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Dr.

Walid Abdelghaffar

Turbine
The information in this presentation focuses on the last two sections of the gas turbine engine, the turbine and the exhaust sections.

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Turbine: purpose
The turbine section is located between the combustion and the exhaust sections of the engine. The purpose of the turbine section is to convert the energy of the expanding gases into mechanical energy to drive the compressor, the accessories, and the load.
Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System
Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

The Turbine
The turbine provides the power for the compressors) and the mechanical output. The power is produced by extracting energy from the hot gases released from the combustion chambers and expanding them to a lower pressure and temperature. High stresses are involved in this process. Since the turbine operates at high speed it is exposed to large centrifugal forces. The gas enters the turbine at a very high temperature which also causing stress.

Axial flow turbine


Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

The turbine blades are fitted to the turbine discs, mostly by means of fir-tree Roots
Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Axial Flow Turbine Design


The turbine normally consists of several stages. Each stage consists of a row of stationary guide vanes followed by a row of rotor blades. The guide vanes are fixed to the turbine casing and the rotor blades are fitted to turbine discs. The rotating blades are fixed to the disc using a special technique called fir-tree roots.

Function Principle The hot gases are expanded in the convergent passage between the guide vanes and the turbine blades. Pressure energy is converted into kinetic energy and the gases are accelerated. At the same time the gas is spinning and swirling in direction of the turbine blades. The turbine blades force the gases to deflect and as the passage is convergent the gases are further expanded. On impact with the turbine blades and during the subsequent reaction through the passage, energy is absorbed. This energy causes the turbine to rotate and provides the power for driving the turbine shaft. The guide vanes in the following stage expand the gases further and direct them to the next row of blades.
Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

The gas-flow through the turbine

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Turbine: Components
Like the compressor section, the turbine section consists of two major components: the stator or turbine nozzles the rotor or turbine wheel

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Turbine : Components
Stators & Rotors The stators and the rotors of the turbine and compressor sections are similar in their construction. The primary difference is the angle at which the vanes, nozzles, and blades are positioned. Their positioning is critical to efficient engine operation. Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Turbine Nozzle
Components: Turbine Nozzle
The turbine nozzle vanes have two purposes: prepare the combustion gases for driving the turbine rotor deflect the combustion gases in the direction of the turbine rotation To accomplish this, the shape and position of the turbine nozzle vanes form passages for expanding gas flow.

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Turbine Nozzle
These passages: change the direction of gas flow increase gas velocity reduce pressure and temperature of the gas

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Turbine Rotor
Components: Turbine Rotor
The energy of the gases leaving the first row of turbine nozzle vanes encounters the next major component of the turbine section, the rotor or turbine wheel. The purpose of the turbine rotor is to extract mechanical energy to operate the compressor, accessories, and load. The turbine rotor consists of the following: shaft disk blades or buckets
Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Turbine Rotor Blades


Components: Turbine Rotor Blades
The blades of the turbine wheel are mounted to the disk in the same manner as compressor blades are mounted to the rotor, by either fir-tree, bulb, or dove-tail type roots. This blades and disk assembly is attached to the shaft. As the turbine wheel rotates it transfers energy to the shaft, which is connected to the compressor, the accessories, and/or the load. The turbine section may be either single stage or multistage. When the turbine has more than one stage, nozzle vanes are installed between each stage.
Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System
Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Nozzle Vane Assembly


Each set of stator vanes forms a nozzle vane assembly for the following turbine wheel. Exit guide vanes straighten the gas flow as it enters the exhaust section.

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Turbine: Operation
Hot, expanding gases from each burner (or combustion chamber) flow through a transition duct to turbine nozzle vanes. The nozzle vanes direct the expanding gases into the turbine section. As you recall, the components of the compressor section convert energy by increasing the airflow pressure.

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Turbine: Operation
In contrast, the components of the turbine section convert energy by reducing the pressure of the flowing gases. Pressure is changed to velocity by the shape and position of both the turbine stator vanes and the rotor blades.

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Turbine: Operation
Operation: Gas Flow
The shape of the vanes causes an increase in velocity as the gases pass between the vanes. As the gases flow into the first set of vanes, the gases accelerate because the space between the vanes is converging (a funnel effect similar to the first half of the venturi tube). As Bernoulli's principle states: an increase in velocity causes a decrease in pressure

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Turbine: Operation
Operation: Gas Flow
The gases leaving the nozzle vanes reach their maximum velocity just before they hit the first-stage turbine, causing it to rotate. The shape of the rotor blades also accelerates the gases. At this point, the gases still have enough energy to do work. The turbine blades redirect the hot gases into the second row of nozzle vanes.

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Turbine: Operation
The gases are again accelerated between the nozzles. The second set of nozzles generates additional gas velocity just before the hot gases impinge on (hit) the second set of rotor blades.

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Turbine: Operation
The process continues through each stage of the turbine section. Exit vanes reduce turbulence before the gases enter the exhaust section. This reduces backpressure on the turbine section. Approximately two-thirds of the total energy available for work in a gas turbine is used to turn the compressor.

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Turbine: Operation
The remaining energy available for work is used to drive the load.

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Movie on: Gas turbine performance, compressor rotor and turbine rotor assembly

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Turbine blades
- Turbine blades work at

high temperatures, requiring advanced materials and cooling design. - The parts exposed to the hot gas are subjected to : Corrosion Steady forces causing creep Vibratory forces causing fatigue Thermal gradients causing thermal fatigue
Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System
Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Turbine Blade Design


The common and necessary things that must follow it in Design of Turbine blades include:
The turbine blade design should comply with the following rules: Multiple circular arc airfoils. Clear separation of functions. Free expansion for every part. No stress raisers and no notches. Minimal thermal stress, (Thermal barrier coating ) Ease of manufacture, e.g. by precision casting. Minimum machining of high-temperature alloys. Minimum cost.

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Turbine Blade Design


To analyze isolated airfoils in incompressible or compressible flows for turbine blade: 1- Drag and moment coefficient versus angle of attack 2- Surface pressure coefficient 3- Velocity 4-Mach number 5-Temperature 6-Vortex panel 7-Computing the overall lift for rectangular & tapered

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Control of The Turbine Blade


To improve the turbine work and preventing possible problems install Turbine sentry where do the following:

Improve operating efficiency. Prevent premature damage. Prevent blade failures in utility combustion turbines.

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Turbine sentry Functions


Combustion turbine blade temperature analysis Can provide the operator a large amount of information

Turbine Sentry
Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System
Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

data shows the hottest blade

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Major Material Used in Gas Turbine

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Turbine Blade Material

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Turbine Vane Material

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Combustor Material

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Selection of Material

In blade material we study about the important following things : 1- corrosion resistance. 2- high-temperature strength. 3- cast ability.

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

The Development of Turbine Materials


1-TITANIUM ALLOYS. Advantages high strength low density . exceptional resistance to corrosion. It has lower thermal conductivity and thermal expansion than steel or nickel base alloys. 2-NICKEL BASE ALLOYS. Advantages outstanding strength and oxidation resistance over the temperature range encountered. it has a fully austenitic face centered cubic (FCC) 3- MDSC-7M. single crystal super alloys
Titanium blade
Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System
Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Turbine Cooling
Cooling methods such as : ( 1 ) Film cooling. ( 2 ) Impingement. ( 3 ) Convective. ( 4 ) Transpiration.

(1)

(2)

General film cooling technique. General impingement cooling technique.


Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System
Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

(3)

(4)

General convection cooling technique

Transpiration cooling technique


Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Methods of Cooling

When considering turbine cooling, one must first decide what fluid will be used as a coolant. ( 1 ) Air is the most logical choice as a coolant, since it is readily available. It can be extracted (bled) from the compressor, ducted to the turbine blade (stator or rotor), and used as a coolant. ( 2 ) Another choice of coolant is a liquid coolant such as water.
Turbine Cooling Techniques Using Air as Coolant :

( 1 ) Film cooling technique. (2) Impingement cooling technique. (3) Convection cooling technique. (4) Vane cooling technique. (5) Transpiration cooling technique.

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Liquid-Cooled Turbine

Liquid-Cooled Turbine Blades : A more effective way of cooling turbine blades is to use a liquid coolant. A liquid coolant has a much higher specific heat and provides the opportunity for evaporative cooling . This method may be considered only for use in stationary power plants or other on-ground applications
Water Cooled Copper Chill

liquid-cooled turbine blade


Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System
Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Advantages and disadvantages air and liquid as coolant


For liquid coolant :
( 1 ) Liquid-cooling is thus a good solution to a difficult problem, but sometimes it is even difficult to move enough liquid coolant to keep a part cool, it may boil, expand to a gas. ( 2 ) Liquid-cooling makes it easier to maintain each part of the engine at a given temperature in normal operation. ( 3 ) Liquid-coolant makes corrosion in turbine blades. ( 4 ) Liquid-coolant sometimes not avaliable in some places. ( 5 ) Liquid-coolant haver than air - coolant.

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

For air coolant :


( 1 ) In an air-cooled engine, the coolant is already a gas and thus cannot boil. Thus, while air-cooling makes it harder to avoid hot spots, air-cooling also tends to limit sudden hot spot problems caused by boiling coolant. ( 2 ) air coolant its valiable in any conditions . ( 3 ) air coolant not make any type of material problems like a corrosion.

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Turbine Blades Problems

In blade material we study about the important following things :


( 1 ) corrosion resistance:
the corrosion happen when the blades operating in wear conditions, shown in figure (1). high temperature strength happen when the turbine blades operating in high temperature conditions, shown in figure ( 2 )
Fig . (2) turbine blade coating corrosion
Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System
Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Fig . ( 1) an over-heated turbine blade

( 2 ) high-temperature strength :

Turbine rotor

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Turbine rotor

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Turbine rotor

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Turbine rotor

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Turbine rotor

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Sectional Drawing
Casing Blades

Rotor Guide Blade Carrier

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Turbine Manufacturing

Blades

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Blades: Raw Material

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Blades: Manufacturing

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Blades: Different Types

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Turbine Manufacturing

Rotor

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Rotor: Forging

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Rotor: Turning completed

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Rotor: Ready for Blading

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Rotor: Complete Assembly

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Rotor: Complete

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Rotor: Balancing

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Balancing Equipment

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Workshop

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Turbine Manufacturing

Guide Blade Carrier

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Blade Carrier: Casting

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Blade Carrier: Pre-Turned

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Blade Carrier: Guide Blade Rings

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Blade Carrier: Blade Assembly

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Blade carrier: Blade Assembly

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Guide-Blade Carrier (complete)

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Turbine Manufacturing

Valves

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Emergency Stop Valve: Casting

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Emergency Stop-Valve

Valve Body

Control Device

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Control Valve + Servo (mounted)

Servo

Valve Body

Valve

Control Device

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Control Valves
Valve-Chest Valve-Spindle

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Turbine Manufacturing

Turbine Casing

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Casing: During Machining

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Casing: Manufacturing

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Casing: Complete Machined

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Casing: Complete Machined

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Casing: Dimension Check

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Stator Parts: Dimension Check

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Turbine: Final Measurements

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Turbine Manufacturing

Transport

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Transport: Out of Factory

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Transport: Ship Loading

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

ATP: Nozzle Chest

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

ATP3: Exhaust Casing

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Exhaust Section: Purpose

When the gas exit the turbine section they enter the last section of the gas turbine, the exhaust section. The exhaust section is located directly behind the turbine section of the engine. The purpose of the exhaust section is to discharge the spent gases to the atmosphere.

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Exhaust Section: Components


The exhaust section usually consists of the following components: outer housing inner housing struts plenum

These components act as a diffuser, to reduce the turbulence and velocity of exhaust gases
Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System
Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

The outer housing is fastened to the rear flange of the turbine section. The inner housing is connected to the outer housing by struts and may be fitted with a cone to help in the diffusion process. Struts also straighten the exhaust flow.
Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Exhaust Section: Components


The inner housing may contain the gas turbine rear bearing assembly and overspeed trip device. The outer housing flange is used to connect the exhaust collector or plenum to the gas turbine exhaust section. The diffusion process occurs in the exhaust section as the volume is increased.
Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System
Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Exhaust section: Operation


As the exhaust gases pass through the exhaust section components: the velocity is decreased the pressure remains relatively constant the turbulence is reduced The exhaust gases enter the atmosphere from the exhaust plenum. Because exhaust gas temperatures normally exceed 700F, external areas are covered with insulation or guards to protect personnel and to prevent fire.
Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System
Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine-Turbine and Exhaust System

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar