. 5. a short feather situated in between primaries and secondaries. 4. 6. 46. Quill: Lower part of the axis. SECONDARIES. Axis: A typical feather consists of a straight structure called AXIS to which other parts called VANE is systematically arranged. Barbules: It is a part of the barb. and AXIAL. which hook on to the BARBICEL the growth on the opposite side of barbules on the barbs of the proximal row. saddle hackle. Definition and classification of feather: 1. Shaft: The term applied to the axis other than quill to which vane is attached. Plumage: The whole feathers of a bird. 43. which looks towards the tip of the feather. Flight feathers: They consists of PRIMARIES. 6. It is solid. 3. All cocks have pointed hackles e.g. the second lot of stiff feathers from the outside of the wing which are fourteen in number in an average fowl and nearer to the body. Shoulder: The region where wings join with body. 3. which grow from that side of barb. Wing: The organ of flight. Hangers: The short sickle like feathers at the base of the cock’s tail also termed coverts. the first ten big feathers in a fowl wing. 5. Barbs: These are narrow slender lamellae springing from the vane and sloping obliquely outwards and the tip of the feather. Feather: These are epidermic structures partly embedded in follicles of the skin and forming the covering of a bird. Down: Initial hairy covering of the baby chicks. 2.

4. issuing a certificate etc. health coverage & management. Maintenance of different records for proper feeding. cheeks. 2. form a dry scab that heals within a week and thus leaves a permanent and easily visible marking on the skin. shoulder. Secure the animal and clip the area to be branded. cannot be lost by normal wear & tear of the skin and can be read from a distance. Shake the branding solution and pour in a shallow enamel. 3. BRANDING It involves making a permanent impression into the skin of the animal by the application of hot iron or with some chemicals. Sites for branding: Upper aspect of the hind quarter. press gently and then remove it. on the area to be branded and do not disturb the animal for some time. 18 . The branding solution penetrates the layers of the skin. METHODS OF IDENTIFICATION 1. notching & tagging. Purpose 1. neck. insurance. Dip the branding number in this solution just to fill the grooves. Press the no. tattooing.EXERCISE . Clip the area to be branded. Objectives: To demonstrate the students various methods of identification of different species of animals. 3. 2. It is pre-requisite for registration of purebred animals. 5. Place the branding no. on fire & let it be dull red. 5. 2. b) Cold Branding 1. Procedure a) Hot Branding 1. This results in the partial burning of the tissues and produces a permanent mark. 4. Secure the animal properly. trunk. But these markings reduce the value of the hide to certain extent. fore arm and hind limb below the level of stifle joint. Place this iron on the area to be branded. difficult to efface.4 Title : Identification of animals by branding. Apply some antiseptic cream on the burn. Such markings are quite distinct.

punching pliers or special notching instrument on the specified portions of the ears. 4. Puncture the area to be tattooed by applying a little pressure. 2. upper border.2. a notch on the tip of the ear. 5. Procedure 1. 50 & 1000 respectively. Arrange the desired combination of letters on the tattooing forceps. clean and clip the area to be tattooed. Combinations of letters can be used for proper identification. It is done generally in calves. sheep and goats. Let the wound heal which will leave a permanent mark. Procedure 1. NOTCHING Notching means cutting. lower border and a hole at the center will represent 10. under surface of the base of tail. But these tattooed figures are not easily readable from a distance and fades out in due course of time. TATTOOING It consists of imprinting numbers of letters into the skin with the help of a tattooing forceps designed specially for the purpose. 30. so that the numbers gets stamped.g. Secure the animal properly. TAGGING Tags are metal/plastic pieces with letter or numbers engraved/marked on them. 3. gums. Secure the animal. 3 & 5 respectively and a hole in the center of the same ear will stand for 100. The notches are made on the specified portions of the ears and with them it is easy to identify the animals from a distance. Similarly. slicing or puncturing the ear of an animal. Make notches or hole with the help of a knife. They are liable to be torn off & could be read on close examination only. Be careful not to puncture the veins. notches on the right ear at the tip. A key to the numbering system adopted at the farm should be kept for ready reference e. Rub the stain thoroughly on the puncture. These have pointed inter locking ends. Sites for tattooing: Inner side of the ears. 4. The process of notching some what disfigures the ears. 3. 19 . 2. upper border and lower border of the left ear will represent 1. Each notch represents a number according to its location in the ear. inside of the thigh in sheep.

Procedure 1. Electronics tags B. Sometimes in cattle or sheep they are tied around the neck with a strap. 5.Sites for tagging In sheep. In poultry a light metal tag bearing a number is inserted through a small slit made in the fold of the skin on the front edge of the wing. 5. 3. Apply some spirit on the wound. 2. Photographs D. OTHER METHODS A. Sterilize the piercing end of the tag and ear of the animal with a spirit swab. Karyotyping 20 . Secure the animal properly. Catch hold the ear and boldly pierce the tag with a sudden force. goats. Place the tag in the proper position on the piercing instrument. calves. cattle & rabbits they are applied to the ears with special tools. Leg banding is also another form of tagging common in poultry. 4. Muzzle printing C.

the rope is secured by knots or hitches. 4. major surgical operation etc. Square knot Slip knot Bowline knot Clove hitch Quick release knot APPLIANCES USED FOR THE RESTRAINT OF ANIMALS 1. wire or rope and are fitted around the muzzle of the animal. It is made from a rope of about one inch diameter and is used to restrain the animal.5 to 3 inches in diameter. A bight is formed after doubling the rope and a loop after a complete circle. While restraining. These are generally made of non-rusting materials like aluminum or some other alloys and are used in the restraint of bulls. These are applied below the lower extremity of the septum nasi about 5 inch back from the nostrils. 2. A knot is an inter-twinning or tying together the pieces of a rope or ropes. to prevent calves from suckling their mothers and to prevent dogs from biting while in transit during transportation. First of all one should be familiar with the handling of a rope. 6. while casting means throwing of animals on the ground. Halter: It is a piece of rope specially made up into a particular shape to adjust on the head of the animal. 7. Animal are controlled or restrained for a variety of reasons such as dehorning. 3.5 Title: Methods of restraining and casting of animals. hook or a fixed object.EXERCISE . 4. as it may tear through the nasal tissues. while handling. 21 . shoeing. Muzzles: These are made of either leather. Various type of knots or hitches in common use are as follows: 1. Overhand knot Surgeon's knot Granny's knot Half hitch a) Single half hitch b) Double half hitch 2. Restraining of animals means controlling the movements. Bull Nose Rings: These rings are of different sizes starting from 1. for fasting. tearing of clothes and licking wall.a short piece and the standing part .a large piece. castration. It can be made from an ordinary bandage or cord. biting. 8. The parts of a rope are the end . They are used to prevent the animal from eating their bedding and dung. Tape Muzzle: It is used to secure dogs from biting a person. whereas a hitch is temporary fastening of a rope to a post. Too much force should not be applied on these rings. Objectives: To teach the students different methods of restraining. trimming of hooves. 5. 3. casting of animals. 9. The other uses are to prevent the animals from eating green herbage while working in the fields.

so that they will be evenly spaced about 2 inch apart at one end and 3 inch at the other. one inch in diameter and having a hole at both ends. Cradle neck: It consists of 10-12 pieces of wood about 2 inch long with blunt ends. It is. 10. 6. 7. Dog . joined together with a chain and are fitted to the tendo-achilis and used to prevent kicking while milking. which is fixed in the bull nose ring for leading the bull. For cattle. The wider part of the cradle so formed is fitted at the base of the neck and the other around the throat. Bull nose puncher: It is used to make a hole in the septum nasi for bullrings.5. cord rope twitch is used in the upperlip.e. Pig rings: These are exactly of the same pattern as that of bull nose rings and are applied either in the septum nasi or the side of the middle lines. tied around the neck of the animal at the crest.catcher: It is an appliance used in securing vicious dogs from a little distance. Bull leader or bull poles: It is a pole having chain or winch. It may be either point and socket type or just a puncture. one on each side of the snout. through a hole. The cradle prevents the bilateral movements of the animal’s head (i. to be applied on the septum nasi of the animal. They are threaded along two ropes with the ropes knotted between them. simplest and most commonly used appliances for the restraint of horses. Anti cow kicker: It consists of two metal spring-clips. but can be applied on the lower lip and ears. 12. Pig-catcher: It is used for securing pigs. Pig snout puncher: It resembles bull puncher and is used for making hole in the pig snout for ringing. 22 . Speed and accuracy are necessary for catching the pigs and strength is required for holding them. thus. It is generally applied on the upper lip. It works on the principle of pressure application to the sensory nerve and the pain produced diverts the attention of the animal. turning and lowering of his neck) and thus is useful in keeping him away from licking a wound on his body or legs. Anti suckling shield (Milk suckling preventor): It is an aluminum disc with arrangement of screws. but it prevents the cow from sucking its own teats and calves suckling their mothers.Twitch: It is a strong. These are useful in preventing pigs from disturbing its bedding. 13. 11. It is one of the oldest. while less painful work is done else where on his body. wooden stick to one side of which is attached a rope loop. Its application does not interfere in the feeding of animals. stout. 8. 14. 9.

23 . 4. Apparatus used in casting should be thoroughly inspected and the persons/ attendants should be fully instructed with regard to their duties during the casting. specially large animals having voluminous stomach. grassy or sandy without stones. Apply stable bandages on all four legs of the horse to prevent accidental bruises from ropes. 7. Commonly used gags for cattle are Houseman's gas (American gag). it must be removed before the horse is actually pulled over.In addition to these appliances. If it is hard then straw bedding free from thorns. At least 4 persons are required for casting cattle. For casting cattle. before casting. 8m in diameter would be sufficient. b) Nose lead: It is applied at the nose of the animal and then rope is pulled and tied to a pole if required. while for small animals. which is liable to rapture during casting if it is distended. soft. Probang gag (Wooden gag). nails etc should be used. RESTRAINING OF CATTLE I. 5. The ground should be level. buffalo and 7 for horses. If twitch is applied to control the horse during application of hobbles. The operator should stand to one side to avoid kicking. 3. an area 2 ½ of that size is required. Precautions to be taken before casting: 1. Animal should preferably be kept off feed 12 hrs. Animal should not be casted for longer duration as they are likely to develop tympany. 9. Valuable horses may have kneecaps and hock boots put on. They divert the attention of the animal 2. and the tail is raised upwards without causing any injury. a circular area of approx. Spring gag for dogs and Linton's gag for sheep are also used for the same purpose. Use of narcotics and tranquilizers obviates the risk involved in casting. Similarly. pebbles etc. and Drink water's gag. 8. various types of mouth gags or mouth speculums are also used to open the jaws and keep them apart. while examining the animal’s mouth. Methods for diverting animals attention: due to shifting of pain. 6. a) Tail restraint: Both hands are kept close to the base of the tail. buffalo and horses.

Special methods of restraint a) Temporary rope halter: A loop is fastened with a bowline knot and is placed around the animal’s neck. IV. b) Dehorning restraint/restraint for I/V injections: A temporary rope halter is applied and the nosepiece is tied to a fixed object on pole. III. b) Raising a hind limb: It can also be raised manually. The same loop is further passed around the neck of the animal so as to pass it over the pole again. the end of the rope is passed under the standing part to form a half hitch. In order to use the halter. A loop is formed around the pastern and the other end of the rope is passed over the withers and pulled by an assistant.c) Manual restraint of head: The nasal septum is firmly grasped with the thumb and forefinger of one hand and horn or ear with the other hand. A loop is formed with a rope having an eye at one end and is passed around the pole. The end of the rope is then pulled to apply restraint. It can also be raised with the help of a rope having an eye at one end. Methods to prevent kicking a) Milking restraint: A rope of about one meter long and ½ inch in diameter is used for immobalising the hind legs to prevent kicking while milking. II. In the villages it is very common and called 'Niana'. A bight in the standing part is then passed through the loop and over the nose. The end of the rope is tied to a fixed object or is held by an assistant. d) Ear twitch: A loop is formed around the horns and the rope is carried around the ears. The end of the rope is pulled light so that the rope squeezes the animal. b) Squeeze restraint: A loop is formed around the animals body in front of udder/prepuce with a rope having one eye at one end. the nosepiece is pulled tight. 24 . Method to raise a leg a) Raising forelimb: The leg could be raised manually provided animal is docile and operator is physically strong. At this time the leg is raised and the position of the limb is so adjusted so as to hold its weight on the operator’s leg. c) Restraint for castration: After casting the animal. The leg is grasped at the pastern with left hand and the animals flank is pushed with the operator's shoulder so as to shift the weight of the animal to the other leg. The rope is tied to one leg above the hock and then passed round the other in a figure of '8'. the limbs are secured in such a fashion that the right hind leg is pulled firmly towards the neck casting loops and the left is tied to the fore limb.

The hind and fore limbs are then tied separately. The ends of the rope are carried between the forelimbs and crossed at the sternum. The ends are now passed between the medial surface of the hind legs and pulled to cast the animal. where it is held by an assistant. the tail is pulled inside the leg and is held at the flank region. then it is picked up and brought around the body under the standing part of the rope near the bowline to form a half hitch just behind the shoulder. After casting. b) Rope squeeze method or Reuff's method A loop is made around the animal’s neck or horns using a bowline knot. In a similar fashion the free end of the hind rope is carried forward and under that part of the front rope which lies between the fore legs. The tail is slipped through the hind limbs and is held by an assistant. CASTING A BUFFALO Two ropes of about 5 m long are taken. The two free ends of these ropes are then pulled in opposite direction by two men on each rope.V. With one end of a rope a clove hitch is applied on both forelimbs just above the fetlock. One end is carried up each side of the animals body and the ends are again crossed over the back. after bringing both the forelimbs together. An another half hitch is made by tossing the end of the rope over the animals back infront of the udder or prepuce. The free ends of the rope is thrown over the back to the opposite side. The head is held firmly and the hind and fore legs are tied separately to avoid any pressure on the thorax and injury to the leg. then over it and then forwarded to the outside of the left fore-leg. first under it. One end of the rope is taken over each side of the neck and tied at the nape. With the second rope a similar half hitch is applied to the hind limbs around the hind cannon just above the fetlocks. The rope is pulled to force the animal to lie down. 25 . the calf is then casted down to the ground. The free end of the front rope is then passed back to that part of the hind rope which lies between the hind legs. RESTRAINING A CALF The operator passes one hand over the neck and the other on the front side of the hind leg. The animal is supported with hands on the side to which the animal is expected to fall to prevent injury. then over it and back to the outside of the left hind leg. The hind limbs are tied by passing the rope over them. The limbs are then tied together. Casting restraint a) Burley method or Alternate method A 12-15 m long rope is doubled and its center is placed over the withers of the animal. thereby drawing all the feet together. Both the ends of the rope are pulled from medial side of corresponding legs and then taken between the front legs.

c) Halters: It is the simplest method of restraint and can be of a temporary or permanent type. The limb is held at the pastern and then raised. b) Hobbles: A hobble is a band of leather or a woven cord. is applied around the shoulder behind brisket region. The pastern is held and raised with the right hand and with the left hand tendo achillis is grasped tightly. On pulling ropes. the horse will lie down. passed through the loop in the neck. using a surgeon's knot. One end of the rope should be pulled in the front direction and that the other end in rear direction. RESTRAINING CATS Cats are restrained by applying a temporary tape muzzle in the same way as that for dogs. In addition one person should hold the tail at the dock region tightly. Then a turn in the rope is taken. The operator stands by the side of the leg as close to the animal as possible. It may have a rope or a metal ring attached to it. The limb is then supported on the medial aspect of the thigh of the operator. the operator should stand near the limb as close as possible. by putting a figure '8' knot. A temporary halter is just like that for cattle and a permanent one is made of leather. f) Casting a horse (Double sideline method) It is an easy and practical way of casting a horse. A 18-20 m cotton rope is doubled and a rope collar. RESTRAINING DOGS Dogs are restrained by applying a temporary tape muzzle. They are applied around the pastern or hock. 26 . d) Raising the forelimbs: The limb is raised for examination of hoof. A loop is made at the center of a 80-cm long bandage. with its face towards the hindquarter of the animal.RESTRAINING A HORSE a) Twitch: It is applied around the ear or upper lip. through which rope is passed. e) Raising hind limb: While raising the hind limb with hand. The loop is slipped over the nose. facing towards the back. The ends of the bandage are brought around the sides of the neck to tie it near the pole. which is applied around the animal’s leg. half way upto the corner of the mouth and is drawn tight. The other end of the rope is passed in the same way on the right side. The left side of the rope is passed medial to the left hind limb around the pastern or passed through the hobbles and is brought forward from behind.

RESTRAINING SHEEP AND GOATS Sheep can be easily restrained than other livestock species. Then keeping his knees against the back to hold the animal down. The animal is then eased down to the ground with his weight against the operator’s legs. The handler remains behind the sheep with the animals back braced against his leg and holds the front legs. RESTRAINING OF PIGS The use of devices like pig catcher or pig holder can be used for simple restraint like I/V injections or dressing of wounds. 27 . The pig holder is designed to slip over the snout and plying action on the snout. The pig catcher’s clamp is applied just above the hock and is kept tight to hold the pig firmly. b) To cast sheep or goat. a) The restraining of adult sheep is done first by sitting the animal on its ramp and then tilting the animal somewhat backwards so that feet cannot touch the ground and the animal is not capable of offering much resistance. so that it falls on the ground gently. the pig is controlled. the operator reaches across the animals back and pulls the diagonal set of legs outwards. the operator presses the head of the animal.

2. the horns grow in size and rings get formed on it. 28 . 2. of rings in the horns. adults. but categorize them into age groups such as very young. smooth & tight skin and soft hair coat. The hooves of older animals are larger in size. The age of the farm animals is estimated by the following methods: A) By general appearance of body 1. different methods of estimating the age of farm animals. Objectives : To teach the students.EXERCISE . The first ring appears at the age of 3 years in zebu cattle. Fixing the price of the animal. Age (in years) = n + 2. thereafter one ring appears every year. yearling. 4.6 Title: Determination of age of farm animals. Hence following formula is useful. where n = no. old etc. 2. Purpose 1. Determining the dose of the drugs according to age. C) By Horns As the age of the animal advances. Selection and purchase of animals. B) By Hooves 1. The hooves of younger animals are relatively smaller in size. Younger animals are small sized having active disposition. Both the methods (A and B) cannot ascertain the actual age of the animals. rough and may not be evenly leveled at sole. Older animals are larger in size having normal look. rough hair coat and loose skin. 3. smooth and evenly leveled at sole. Estimating the age of the animal in the absence of records.

The enamel passes over the surface of the tooth and extends inwards forming a pit. which is embedded in the gums. Permanent teeth These teeth appear at a certain age and remain in the jaws throughout the life of the animal. iii) Neck: the part. For the purpose of estimating the age of the animal. 1. It is distinct in temporary teeth. 1. Temporary teeth Snow white in colour Small in size Have a distinct neck Have a short fang or root Permanent teeth Brownish in colour Large in size Have no distinct neck Have long stout fang Parts of the tooth: A tooth has three parts: i) Crown: The part. 2. Structure of a tooth A tooth consists of outside cement and a layer of very hard enamel. 2. Later on these are pushed out by the growth of the corresponding permanent teeth. ii) Root or fang: the part. 29 . This knowledge helps to acertain the age of the animal and this method is reasonably accurate though by no means always accurate.No. 3. Types of teeth There are two sets of teeth in each species. which appears above the gums. the cheek teeth are examined only when irregularities are present in incisors. feeding and breeding of animals and there are great variations among different species and breeds of the animals. followed by dentine and a dark center called pulp cavity. Temporary or milk teeth These are present at birth and may erupt during early life. which joins crown and fang. preference is given to incisors.D) By dentition Dentition is the study of configuration and confirmation of the teeth with special reference to their periods of eruption through the gums. Difference between temporary and permanent teeth S. The eruption of both temporary and permanent teeth depends upon the method of management. 4.

while below the line the corresponding numbers of teeth present in the lower jaw are mentioned. lateral and corner pairs. 2. lateral and corner pairs. The first three pairs are called pre-molars which are temporary as well as permanent whereas the last three pairs are called molars which are always permanent and never temporary. They may be temporary as well as permanent. In this formula the first figure represents incisors. Classification of teeth: The teeth are classified into 4 categories: 1. Cheek teeth: These are situated on each side of the mouth. 3. but sometimes found in females as rudimentary. ---) = 20 4 0 3 0 0 0 3 3 2 ( ---. Incisors: These are present in the anterior part of the jaws and help in cutting and picking up food. ---. The formula consists of a horizontal line above. they are present in males only. They are always described in pairs. sheep and goats these are present only in lower jaw and are 8 in number described as central. Wolf teeth: These are small rudimentary teeth. They are always permanent and never temporary. second canines. Dental formula for cattle. occasionally found in mare. buccal surface (which is next to the cheek in case of cheek teeth). They are described as 1st . 3rd. present in carnivorous animals and absent in ruminants. In horse they are 6 in each jaw described as central. Dental Formulae Total no. ---. 4. 4th. also called grinding or masticatory surface). ---. labial surface (which is next to the lips). third premolars and fourth molars. 24 in number. 5th and 6th pair. The upper jaw is having a dental pad.The crown has a lingual surface (which remains in contact with the tongue). medial. contact surface (which is opposed to the neighbouring tooth of the same dental arc) and wearing surface or table (which comes in contact with the teeth of the other jaw. six on each side of each jaw and their function is the mastication of food. which is noted how many teeth of each category are present in the half of the upper jaw. ---) = 32 4 0 3 3 Permanent dentition = 30 . of teeth present in any set of dentition of a particular species can be expressed in a single form of figures which is called dental formula. Thus the upper number represents the number of teeth present in the half portion of the upper jaw. 2nd. sheep and goat 0 0 3 0 Temporary dentition = 2 ( ---. In equines. ---. Canines: These are found between corner incisor and first cheek teeth and helps to tear the food. In cattle.

Central pair of permanent incisor. Medial pair of permanent incisor. Dental formula for pig Temporary dentition = 2 3 1 3 0 ( ---. ---) = 44 3 1 4 3 Permanent dentition = 2 Dental formula for dog Temporary dentition = 2 3 1 3 0 (---. ---) = 40 3 1 3 3 Permanent dentition = Note: In case of mare canines are absent and total number of teeth in permanent dentition are 36. Lateral pair of permanent incisor. 1st pair of permanent molar. ---. ---. ---. ---. ---. ---) = 28 3 1 3 0 3 1 4 2 (---.Dental formula for horse Temporary dentition = 3 0 3 0 2 ( ---. ---. ---) = 42 3 1 4 3 Permanent dentition = 2 ERUPTION TABLES CATTLE Time of eruption Birth to one month 6 months 1. 3rd pair of permanent molar. ---. 1st and 2nd permanent pre-molars. ---) = 28 3 1 3 0 3 1 4 3 (---. 2nd pair of molar. Corner pair of permanent incisor. ---. ---. ---. ---. 31 . ---.5 year 2 year 3 years 4 years 5 years Description All temporary incisors and all the three pairs of temporary pre-molars. ---) = 24 3 0 3 0 3 1 3 3 2 (---.

respectively.5 years 4 years 4. The time of wearing out of central. all temporary premolars. 8-9 years. Appearance of dental star. HORSE Time of eruption Birth to one week 2-4 week 7-9 months 18-20 months 2. 6. Wearing of the mark or infundibulum. 2.5 years 3. Appearance and calculations from galvayn’s groove.5 years Description 2 temporary incisors. Angle of incidence of upper and lower incisors. and 9-10 years and 10-11 years. All 4 canines. 32 . middle. 3rd pair of permanent pre-molar. Shape of table. 5. 3. 3rd pair of permanent molar. 2 permanent corners. Subsequent to this. 4. 1st pair of permanent molar. lateral and corner permanent incisor teeth is 7-8 years. the age is estimated by the following observations: 1. 1st and 2nd pair of permanent pre-molars. the age of the animal is estimated from the examination of the wear of the incisor teeth of the lower jaw. Appearance and disappearance of hook etc. 2 permanent central incisor. 7. 2nd pair of permanent molar. Wearing out of enamel ring. 2 temporary corner incisor.Subsequent to eruption of permanent teeth. 2 temporary lateral incisor. 2 permanent lateral incisors.

33 . is removed from the cleft of the frog.EXERCISE . ticks and other skin parasites from hair coat. Lastly groom the hind legs. 2. duster. Thereafter back and belly is groomed. 3. 2. grooming and exercising the animals. To remove lice. standing facing to the back. quarter and lightly over the loin. Materials required: Curry comb. Dung etc. After the neck and shoulder on each side. Brush in the direction of the hairs in a circular motion. To stimulate blood and lymph circulation. 5. Procedure: Following procedure is adopted for grooming of horses: 1. 4. 3. body brush. The brush is held in the hand towards the animal and currycomb in the other.7 Title: Washing. groom the forelegs using the brush in and against the direction of the hairs. to avoid kicking. Pick out the hooves Curved part of the hoof picker is held in the palm and used from the heel to toe. To help in clean milk production. To improve the condition and general appearance of the animals. Vigorous brushing keeps skin loose. Slapping with hollow hands It is carried out all over the back. sole of the foot and fuller of the shoes. pliable and brings out natural oil in the hairs. It also promotes blood circulation. 7. The tendo achillis is grasped firmly while grooming inside of the hind legs. Start from the left side behind the legs. Objectives: To teach the students methods of washing. To detect hidden injuries and prevent skin diseases. changing the brush to the other hand. 6. well away from the animal. Grooming with body brush It is done with a body brush. To keep the animals clean. Purpose 1. and brings them to the surface from where it is easily removable with brush. animal. Same procedure is adopted on the other side. hoof picker etc. grooming and exercising of animals. The process frees the dust. dirt and scruff etc. putting the weight to the body and keeping elbow stiff.

Cleaning eyes. The animal must be dry before grooming. inside of the legs and hollow of the heels. the points of fingers running firm against the coat. paying particular attention to the parts which are likely to be neglected e. the whole process is much more superficial than in case of horses. 2. Grooming of cattle also includes washing of their udder with warm water.4. Hand message Start from the hindquarter. lips. lips. nose and dock Use a moist. 5. 34 . Precautions 1. Brush out and remove the loose hairs. weather at rest or work. because cattle do not wear harness and they are in the habit of licking themselves. 3. with a separate grooming kit. poll. nose and dock. 4. thereby removing good deal of dirt from their body. Note: For grooming of cattle.g. clean duster for cleaning the eyes. Cleaning of sheath should be carried out at least once a week. How to judge the cleanliness Pass the fingers of the hand in the opposite direction of the hairs. Grooming of cattle should finish at least two hours before milking so as to allow the suspended dust particles to settle down. Brushing of head and tail Remove the head collar and groom the head lightly. 6. Message legs in the direction of hair with fingers. Finally inspect and report all injuries. Brush out tail by parting the hair avoiding too much use of brush otherwise it may spoil the tail. Each horse should be groomed daily. first against the hairs and then in the direction of the hair. The gray lines left on the skin and the gray scurf on the points of fingers indicates insufficient grooming. jowl.

to an open area or pasture. Feeding place should be at some distance from the sleeping quarters. Nursing sows generally feed more and has a tendency to lie down. Hence. thus exercise avoids them. which are provided sufficient exercise during gestation period. It gives the animal an exposure to sunshine and thus helps in the synthesis of vit. D. is desirable for all categories of pigs. Too much standing at one place (under tethered management system) weakens the leg muscles. face less difficulty during furrowing. 35 . Cattle and buffaloes Exercise in a loose housing system is not a problem. of course. For this. a bull exerciser can be used to exercise a number of bulls simultaneously. Routine exercise is most necessary in breeding males. They must be turned out. 3. One way of making the stall-fed animals to move is to keep the water trough away from the feeding manger. but it is must for the animals which are kept tied in a confined place. Lack of exercise during pregnancy is a common contributing factor to difficult lambing.EXERCISING THE ANIMALS Purpose 1. Sheep and goat Normally they do not require exercise since they are taken outside for grazing. causes the hooves and toes to overgrow. it is necessary to provide some means of exercise. Breeding bulls must be regularly exercised to keep then in good condition. Access to pastures. 2. 4. once or twice a week. But the stall fed animals must be allowed to roam in the open paddock. Pigs Sows. Horses Horses must be given regular exercise by walking or riding daily. To keep the animals active and fit.

The instructions of the manufacturer should be carefully carried out while preparing the dipping solution. DIPPING EQUIPMENTS 1. level with the ground or slightly raised. Two men dip the sheep and one man catches them.EXERCISE . sheep are dipped once before shearing and second time when fleece has grown long enough to retain certain amount of dip on it. It is used for larger flocks of sheep. 5 feet deep and 1. about 4x3.75 feet in dimensions. 3. they may be guided and helped along by a pole. Two or three sheep are put to swim in the bath at a time. It is useful when only small numbers of sheep are to be dipped. To remove dung. 4. 2. The head must be immersed once. carbolic acid. To ward off attacks by the flies. DDT and gammexine. have prolonged stimulating action on skin and wool and should discourage fly striking. Hand bath It is carried out in a tub made of galvanized iron. sulfur. from the side with dipper end. While swimming through the dip. ticks etc. kill off the larvae.).75 feet wide. It is generally 25-30 feet long at the top and 15-20 feet at the bottom. Each sheep is put into the bath and turned over on its back. Qualities of a dip A reliable dip must provide protection against re-infestation. 2. When mange or any other skin disease breaks out.8 Title: Dipping and spraying of animals. tobacco. As a preventive measure. They swim through and walk up to the ramp into the drying pens. When to dip 1. To eradicate ectoparasites (lice.5x1. Purpose 1. 2. A large number of dips are available in the market. 36 . dirt and other waste materials from the fleece before shearing. The active agents most commonly used are arsenicals. To cure and prevent skin diseases (mange). Objectives: To teach the students methods of dipping and spraying of animals. Swim bath It is made of concrete or bricks. two dipping are carried out at an interval of 7-14 days.

Do not dip sick or animals with open wounds. 4. 37 . On completion the dipping material must be disposed of properly so as not to pollute the water supply. The bath must be stirred from top to bottom occasionally since the chemicals have a tendency to settle down. hence frequent addition of more chemicals is required. 10. 3. 5. otherwise undipped animals are likely to re-infest them. Always offer water before dipping so that sheep may not drink the dipping solution. Choose a day when the weather is not too hot. 6. The spraying should be in the form of a fine mist. 7. SPRAYING Cattle and large animals are sprayed in stead of dipping. 9. 8. Rams should not be dipped during the tupping period and ewes during lambing period. The sheep dog should also be allowed to swim through the dip. The mouth of the animal must be covered with a muzzle to avoid licking of the dip solution. The quantity of dipping material in the dipping tank should be sufficient enough to submerge the sheep. The concentration f the dipping material falls during the dipping process owing to its absorption by fleece. A weak fly repelling dip solution is sprayed over the back and sides of the animal. The temperature of the water should be nearer to the body temperature. 11. 2. The dripping pen should drain back into the bath to avoid wastage of the dipping material.Precautions before and after dipping 1. All the sheep and lambs of the farm must be dipped at one time.

body and then legs. 3. 4. Groom thoroughly before starting clipping. 5. use twitch if required. To prevent saddle injuries. Procedure In horses long winter coat.EXERCISE . CLIPPING Purpose 1. To prevent excessive sweating.9 Title: Clipping and shearing of animals. Secure the horse properly. For easy drying and grooming with less labour. Objective: To teach the students the process of clipping or shearing. Tail is thinned by pulling out hair at the root and cut at the bottom by scissors. 3. 5. 2. clipping machine. SHEARING OF SHEEP Hand shearers or power driven shearing machines are used for this purpose. To maintain condition and improve appearance. Mane is clipped with hand clipper and not by clipping machine. so that length of the tail when carried is in level with the point of hock. 1. shearing scissors etc. 38 . first on left side and then on right side. 4. The cutting of hairs in horses is called clipping while cutting of fleece in sheep is called shearing. The clippers are worked against the direction of hair. if left to grow hinders efficient grooming and drying. therefore these are removed. Articles required: Hand clipper. starting from neck. 2. To make the animal capable of greater amount of work with less distress. Time of clipping Before the start of summer (March and April) and start of winter (October & November).

Remove the fleece in one piece as it fetches more prices. from the fleece opening at the throat. 2. Methods of shearing There are two methods of shearing sheep: 1. then round the shoulder. The blades of the shears should be kept flat to the skin and last stroke should be as regular and as long as possible. Wash the animal in running water to clean the wool from waste material and dung. while over a hundred sheep would be shorn per day using power shears. back and so on. 6. Shear only on clean and swept surface. then it is turned over and other side is completed. 4.Preparation of sheep for shearing 1. prior to shearing. 7. 4. 5. first round the neck. Note: Average person can shear 15-20 sheep per day with a hand shears. Around the sheep: Sheep is made to sit on its buttocks. Before releasing the fresh shorn animal. Precautions 1. Do not feed the animal 10 hrs. back away from the shearer. 3. 2. 8. The sheep should be placed on a clean and smooth board platform. Do not clip a sick horse. First one side is done with the sheep lying on other side. 3. before the start of summer (March to April) and beginning of winter (September to October). Clip away dung and urine stained wool and keep it separate. The wool is removed by strokes going round the sheep. 39 . 2. Time of shearing Sheep are generally shorn twice a year. dress up accidental shear cuts if any with some antiseptics. Along the sheep: The sheep is shorn in parallel strokes from head to tail until back is reached. Avoid any cold or windy weather. Provide extra bedding and ration a few days after clipping/shearing. Be careful not to clip the sheath/teats.

5. 2. 9. Procedure BODY TEMPERATURE (AT REST) The temperature of an animal is recorded by means of a clinical thermometer after inserting it into the rectum of an animal and cloaca of the birds. Shake the thermometer to bring down the column of mercury to a level below the normal temperature of the species of animal whose temperature is to be recorded. PULSE RATE OR HEART BEAT (AT REST) Pulse is the indication of the condition of heartbeat. one must have felt number of successive beats. It is desirable to 40 .EXERCISE . 4. Secure the animal properly (a foreleg can be lifted in case of horse). Thermometer should be tilted to one side so that the bulb should come in contact with mucous membranes of the rectum and not merely buried in the dung. Lubricate the bulb of the thermometer with vaseline. 7. pulse rate and respiration rate per minute. The temperature of fowl is taken in the cloaca. Take the thermometer out of rectum. 3. clean it with cotton and then read the mercury column. It is felt from the superficial artery lying over hard tissue. oil or soap etc. 6. Before starting counting. Keep the thermometer in this position for two minutes. stop watch etc.10 Title: Recording body temperature. pulse rate and respiration. Approach from the near side (left) of the animal and raise the tail with left hand. vaseline. In case of contagious diseases the thermometer should be disinfected after taking the temperature of the affected animal. Insert the first finger into the rectum along with thermometer and then remove the finger. Objective: To teach the students the methods of recording actual body temperature. Put the finger on the artery and press lightly with varying pressure. cotton wool. 8. Do not insert the thermometer too far. Materials required: Clinical thermometer. The following points must be taken into consideration while taking the temperature: 1.

Cattle: Coccygeal artery on the sides of the under aspect of the tail. respiration per minute and temperature of three animals of each species. give him enough time to recover from the fatigue of long journey. Stand quietly near the animal and give enough time to settle down in its new surroundings.count the number of pulsation for atleast 30 sec as determined by the stop/ordinary watch. 3. One inspiration and one expiration constitute one respiration. Mere handling an excitable and nervous animal will also have the same effect. By feeling the exhalation of hot air on the hand when kept in front of the nostrils. If the pulse is week. 3. Observations: Record the pulse rate. 4. 2. 2. anger or pain. dog and cat: Femoral artery inside the hind limb more than halfway between stifle and hip joint. Count the respiration first while standing away from the animal. then take the pulse and finally temperature. Sites for recording pulse-rate Horse: Lower jaw where the external maxillary artery is continued across the face as a facial artery. General precautions 1. If the animal has traveled long distance. By counting the movements of the flank. RESPIRATION (AT REST) Respiration means taking air in (inhalation or inspiration) and blowing air out (exhalation or expiration). It should be noted that there is a rise and fall of the flank with an interval in between for each respiration. Both pulse rate and respiration are likely to accelerate to a varying degree on account of fear. 41 . Animal often voluntary holds its breath for about ten sec and several deeper and quicker breaths follow it. By observing the movements of the nostrils. Respiration can be observed by the following methods: 1. use stethoscope over the heart. Fowl: Wing artery on the inner aspect of the wing. goat. Sheep.

The tape is neither held loose nor tight. Objectives: To teach the students how to calculate body weight of farm animals by their body measurements. on all its four legs with equal weight on each limb and let the cross rod rest on highest point of withers. 42 . It is important to make the animal stand on a hard level surface ground. but just sufficient pressure is put on. Purpose 1. It is important to keep the animal off feed and water for 12 hours for satisfactory results. estimation of body weight by formulae and their correspondence or discrepancy. BODY MEASUREMENTS 1. It is measured with the help of a measuring stick. The cross rod slides up and down the upright stick. To know the approximate weight of the dressed meat. Materials required: Measuring tape 10 m long. 3. 2. It is measured with a measuring tape and expressed in inches. LENGTH It is measured from the point of shoulder to the point of buttock (in horse) or pin bones (in cattle sheep and goats). HEIGHT It is the vertical distance from the ground to the highest point of withers. 3. In case of zebu cattle though hump is the highest point. which consists of a marked upright stick and a cross rod carrying a spirit level. which is just behind the point of elbow. 4. To calculate the dose of medicines to be administered. To determine the growth of the animal so as to keep a check on the health. It is measured in hands (1 Hand = 4 inches) in horses and in inches in case of other animals. weighing bridge etc.EXERCISE -11 Title: Weighing of farm animals. It is measured with an ordinary measuring tape and expressed in inches/cms. To compute the fodder and balanced ration requirements. GIRTH Girth or circumference is measured at girth place. measuring stick. 2. the height is measured just behind the hump as the exotic cattle do not have any hump.

5 if girth is <164 cm 61. 4.5 if girth is > 200 cm Aggarwal’s (1967) formula for crossbred cattle: Live weight in kg = Live weight in pounds =(3xL) + (11xG)+(18xH)-907 Where L. Agarwal’s formula: = _____L x G2 660 3. length and girth as discussed earlier. 2.156 x G – 960. L x G__ Where L & G are length & girth in cm A The value of A is: 64.5 if girth is between 165-200 cm 57. on all of its four legs. 5.232 Where G= girth in inches * To convert pounds into kg. Mullick’s (1950) formula for buffaloes: Live wt. G and H stands for length. girth and height in inches. buffalo. Under such conditions. Now make the animal to stand on a hard-leveled ground. 3. Live weight in pounds = L x G2 300 where L= Length in inches G= Girth in inches Live weight in kg. divide by 2. Procedure for weighing of animals and taking body measurements 1.Allow the animal to stand quietly. 2. height. a simple but reasonably accurate method of estimating body weight on the basis of body measurements is useful. 4. sheep and goats). a number of workers have developed following formulae for estimating the body weights. Estimation of body weight from body measurements Based on body measurements. Shaeffer’s formula: (For cattle. Take the body measurements i.e. Lead the animal gently to the weighing bridge platform. 43 .2. Note the weight on the scale.Frequently the weigh bridge is not available. young calves. In pounds = 25. 1.

1/8th and 1/12th of body weight respectively. hides and fat is 2/5th. blood. 1/13th. Note the difference and calculate error percentage.Observations Record body measurements of three animals of each species and then calculate their body weight. Note: It is not always easy to make accurate measurements of either the girth or the length of even a quiet animal. Cattle generally require fodder about 1/10th of its body weight and the weight of the dressed carcass. 44 . The weight of young calves. Discrepancy Compare the weight calculated on the basis of formulae with that of actual weight. Experience has shown that estimates of live weight of animals on the basis of formulae are seldom variable by more than 10%. sheep and goats is calculated by the shaeffer’s is formula only.

4. 8. 3. Air. Make sure that the attendant is present all the time when truck moves. Arrival at the destination without any deterioration in physique and in a safe and fit condition. Instruct the driver to avoid sudden stoppage.EXERCISE -12 Title: Management of animals during transportation. 4. notice to the station superintendent of dispatching station for booking the animals. The aim for easy and safe transportation of the animals should be: 1. Open the rear door on the loading ramp and cover the gap between the door and body of the truck by a plank. Clean the body of the truck with a broom. 5. 2. 5. Provide 10-12 cm depth of sand flooring or 15-cm straw bedding. Lead the animal inside the truck gently pushing the animal from behind. On foot (walking). Objectives: To educate the students regarding management of animals for transportation. 45 . Rail. Road. 3. 6. The common transportation routes are: 1. TRANSPORTION BY RAIL 1. The consignor must give 24 hrs. 2. Minimum possible discomfort to animals. No economic loss in weight and mortality during transit. sharp and sudden turns. Make separate partitions for individual animals with bamboo. driving fast. Take the truck to the loading ramp. 7. Sea. 3. TRANSPORTATION BY ROAD 1. 2.

Pre payment of freight in cash is compulsory. 6. 12. Bulls should be transported individually. The attendants should not smoke or cook in the wagon. General precautions while transportation 1. Over crowding in any case be avoided. 8.5 mg/kg body weight. 4. For loading. During transit. watered and cared at the cost of owner by the attendant. as they are afraid on shaking objects. 3. Cows in wagons are tied but the younger ones are kept loose. lye solution etc. which may injure the animal. 7. Provide secure footing to animals while loading. Disinfect the wagon or truck thoroughly with suitable disinfectant. 4. For nervous type of animals.2. 10. 11. tranquilizing drugs like reserpine be given @ 2. 2. Cattle are carried in 4 wheeled or 6 wheeled wagons. Check the wagon/truck for any projecting rail or object. All safety to the animals in transit rests with the consignor. Animals may be insured before transportation. 5. Disinfect the wagon/truck thoroughly with antiseptics such as carbolic.S. 5. cattle are fed. 3. they should never be rushed or excited. The feeding should be limited prior to transportation and also during the journey. Animals should be vaccinated for H. a week prior to transport. 46 . 13. cattle are moved slowly with patience. cresol. 9.

EXERCISE – 13 Title : Preparation of animals for shows. buckets. per day depending upon the condition of the animal. 3. Horns. hair clipper. Hence 250g-linseed cake be fed per day. leading rope. It provides an opportunity of making comparisons among superior type of animals both within and between breeds and enables the breeders to exchange ideas and experiences between them. The heifers for show are selected above the one years of age. rope halter. 47 . it may appear unduly thin showing lack of capacity due to the loss of surplus body fat in the milk. The main purposes for the preparation of animals for shows are: 1. 2. Horns There is no discrimination between horned and neatly dehroned animals.5 kg. Linseed meal is quite popular since it improves the coat condition and adds a glossy appearance to the hair. curry comb. body brush. clean water and sand paper. pair of scissors. sarson oil. Hooves Hooves should be carefully trimmed and properly shaped for improving appearance and gait. proper growth and development according to its age and free from defects. Feeding Give extra quantity of concentrate mixture @ 1 to 1. 4. Procedure 1. The breeding programme should be adjusted in such a way that the selected cows may calve approximately a week prior to the show. should be rasped to make them look symmetrical and smooth. good temperament. Objective: To educate the students how to prepare different animals for show. hoof rasp. dairy confirmation. If the animal had calved long in advance. Selection of winning type animal Select the animal possessing true breed characteristics. 2. Roughage (green and dry) should be fed ad lib. Material required: Best animal of a particular breed. dusters. rather than a lower age group. if retained. To exhibit the best type of animal in order to win the contest and to increase awareness in the farmers. soap.

Few hours before the show. Final preparation on the day of the show Wash the animal and dry it with clean towel. give some salt and deny water. Blanketing: Take a piece of coarse cloth or blanket and rub vigorously to give brighter look to the coat. 6. Dry the body with clean dusters and tie them in sun for an hour after washing. Apply little coconut oil on horns.5. Blanketing raises the body temperature and retards the hair growth to some extent. Comb the switch of the tail to give clean and fluffy look. Washing: Wash the animal with mild soap to keep them clean. Keep halters and ropes well cleaned and polished. a) b) c) d) e) 8. Just prior to show offer water and feed in large quantity so that the animal shows a greater capacity than normal. Display the animal in a show ring with a pose to display all its best points. In cows. hooves and tail. 6. Keep the animal calm and at ease. Rub the horns and hooves with sandpaper. Bedding: Spread sufficient clean absorbent bedding material in the stall. Watch for ticks and lice. 5. Do not clip the belly of the heifers unless the hairs are too coarse in order to depict little more body depth. Cover the body of the animal during night with some clean cloth to prevent from soiling. neck and tail of the show animal should be neatly clipped. Milk the cows several hours before the show to depict better capacity and balanced quarters. the hair on the belly and udder be clipped for distinct appearance of milk vein. 3. Improving the condition of the coat Clipping: The head. Brushing: Groom the animal thoroughly to make the coat move glossy. The animal should be trained to be led while holding the rope nearest to his head. and take necessary action to remove them. 48 . if any. Brush the coat vigorously to give a good luster. so that they are not excited during the show. 1. Put clean and tidy dress before entering the show-ring. Training The animals should be made accustomed to the use of a halter or a leading rope. 4. 7. 2.

Tie the animal at its milking place and offer the concentrate. Hold the diagonal teats and milk with full palm method. 3. done manually by hand milking. Remove the last drops of milk by stripping method. 8. wash the udder and teats with mild potassium permanganate solution and wipe with a clean duster. Objective: To educate the students different methods of milking the dairy animals. 7. 4. Wash the animal.EXERCISE -14 Title: Milking of dairy animals. 9. silently and completely. Pick up the milking bucket. thus. In India machine milking was first introduced during early 20th century by the Britishers at M/S Tara Devi Farms near Shimla. Apply milkman’s knot (only to cows). un-tie the animal. Vacuum pump assembly 5. especially hindquarters. 2. The main components of a milking machine are : 1. Milk quickly. before actual milking. 6. Modern milking machines are called double action milking machines since they use alternatively negative and atmospheric pressure in a double chambered teat cup assembly. necessitating the urgency for switching towards mechanical milking. 49 . Clean the utensils and the milking room at least 2 hr. weigh the milk and record the quantity of milk produced against the animal number. Take few strippings from each quarter in the strip cup and check for mastitis. Transfer the milk to the milk can through a strainer or muslin cloth and store at a cool place till its disposal. But modern dairy farms have switched over to mechanical or machine milking. MACHINE MILKING With the growing industrialization. before bringing them to milking barn. Procedure HAND MILKING 1. the skilled labour for milking is decreasing day by day. Milking of dairy animals is by and large. Massage the udder and teats till let down occurs. 10.

Procedure 1. Tie the animal after cleaning and wiping its udder & teats and offer concentrate. Untie the animal. Turn the milking machine on and check the vacuum pressure. Pulsator Milk claw or cluster comprising of a central metallic shell and an inner rubber liner Milk can 4. Dip the teats of the animal in antiseptic solution.2. 50 . When the milk flow ceases. It should be 380 mm Hg for cows and 400/420 mm Hg for buffaloes. 5. 6. 2. 8. 7. remove the cluster by breaking its vacuum supply. Stand quietly near the animal till milking is in progress. 9. Apply the teat cups to the respective teats and see whether they are in correct position. 4. Massage the teats and udder to ensure let down. 3. Weigh and record the milk produced. 3.

Maximum use of proven sires by collecting high quality semen. Material required: Bull calf at puberty (1-2 years old). hot water at 42 to 450C. Change in attendant and teaser may result in more reaction time or less quantity of semen ejaculation. The training of breeding males is essential for: 1. 3.V. Objectives: To teach the students different methods of training of breeding males.). Easy handling at the time of collection of semen. 3. 4. If reaction time increases. 2. Proving a sire. Procedure 1. artificial vagina (A. Training must be done in familiar surroundings and should be free from insects and flies. who had been handing regularly. Put nose ring 2 to 3 months before giving training to a bull. hence it should be avoided. 5. bull may be temporarily withdrawn and return back in 10-15 minutes for mounting.EXERCISE -15 Title : Training of breeding males. Bull should be handled gently by the same attendant. 2. He must be active and stand near the rear quarters of bull at the collection time. 51 . b) 6. To develop sex desire in young bull two methods are used: a) Particular sound familiar to bull should be used by the attendant to provoke the sex desire. Teaser should also be familiar with the site and she should be brought regularly at the site of semen collection.

Artificial vagina should be fitted properly and kept sterilized and clean. 6. Bull should not be beaten or frightened. should be at 450 angle at the time of semen collection. 52 . Mounting on single animal/dummy should be practiced. so that the temperature should not be more that 410C inside the A. 5.V. 2. Hot water at 42 to 450C should be filled in the jacket of A. Position of A. 3.V.Precautions 1. Pressure should be optimum for effective stimulation and subsequent ejaculation. 4.V.

Inhalation. III. By mouth (Orally) a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) II. Urogenital tract a) b) c) d) e) Vaginal or uterine douche Pessaries/sponges. Objectives: To teach the students different methods of administration of medicines. Suppositories. Mammary gland a) Intra-mammary injection. IV.EXERCISE -16 Title: Methods of administration of medicines. There are different routes of giving medicines to the animals as under: 1. Administration of drugs to the farm animals is a routine operation for a veterinarian. By rectum a) b) Anema or clysters. Catheterization. but he can not leave the drugs for owners to give to the animals by mouth just as the physicians do for their human patients. Draughts or drenches Electuaries Powders Mixed in food Mixed in drinking water. Implants Suppositories. 53 . Bolus Pills Capsules. V. By nose a) b) Nasal douche.

VI. Body surface a) b) c) d) e) Poultices or Ketaplasma Fomentation Stupes. Baths Dips.

VII. Parentral (through injections) administration: a) b) c) d). e) f) g) Intra-venous injection – Usually given in the jugular vein in the jugular furrow for large animals and external cephenous vein above hock in dogs. Intra-muscular injections – A few inches infront of the point of buttock in the gluteal region in the neck region, deep into the muscles. Subcutaneous or Hypodermic injections- Middle third of the neck in the fold of skin or inner thigh region in case of dogs. Intra-tracheal injections- Middle third on ventral aspect of neck using special needle. Intra-peritoneal injections -Upper part of the left flank. Epidural or Extradural or Peridural injections- Between 1st and 2nd coccygeal vertebrae of horse and cattle, last lumber and 1st sacral vertebrae of dog. Intra-cardial injections - Directly into the heart muscles. BALLING A ball is a solid form of medicine, cylindrical in shape and the method of giving a ball by mouth is known as balling. Small animals such as sheep, goats, dogs and cats are given pills, capsules and tablets orally. The following procedure is adopted for giving a ball to a horse: 1. 2. The horse is secured by a halter standing on the left side of the animal. The ball is taken in the right hand and held by first three fingers arranged as a cone. The animal’s tongue is grasped by the left hand and turned in between the upper and lower jaw, so as to keep them apart. The right hand is then folded and quickly thrust, well back on the roof of the tongue to the entrance of the throat. The ball is released, hand withdrawn and tongue freed simultaneously. With the swallowing action, the ball passes down the gullet. The head should be kept up till the ball is swallowed. In difficult animals, a balling gun can be used.

3.

4.

5.

6.

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Precautions 1. 2. Draw the tongue as far forward as possible. Keep the back of the right hand against the palate to drop the ball as far back as possible. Withdraw the hand as quickly as possible and release the tongue simultaneously. The animal should never be frightened by undue noise. DRENCHING Drenching is the method of giving liquid medicines orally to the animals. Cattle 1. Hold the mouth with left hand, insert four fingers into the mouth behind the dental pad and thumb on the bridge of nose. The head and neck must be kept straight. Pour medicine down into the throat using a drenching bottle or drenching-horn or drenching-bamboo. Allow the animal to swallow the medicine. Medicines can be drenched by a stomach tube but its size is as that made for a foal. It can be passed through nostril but probang gag can be used for passing through mouth.

3. 4.

2.

3. 4.

Precautions 1. If the animal coughs, lower the head at once, there is every possibility that the medicines might had entered trachea. Do not hold the tongue while drenching. Do not pour medicines more than the animal could swallow at a time.

2. 3.

Sheep and Goat 1. 2. Hold the animal in between the legs and steady it firmly with knees. Pour the medicine by means of a narrow necked bottle in the similar way as far cattle or use a rubber tube and funnel.

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3.

For drenching large number of sheep or goats, a drenching pistol or a pig drencher may be used.

Dogs 1. 2. Secure the dog by applying the tape muzzle on the mouth. Make a pouch on one side of the dog’s mouth by drawing out the check with the forefingers. Ask the assistant to pour the medicine into the pouch. In case of reluctance in swallowing, press the nostrils with four-finger and thumb of the other hand. Drenching spoons specially meant for dogs can also be used.

3. 4.

5. Birds

Generally plastic or rubber droppers or fountain pen filters are used for the purpose. Horse The medicines are drenched to the horse preferably by a drenching bottle of aluminum. 1. 2. Secure the animal with halter. Raise the head high either by hand or by placing the loop of the twitch in the mouth round the upper jaw. Pour the medicine down the throat in small quantities from a drenching bottle. It would be better if the person stands on a stool while pouring the medicines.

3.

The precautions while drenching are the same as for cattle. STOMACH TUBE The medicine could also be drenched through a stomach tube. The advantage of using a stomach tube is that there is less discomfort to the animal, no wastage of drugs, no risk of choking, large quantity of medicines could be administered at a time and above all the medicines of unpleasant order and bitter taste could be administered easily. The common stomach tube is made of a hard rubber, about 9 feet long, 5/8 inch in diameter with a 3/8 inch caliber, one end of which is rounded. There are two marks – one about 10-12 inch from the rounded end and the other 4 feet further. When the first mark

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is at the nostril. 57 . The stomach tube should always be kept coiled so that the ends of the tube will always assume a slight curve. induce him to do so by putting fingers in the inter dental space. the round end is at the entrance of the esophagus. 3. Secure the animal through an assistant standing on the right side of the animal. Plug both ends of the tube when not in use. Push the tube further. the tube is removed by withdrawing it gently. Grasp the nasal bones of the animal. Avoid hurry especially when the end leaves the esophagus. 9. then pause for a moment. 3. to avoid any insect or dirt getting into them. at this stage tube must be withdrawn and another effort be made to pass it correctly into the esophagus. 2. 4. Keep on pushing the tube gently and slowly till the first mark is reached at the nostril. 7. if he does not. 8. it is possible that the tube has entered the trachea. check its working by pumping water through it. the round end is entering the stomach. Procedure of passing a stomach tube 1. Clean the stomach tube. Push 4 to 6 inch more and then pump in the medicine by means of a stomach pump. 2. Precautions 1. which may be attached to the other end of the tube. After the medicine is administered. open the wings of the nostrils and start passing the tube through the left nostril. When the second mark is at the nostril. 5. Lubricate the round end of the tube. Now push few inches further and let the animal swallow the tube. there will be resistance along the muscular tube till the second mark is reached at the nostrils. If the animal coughs. 6.

58 . Each fold should be of same tightness as the last. The end of upward spiral should cone the first fold. each turn over lapping the last one by 2/3rd of its breadth. Take the exercise bandage and begin with a short loose end in front of and just below the knee. They prevent speedy cutting or over reaching high up while the horse is doing fast work. It should be slightly tighter then the downward one. EXERCISE BANDAGE These are made of cotton material. 4. Equal pressure between each fold is one of the most important factors in bandaging.17 Title: Different types of bandages and bandaging of horses. 2. They should always have a layer of cotton under them. Procedure 1. then make a spiral down the cannon bone. Bandages are usually 5 to 9 feet long and 3 to 4 inches wide and are made of cotton or woolen materials. They save the cannon from bruises or thorn when jumping or hunting in the field. Carry the rolled part round the limb to form the first round. When a layer of cotton is used underneath. 3 to 4 inches wide and are applied tightly round the cannon between the knee and the fetlock.EXERCISE . 3. 3. They give support to the back tendons. the process is reversed and an ascending spiral is begun. 2. Objective: To educate the students regarding different types of bandages and methods of bandaging horses. Uses 1. The tapes are now tied in a bow fashion on the outside and the ends are neatly tucked in. the bandage should be applied more firmly. 5 to 6 feet long. When the bandage has reached just above the fetlock joint. They are very useful for horses.

Uses 1. They save the legs from injuries during transit by train or truck. Procedure 1. 2. During the process of bandaging. 5. 2. They are applied just below the knee or hock to just above the coronet and may have a thick layer of cotton wool under them. 4.STABLE BANDAGE They are usually made of woolen or a mixture of wool and cotton. Stable bandages are applied exactly on the same lines as the exercise bandage the only difference being that the bandage will go upto the coronet from where the ascending spiral will start and end just below the knee or hock. They prevent rope galls during casting and guard the opposite legs from the effects of blisters. 4. Stable bandages should be removed twice a day. the part massaged and the bandage readjusted. They are also useful to hold the surgical bandage and keep it clean. 59 . The knot of the bandages should always be on the outside of the cannon. They promote blood circulation during period of inactivity. They keep the legs warm during winter. 3. measuring 7 to 9 feet long and 3 to 4 inches wide. The tapes are first sought and the bandage is then rolled from that end with the tapes inside the roll. the rolled part should remain outside. 3. The bandage should be rolled correctly.

burnol Iodine ointment or Iodex Hydrogen peroxide Used for For cutting ropes/twines. 2.No. To keep all requisites of first aid ready in order to attend simple ailments. Materials Scalpel or knife/pocket knife Cotton wool Bandages and surgical gauze Trocar and canula Surgical scissors Rubber tube Forceps. burns etc. Tannic acid powder Tannic acid jelly. To make aware and confident about different situations in which first aid is needed by animal. bandages. 4. 10. To treat the cases of simple injuries. Objectives: 1. 11. For restraining. 6. help in protecting life of the suffering animal. dettol tincture of iodine. threads. poisoning. For poisons. For tourniquet. 5. 9. For applying on wounds and injuries. 5. casting rope. For bloat. For swelling and pains/aches. boric ointment. For burns. To educate the students regarding various ways of providing first aid to animal.EXERCISE -18 Title: Administering first aid to animals. 1. Clinical thermometers Potassium permanganate. FIRST AID Any emergent situation arising due to accidental injuries and unforeseen complication involving risk of life. splints/split bamboo Cotton ropes. For cutting tissues. For recording temperature. For fractures. casting and throwing. Thus. 13 14. 8. For wounds covered with dust/soil. 12. 3. 7. 4. Materials required Sr. 3. and halters and bull holder. To become familiar with all requisites of first aid. For cleaning wounds and injuries. 2. needs on the spot treatment as first aid for recovery from shock or relief from pain and to check bleeding etc. 60 . For dressing of cuts/wounds.

4. chocking is mostly on account of mass of dry impacted food material as oat or bran. 2. Control the patient and keep the animal quiet. CHOCKING Though choking means obstruction to respiration but in animals it signifies an obstruction to the passage of food through pharynx and esophagus. very rapid bloating. In most of the cases swelling could be seen and felt at the neck region. The general symptoms of choking are profuse salivation. Drench the animal properly and accurately to avoid the enteries of the medicine in the respiratory tract.FIRST AID KIT On all animal farms a first aid kit box containing all required items should be kept handy so that it can be reached immediately in case of emergencies. 61 . First aid 1. Tie a smooth stick in the mouth to induce/promote profuse salivation. In absence of trocar and cannula make use of long vaccinating needle to puncture the rumen in the flank region for release of gas. In peracute frothy bloat better call for veterinary surgeon to perform ruminotomy. Administer 250-500 ml linseed oil or groundnut oil or coconut oil along with 60100 ml turpentine oil. trocar and canula is used on left side in the lower third of flank region. roots. 3. BLOAT OR TYMPANY It is most common in ruminants which is characterized by the excessive formation of gas in the rumen and its enlargement. which quickly releases the gas. Force the animal to run/exercise vigorously for 15-30 minutes. apples. restlessness and gasping (difficulty in breathing). There is distension of rumen. In horse. In severe case where animal is likely to die due to bloat. potatoes. In cattle certain fruits and vegetables such as cabbage. which becomes tense and drum like. 3. 2. Choke causing agents are: 1. 2. 5. Precautions 1. turnips etc.

Capillary. The first thing to be done in such conditions is to stop bleeding. A Rubber tubing for tourniquet (i. Arterial. Injury may occur with sharp objects wounding the skin. in which blood is of dark colour. an appliance for the temporary stoppage of the circulation in a limb) can also be used. fighting etc. Venous. It may be 1. Apply a cotton swab soaked in clean water or antiseptic solution on the injured part. First aid 1.e. It can be as simple as minor skin cut or as complex as a multiple fracture. the knot being arranged above the principal artery. Control the patient as excitement and struggling may lead to more severe bleeding. 3. Apply pressure on the wounded part with clean thumb or fingers. 62 . Make an attempt to remove the obstruction by moving it gently upward into the mouth. 2. INJURIES 3. Bleeding Bleeding means escape of blood as natural content from the blood vessels. slipping. 4. falling. 5.First aid 1. in which blood is of bright scarlet colour. Fix a gag between the teeth to discover the obstruction and remove it by passing right hand along the roof of the mouth and back into the throat. 4. casting. call for veterinary surgeon to administer drugs to relieve spasm of muscle. Pass a stomach tube well lubricated with oil. 2. 3. In case of failure of these measures. in which blood oozes from slight injury. Locate the object from outside the neck. Arrange the animal into easy posture. 2. 5. In emergencies a handkerchief may be tied round the part.

BURN Burns may be thermal. chemical or electrical and are very painful. Pour running cold water on the affected part. 6. Administer a narcotic or anaesthetic drug to relieve pain and shock. If it is not a simple fracture then avoid disturbing the fracture site frequently. 3. Apply white of an egg in simple burn. Apply butter where possible. 5. Immediately remove the animal trapped in fire. First examine the injured part or the organ carefully. multiple or complicated. bamboo splints. First aid 1. make skillful attempt to push/pull the affected joint so as to set it in right position. by tying them tightly with jute. 7. pens. 63 . Ascertain the nature of dislocation. 6. Take the animal on cart to nearest veterinary hospital for proper treatments.FRACTURE Fracture means breakage in bone. Apply dusting powder of sulfanilamide or tannic acid jelly. Give any sedative or tranquilizer to the restless animal. 3. 4. 5. If simple fracture. 2. byres. barns or electrically fenced pasture fields. nylon threads ropes or available cloth. Immobilize the injured part temporarily with the help of wooden splints. which may be simple. 4. 2. Animals may suffer from burn in sheds. First aid 1. compound. card or plastic hard board etc. Administer antihistaminic drug and 2-3 bottles of glucose saline through vein.

First aid 1. To prevent further absorption of poison any skin application should be applied after washing the affected part with soap and water. On such cases the affected animal is kept in a safe place. Burns caused by acids is treated with an alkali (washing soda 10 gm in a liter of water ) and burn caused by alkalis like caustic soda is treated with equal parts of vinegar and warm water. 3. For electrical burns first remove contact of electrical line wire from the animal with the help of dry bamboo pole or stick and then apply butter or burnol on the affected part. 5.8. 2. POISONING 9. 64 . Cattle are prone to poisoning due to licking of chemicals. Give emetics like mustard powder in warm water for vomiting to remove poison. Plenty of water is given to drink or by stomach tube to dilute the poison. inhalation or ingestion of poisonous plants or pastures grown with heavy dose of fertilizer. 4. Give antidotes if the nature of poison is known. It may be accidental or cumulative poisoning. which the animal has consumed.

when air passage are affected. Chalk. hot water vapors inhalation.5 mg/kg body weight). emetic if danger of perforation. White of egg. tartaric acid. followed by an emetic. KMnO4 (10 percent). Copper sulphate White of an egg. inhalation of dilute acetic acid. inhalation of ammonia.) Bleaching powder Carbolic acid (Phenol). Vinegar. 65 . Acids Alkalies Urea Ammonia Morphia (Opium) Narcotics Organo-phosphates (Malathion etc. Atropine S/C. lemon juice. sodium sulphate. physiological saline I/V. take animal to veterinary hospital for further treatment and get injected antivenom-serum. Same as for alkalies.Poison Snake bite Emergency treatment and antidotes Open the wound at once. weak alkalies. White of an egg. Atropin sulphate (0. cauterize. injection of strong solution of Potassium permanganate S/C around the bite. 10 percent acetic acid. soda bicarb. milk and water. Artificial respiration.

6 101. 12. 7.5 100. 11.0 101.0-104. 5.0-100.0 100.0-104.5-108.0 96.5 101.0 100.0 99.0 102. No.0 99.5-102.0 100. 2.8 100.0-104.0 100. 18.5 101.6 98.0 100.5-102.0-101.0 98.0 103.0 98.0 103.0-102.0 102. 16.0 107.0-102. 15. 3.6-98.5 102.APPENDIX . 6. 8.6 97.8 101.0 100. 9.0 101.0 101.I NORMAL TEMPERATURE.8 100.4 100. 14.5-102.8 102. 4.0-102. 17. 10.0 102.8 101.0 106.0-102.4 Normal Pulse rate per minute 36-42 40-60 46-50 46-50 60-100 60-90 40-60 40-50 70-90 70-90 60-90 90-130 70-100 120-160 100-130 30-50 25-35 60-90 Normal respiration per minute 8-16 10-16 10-12 10-12 30-40 25-30 10-30 10-20 20-30 20-30 10-20 16-30 16-30 15-30 30-40 10-12 8-10 12-30 66 . Species of Livestock Horse Foal Ass Mule Calf Cow Ox Buffalo Sheep Goat Pig Dog (small) Dog (large) Fowl Cat Camel Elephant Man Normal rectal temperature (oF) Range Average 100.0-102. PULSE RATE AND RESPIRATION OF DIFFERENT DOMESTICATED ANIMALS Sr.0 100. 1.0-102. 13.0-99.2-104.

5 years 4-6 weeks Puberty time 12-24 months 12-18 months 12-18 months 8-12 months 8-12 months 4-5 months 7-10 months 8-12 months 3-4 years 20-25 years 6-8 months Voices produced Neighing Bellowing Bellowing Bleating Bleating Grunting Barking Mewing Bleating/ bellowing Trumpeting Crowing Place of habitation Stable Byre Byre Pen (Bara) Pen (Bara) Sty Kennel Kettery Rabbitry/Nest Coop/Pen 67 .II COMMON TERMS USED IN DIFFERENT SPECIES OF LIVESTOCK Species of Livestock Horse (Equine) Cattle (Bovine) Sheep (Ovine) Goat (Caprine) Pig (Swine) Dog (Canine) Cat (Feline) Rabbit Fowl (Avian) Young ones Foal Calf Lamb Kid Pigling Puppy Kitten Kit Chick Up to maturity Male Female Colt Young Bull Ram Lamb Buckling Runner Cockrel Filly Heifer Gimmer Goatling Gilt Pullet Mature animals Male Female Entire Bull Ram Buck Boar Dog Tom cat Buck Cock Mare Cow Ewe Doe Sow Bitch Queen Doe Hen Castrated Animals Gelding Bullock Wether (Hogg) Wether Hogg (Barrow) Altered Dog Neuter Capon Act of Parturition Foaling Calving Lambing Kidding Farrowing Whelping Kittening Kindling - APPENDIX .APPENDIX .III REPRODUCTION TABLES Species of Livestock Horse Cattle Buffalo Sheep Goat Pig Dog Cat Camel Elephant Rabbits Fowl Weaning time 5-8 months 4-6 months 6-8 months 3-4 months 3-4 months 6-8 weeks 5-7 weeks 5-7 weeks 8-12 months 1.

Duration of heat 6 days 6-30 hours 6-48 hours 1-2 days 2-3 days 3-4 days 11-18 days 7-10 days Gestation period Range Average (days) (days) 305-400 340 273-294 280 300-315 310 140-160 150 147-155 150 109-125 115 55-70 63 55-70 56 68 .APPENDIX .IV OESTRUS AND GESTATION PERIOD OF DIFFERENT SPECIES OF LIVESTOCK Species of Livestock Mare Cow Buffalo Ewe Goat Sow Bitch Cat Recurrence after Non Parturition conception 21 days 7-11 days 21 days 30-60 days 21 days 30-60 days 18 days 6-8 weeks 21 days 6-8 weeks 21 days 6-8 weeks Estrus occurs twice each year and they come into heat once each season.