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Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying technical and scientific

knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and
implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that safely
realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. The American Engineers' Council
for Professional Development (ECPD, the predecessor of ABET[1]) has defined
engineering as follows:

“[T]he creative application of scientific principles to design or develop structures,

machines, apparatus, or manufacturing processes, or works utilizing them singly or in
combination; or to construct or operate the same with full cognizance of their design; or
to forecast their behavior under specific operating conditions; all as respects an intended
function, economics of operation and safety to life and property.”[2][3][4]

One who practices engineering is called an engineer, and those licensed to do so may
have more formal designations such as European Engineer, Professional Engineer,
Chartered Engineer, or Incorporated Engineer. The broad discipline of engineering
encompasses a range of more specialized subdisciplines, each with a more specific
emphasis on certain fields of application and particular areas of technology.


• 1 History
o 1.1 Ancient Era
o 1.2 Middle Era
o 1.3 Renaissance Era
o 1.4 Modern Era
• 2 Main branches of engineering
• 3 Methodology
o 3.1 Problem solving
o 3.2 Computer use
• 4 Engineering in a social context
• 5 Cultural presence
• 6 Legislation
• 7 Relationships with other disciplines
o 7.1 Science
o 7.2 Medicine and biology
o 7.3 Art
o 7.4 Other fields
• 8 See also
• 9 References
• 10 Further reading

• 11 External links

[edit] History

The Watt steam engine, a major driver in the industrial revolution, underscores the
importance of engineering in modern history. This model is on display at the main
building of the ETSIIM in Madrid, Spain

The concept of engineering has existed since ancient times as humans devised
fundamental inventions such as the pulley, lever, and wheel. Each of these inventions is
consistent with the modern definition of engineering, exploiting basic mechanical
principles to develop useful tools and objects.

The term engineering itself has a much more recent etymology, deriving from the word
engineer, which itself dates back to 1325, when an engine’er (literally, one who operates
an engine) originally referred to “a constructor of military engines.”[5] In this context,
now obsolete, an “engine” referred to a military machine, i. e., a mechanical contraption
used in war (for example, a catapult). The word “engine” itself is of even older origin,
ultimately deriving from the Latin ingenium (c. 1250), meaning “innate quality,
especially mental power, hence a clever invention.”[6]

Later, as the design of civilian structures such as bridges and buildings matured as a
technical discipline, the term civil engineering[4] entered the lexicon as a way to
distinguish between those specializing in the construction of such non-military projects
and those involved in the older discipline of military engineering (the original meaning of
the word “engineering,” now largely obsolete, with notable exceptions that have survived
to the present day such as military engineering corps, e. g., the U. S. Army Corps of
[edit] Ancient Era

The Acropolis and the Parthenon in Greece, the Roman aqueducts, Via Appia and the
Colosseum, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, the Pharos of Alexandria, the pyramids in
Egypt, Teotihuacán and the cities and pyramids of the Mayan, Inca and Aztec Empires,
the Great Wall of China, among many others, stand as a testament to the ingenuity and
skill of the ancient civil and military engineers.

The earliest civil engineer known by name is Imhotep.[4] As one of the officials of the
Pharaoh, Djosèr, he probably designed and supervised the construction of the Pyramid of
Djoser (the Step Pyramid) at Saqqara in Egypt around 2630-2611 BC. [7] He may also
have been responsible for the first known use of columns in architecture.[citation needed]

Ancient Greece developed machines in both in the civilian and military domains. The
Antikythera mechanism, the earliest known model of a mechanical computer in history,
and the mechanical inventions of Archimedes are examples of early mechanical
engineering. Some of Archimedes' inventions as well as the Antikythera mechanism
required sophisticated knowledge of differential gearing or epicyclic gearing, two key
principles in machine theory that helped design the gear trains of the Industrial revolution
and are still widely used today in diverse fields such as robotics and automotive

Chinese and Roman armies employed complex military machines including the Ballista
and catapult. In the Middle Ages, the Trebuchet was developed.

[edit] Middle Era

An Iraqi by the name of al-Jazari helped influence the design of today's modern machines
when sometime in between 1174 and 1200 he built five machines to pump water for the
kings of the Turkish Artuqid dynasty and their palaces. The double-acting reciprocating
piston pump was instrumental in the later development of engineering in general because
it was the first machine to incorporate both the connecting rod and the crankshaft, thus,
converting rotational motion to reciprocating motion.[9]

British Charter Engineer Donald Routledge Hill once wrote:

It is impossible to over emphasize the importance of al-Jazari's work in the history of

engineering, it provides a wealth of instructions for the design, manufacture and assembly
of machines.[citation needed]

Even today some toys still use the cam-lever mechanism found in al-Jazari's combination
lock and automaton. Besides over 50 ingenious mechanical devices, al-Jazari also
developed and made innovations to segmental gears, mechanical controls, escapement
mechanisms, clocks, robotics, and protocols for designing and manufacturing methods.

[edit] Renaissance Era

The first electrical engineer is considered to be William Gilbert, with his 1600
publication of De Magnete, who was the originator of the term "electricity".[10]

The first steam engine was built in 1698 by mechanical engineer Thomas Savery. The
development of this device gave rise to the industrial revolution in the coming decades,
allowing for the beginnings of mass production.

With the rise of engineering as a profession in the eighteenth century, the term became
more narrowly applied to fields in which mathematics and science were applied to these
ends. Similarly, in addition to military and civil engineering the fields then known as the
mechanic arts became incorporated into engineering.

[edit] Modern Era

Electrical Engineering can trace its origins in the experiments of Alessandro Volta in the
1800s, the experiments of Michael Faraday, Georg Ohm and others and the invention of
the electric motor in 1872. The work of James Maxwell and Heinrich Hertz in the late
19th century gave rise to the field of Electronics. The later inventions of the vacuum tube
and the transistor further accelerated the development of Electronics to such an extent
that electrical and electronics engineers currently outnumber their colleagues of any other
Engineering specialty.[4]

The inventions of Thomas Savery and the Scottish engineer James Watt gave rise to
modern Mechanical Engineering. The development of specialized machines and their
maintenance tools during the industrial revolution led to the rapid growth of Mechanical
Engineering both in its birthplace Britain and abroad.[4]

Chemical Engineering, like its counterpart Mechanical Engineering, developed in the

nineteenth century during the Industrial Revolution.[4] Industrial scale manufacturing
demanded new materials and new processes and by 1880 the need for large scale
production of chemicals was such that a new industry was created, dedicated to the
development and large scale manufacturing of chemicals in new industrial plants.[4] The
role of the chemical engineer was the design of these chemical plants and processes.[4]

Aeronautical Engineering deals with aircraft design while Aerospace Engineering is a

more modern term that expands the reach envelope of the discipline by including
spacecraft design.[11] Its origins can be traced back to the aviation pioneers around the
turn of the century from the 19th century to the 20th although the work of Sir George
Cayley has recently been dated as being from the last decade of the 18th century. Early
knowledge of aeronautical engineering was largely empirical with some concepts and
skills imported from other branches of engineering.[12] Only a decade after the successful
flights by the Wright brothers, the 1920s saw extensive development of aeronautical
engineering through development of World War I military aircraft. Meanwhile, research
to provide fundamental background science continued by combining theoretical physics
with experiments.
The first PhD in engineering (technically, applied science and engineering) awarded in
the United States went to Willard Gibbs at Yale University in 1863; it was also the second
PhD awarded in science in the U.S.[13]

In 1990, with the rise of computer technology, the first search engine was built by
computer engineer Alan Emtage.

[edit] Main branches of engineering

Main article: List of engineering branches

Engineering, much like science, is a broad discipline which is often broken down into
several sub-disciplines. These disciplines concern themselves with differing areas of
engineering work. Although initially an engineer will be trained in a specific discipline,
throughout an engineer's career the engineer may become multi-disciplined, having
worked in several of the outlined areas. Historically the main Branches of Engineering
are categorized as follows:[11][14]

• Aerospace Engineering - The design of aircraft, spacecraft and related topics.

• Chemical Engineering - The conversion of raw materials into usable commodities
and the optimization of flow systems, especially separations.
• Civil Engineering - The design and construction of public and private works, such
as infrastructure, bridges and buildings.
• Electrical Engineering - The design of electrical systems, such as transformers, as
well as electronic goods.
• Mechanical Engineering - The design of physical or mechanical systems, such as
engines, powertrains, kinematic chains and vibration isolation equipment.

With the rapid advancement of Technology many new fields are gaining prominence and
new branches are developing such as Computer Engineering, Software Engineering,
Nanotechnology, Molecular engineering, Mechatronics etc. These new specialties
sometimes combine with the traditional fields and form new branches such as Mechanical
Engineering and Mechatronics and Electrical and Computer Engineering.

For each of these fields there exists considerable overlap, especially in the areas of the
application of sciences to their disciplines such as physics, chemistry and mathematics.

[edit] Methodology
Design of a turbine requires collaboration from engineers from many fields

Engineers apply the sciences of physics and mathematics to find suitable solutions to
problems or to make improvements to the status quo. More than ever, Engineers are now
required to have knowledge of relevant sciences for their design projects, as a result, they
keep on learning new material throughout their career. If multiple options exist, engineers
weigh different design choices on their merits and choose the solution that best matches
the requirements. The crucial and unique task of the engineer is to identify, understand,
and interpret the constraints on a design in order to produce a successful result. It is
usually not enough to build a technically successful product; it must also meet further
requirements. Constraints may include available resources, physical, imaginative or
technical limitations, flexibility for future modifications and additions, and other factors,
such as requirements for cost, safety, marketability, productibility, and serviceability. By
understanding the constraints, engineers derive specifications for the limits within which
a viable object or system may be produced and operated.

[edit] Problem solving

Engineers use their knowledge of science, mathematics, and appropriate experience to

find suitable solutions to a problem. Engineering is considered a branch of applied
mathematics and science. Creating an appropriate mathematical model of a problem
allows them to analyze it (sometimes definitively), and to test potential solutions. Usually
multiple reasonable solutions exist, so engineers must evaluate the different design
choices on their merits and choose the solution that best meets their requirements.
Genrich Altshuller, after gathering statistics on a large number of patents, suggested that
compromises are at the heart of "low-level" engineering designs, while at a higher level
the best design is one which eliminates the core contradiction causing the problem.

Engineers typically attempt to predict how well their designs will perform to their
specifications prior to full-scale production. They use, among other things: prototypes,
scale models, simulations, destructive tests, nondestructive tests, and stress tests. Testing
ensures that products will perform as expected. Engineers as professionals take seriously
their responsibility to produce designs that will perform as expected and will not cause
unintended harm to the public at large. Engineers typically include a factor of safety in
their designs to reduce the risk of unexpected failure. However, the greater the safety
factor, the less efficient the design may be. The study of failed products is known as
forensic engineering, and can help the product designer in evaluating his or her design in
the light of real conditions. The discipline is of greatest value after disasters, such as
bridge collapses, when careful analysis is needed to establish the cause or causes of the

[edit] Computer use

A computer simulation of high velocity air flow around the Space Shuttle during re-entry.

As with all modern scientific and technological endeavors, computers and software play
an increasingly important role. As well as the typical business application software there
are a number of computer aided applications (CAx) specifically for engineering.
Computers can be used to generate models of fundamental physical processes, which can
be solved using numerical methods.

One of the most widely used tools in the profession is computer-aided design (CAD)
software which enables engineers to create 3D models, 2D drawings, and schematics of
their designs. CAD together with Digital mockup (DMU) and CAE software such as
finite element method analysis or analytic element method allows engineers to create
models of designs that can be analyzed without having to make expensive and time-
consuming physical prototypes. These allow products and components to be checked for
flaws; assess fit and assembly; study ergonomics; and to analyze static and dynamic
characteristics of systems such as stresses, temperatures, electromagnetic emissions,
electrical currents and voltages, digital logic levels, fluid flows, and kinematics. Access
and distribution of all this information is generally organized with the use of Product
Data Management software.[15]

There are also many tools to support specific engineering tasks such as Computer-aided
manufacture (CAM) software to generate CNC machining instructions; Manufacturing
Process Management software for production engineering; EDA for printed circuit board
(PCB) and circuit schematics for electronic engineers; MRO applications for maintenance
management; and AEC software for civil engineering.

In recent years the use of computer software to aid the development of goods has
collectively come to be known as Product Lifecycle Management (PLM).[16]

[edit] Engineering in a social context

Engineering is a subject that ranges from large collaborations to small individual projects.
Almost all engineering projects are beholden to some sort of financing agency: a
company, a set of investors, or a government. The few types of engineering that are
minimally constrained by such issues are pro bono engineering and open design

By its very nature engineering is bound up with society and human behavior. Every
product or construction used by modern society will have been influenced by engineering
design. Engineering design is a very powerful tool to make changes to environment,
society and economies, and its application brings with it a great responsibility, as
represented by many of the Engineering Institutions codes of practice and ethics.
Whereas medical ethics is a well-established field with considerable consensus,
engineering ethics is far less developed, and engineering projects can be subject to
considerable controversy. Just a few examples of this from different engineering
disciplines are the development of nuclear weapons, the Three Gorges Dam, the design
and use of Sports Utility Vehicles and the extraction of oil. There is a growing trend
amongst western engineering companies to enact serious Corporate and Social
Responsibility policies, but many companies do not have these.

Engineering is a key driver of human development.[17] Sub-Saharan Africa in particular

has a very small engineering capacity which results in many African nations being unable
to develop crucial infrastructure without outside aid. The attainment of many of the
Millennium Development Goals requires the achievement of sufficient engineering
capacity to develop infrastructure and sustainable technological development.[18] All
overseas development and relief NGOs make considerable use of engineers to apply
solutions in disaster and development scenarios. A number of charitable organizations
aim to use engineering directly for the good of mankind:

• Engineers Without Borders

• Engineers Against Poverty
• Registered Engineers for Disaster Relief
• Engineers for a Sustainable World

[edit] Cultural presence

Engineering is a well respected profession. For example, in Canada it ranks as one of the
public's most trusted professions.[19]
Sometimes engineering has been seen as a somewhat dry, uninteresting field in popular
culture, and has also been thought to be the domain of nerds. For example, the cartoon
character Dilbert is an engineer. One difficulty in increasing public awareness of the
profession is that average people, in the typical run of ordinary life, do not ever have any
personal dealings with engineers, even though they benefit from their work every day. By
contrast, it is common to visit a doctor at least once a year, the chartered accountant at tax
time, and, occasionally, even a lawyer.

This has not always been so - most British school children in the 1950s were brought up
with stirring tales of 'the Victorian Engineers', chief amongst whom were the Brunels, the
Stephensons, Telford and their contemporaries.

In science fiction engineers are often portrayed as highly knowledgeable and respectable
individuals who understand the overwhelming future technologies often portrayed in the
genre. The Star Trek characters Montgomery Scott, Geordi La Forge, Miles O'Brien,
B'Elanna Torres, and Charles Tucker are famous examples.

Occasionally, engineers may be recognized by the "Iron Ring"--a stainless steel or iron
ring worn on the little finger of the dominant hand. This tradition began in 1925 in
Canada for the Ritual of the Calling of an Engineer as a symbol of pride and obligation
for the engineering profession. Some years later in 1972 this practice was adopted by
several colleges in the United States. Members of the US Order of the Engineer accept
this ring as a pledge to uphold the proud history of engineering.

A Professional Engineer's name may be followed by the post-nominal letters PE or P.Eng

in North America. In much of Europe a professional engineer is denoted by the letters IR,
while in the UK and much of the Commonwealth the term Chartered Engineer applies
and is denoted by the letters CEng.

[edit] Legislation
This article or section is missing citations or needs footnotes.
Using inline citations helps guard against copyright violations and factual inaccuracies. (April

In most Western countries, certain engineering tasks, such as the design of bridges,
electric power plants, and chemical plants, must be approved by a Professional Engineer
or a Chartered Engineer or an Incorporated Engineer.

Laws protecting public health and safety mandate that a professional must provide
guidance gained through education and experience. In the United States, each state tests
and licenses Professional Engineers. In much of Europe and the Commonwealth
professional accreditation is provided by Engineering Institutions, such as the Institution
of Civil Engineers from the UK. The engineering institutions of the UK are some of the
oldest in the world, and provide accreditation to many engineers around the world. In
Canada the profession in each province is governed by its own engineering association.
For instance, in the Province of British Columbia an engineering graduate with 4 or more
years of experience in an engineering-related field will need to be registered by the
Association for Professional Engineers and Geoscientists [(APEGBC)][20] in order to
become a Professional Engineer and be granted the professional designation of P.Eng.

The federal US government, however, supervises aviation through the Federal Aviation
Regulations administrated by the Dept. of Transportation, Federal Aviation
Administration. Designated Engineering Representatives approve data for aircraft design
and repairs on behalf of the Federal Aviation Administration.

Even with strict testing and licensure, engineering disasters still occur. Therefore, the
Professional Engineer, Chartered Engineer, or Incorporated Engineer adheres to a strict
code of ethics. Each engineering discipline and professional society maintains a code of
ethics, which the members pledge to uphold.

Refer also to the Washington accord for international accreditation details of professional
engineering degrees.

[edit] Relationships with other disciplines

[edit] Science

Scientists study the world as it is; engineers create the world that has never been.

—Theodore von Kármán

There exists an overlap between the sciences and engineering practice; in engineering,
one applies science. Both areas of endeavor rely on accurate observation of materials and
phenomena. Both use mathematics and classification criteria to analyze and communicate
observations. Scientists are expected to interpret their observations and to make expert
recommendations for practical action based on those interpretations.[citation needed] Scientists
may also have to complete engineering tasks, such as designing experimental apparatus
or building prototypes. Conversely, in the process of developing technology engineers
sometimes find themselves exploring new phenomena, thus becoming, for the moment,

In the book What Engineers Know and How They Know It,[21] Walter Vincenti asserts that
engineering research has a character different from that of scientific research. First, it
often deals with areas in which the basic physics and/or chemistry are well understood,
but the problems themselves are too complex to solve in an exact manner. Examples are
the use of numerical approximations to the Navier-Stokes equations to describe
aerodynamic flow over an aircraft, or the use of Miner's rule to calculate fatigue damage.
Second, engineering research employs many semi-empirical methods that are foreign to
pure scientific research, one example being the method of parameter variation.
As stated by Fung et al. in the revision to the classic engineering text, Foundations of
Solid Mechanics, [22]

"Engineering is quite different from science. Scientists try to understand nature.

Engineers try to make things that do not exist in nature. Engineers stress invention. To
embody an invention the engineer must put his idea in concrete terms, and design
something that people can use. That something can be a device, a gadget, a material, a
method, a computing program, an innovative experiment, a new solution to a problem, or
an improvement on what is existing. Since a design has to be concrete, it must have its
geometry, dimensions, and characteristic numbers. Almost all engineers working on new
designs find that they do not have all the needed information. Most often, they are limited
by insufficient scientific knowledge. Thus they study mathematics, physics, chemistry,
biology and mechanics. Often they have to add to the sciences relevant to their
profession. Thus engineering sciences are born."

Scientists and engineers make up less than 5% of the population but create up to 50% of
the GDP.[23]

[edit] Medicine and biology

Leonardo DaVinci, seen here in a self-portrait, has been described as the epitome of the
artist/engineer.[24] He is also known for his studies on human anatomy and physiognomy

The study of the human body, albeit from different directions and for different purposes,
is an important common link between medicine and some engineering disciplines.
Medicine aims to sustain, enhance and even replace functions of the human body, if
necessary, through the use of technology. Modern medicine can replace several of the
body's functions through the use of artificial organs and can significantly alter the
function of the human body through artificial devices such as, for example, brain
implants and pacemakers.[25][26] The fields of Bionics and medical Bionics are dedicated to
the study of synthetic implants pertaining to natural systems. Conversely, some
engineering disciplines view the human body as a biological machine worth studying,
and are dedicated to emulating many of its functions by replacing biology with
technology. This has led to fields such as artificial intelligence, neural networks, fuzzy
logic, and robotics. There are also substantial interdisciplinary interactions between
engineering and medicine.[27][28]

Both fields provide solutions to real world problems. This often requires moving forward
before phenomena are completely understood in a more rigorous scientific sense and
therefore experimentation and empirical knowledge is an integral part of both. Medicine,
in part, studies the function of the human body. The human body, as a biological machine,
has many functions that can be modeled using Engineering methods.[29] The heart for
example functions much like a pump,[30] the skeleton is like a linked structure with
levers,[31] the brain produces electrical signals etc.[32] These similarities as well as the
increasing importance and application of Engineering principles in Medicine, led to the
development of the field of biomedical engineering that utilizes concepts developed in
both disciplines.

Newly emerging branches of science, such as Systems biology, are adapting analytical
tools traditionally used for engineering, such as systems modeling and computational
analysis, to the description of biological systems.[29]

[edit] Art

There are connections between engineering and art;[33] they are direct in some fields, for
example, architecture, landscape architecture and industrial design (even to the extent
that these disciplines may sometimes be included in a University's Faculty of
Engineering); and indirect in others.[33][34][35][36] The Art Institute of Chicago, for instance,
held an exhibition about the art of NASA's aerospace design.[37] Robert Maillart's bridge
design is perceived by some to have been deliberately artistic.[38] At the University of
South Florida, an engineering professor, through a grant with the National Science
Foundation, has developed a course that connects art and engineering.[39][34] Among
famous historical figures Leonardo Da Vinci is a well known Renaissance artist and
engineer, and a prime example of the nexus between art and engineering.[24][40]

[edit] Other fields

In Political science the term engineering has been borrowed for the study of the subjects
of Social engineering and Political engineering, which deal with forming political and
social structures using engineering methodology coupled with political science principles.

[edit] See also

Lists Engineering portal
• List of basic engineering topics subjects
• List of engineering topics
• List of engineers • Design
• Engineering society • Earthquake engineering
• List of aerospace engineering topics • Engineering economics
• List of basic chemical engineering topics • Engineers Without Borders
• List of electrical engineering topics • Forensic engineering
• List of genetic engineering topics • Sustainable engineering
• List of mechanical engineering topics • Industrial design
• List of nanoengineering topics • Open hardware
• Science and technology
• List of software engineering topics
• Women in engineering

[edit] References
1. ^ ABET History
2. ^ Science, Volume 94, Issue 2446, pp. 456: Engineers' Council for Professional
3. ^ Engineers' Council for Professional Development. (1947). Canons of ethics for
4. ^ a b c d e f g h Engineers' Council for Professional Development definition on
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Includes Britannica article on Engineering)
5. ^ Oxford English Dictionary
6. ^ Origin: 1250–1300; ME engin < AF, OF < L ingenium nature, innate quality,
esp. mental power, hence a clever invention, equiv. to in- + -genium, equiv. to
gen- begetting; Source: Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random
House, Inc. 2006.
7. ^ Barry J. Kemp, Ancient Egypt, Routledge 2005, p.159
8. ^ Wright, M T. (2005). "Epicyclic Gearing and the Antikythera Mechanism, part
2". Antiquarian Horology 29 (1 (September 2005)): 54–60.
9. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan. The Crank-Connecting Rod System in a Continuously
Rotating Machine.
10. ^ Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 2000, CD-ROM, version 2.5.
11. ^ a b Imperial College London England: Studying engineering at Imperial:
Engineering courses are offered in five main branches of engineering:
aeronautical, chemical, civil, electrical and mechanical. There are also courses in
computing science, software engineering, information systems engineering,
materials science and engineering, mining engineering and petroleum
12. ^ Van Every, Kermit E. (1986). "Aeronautical engineering". Encyclopedia
Americana 1. Grolier Incorporated. 226.
13. ^ Wheeler, Lynde, Phelps (1951). Josiah Willard Gibbs - the History of a Great
Mind. Ox Bow Press. ISBN 1-881987-11-6.
14. ^ U of Edinburgh Welcome to Chemical Engineering, which is celebrating 50
years this academic year, is part of the School of Engineering and Electronics
(SEE), which includes the other three main engineering disciplines of electrical
and electronic engineering, civil engineering and mechanical engineering.
15. ^ Arbe, Katrina (2001.05.07). "PDM: Not Just for the Big Boys Anymore".
16. ^ Arbe, Katrina (2003.05.22). "The Latest Chapter in CAD Software Evaluation".
17. ^ PDF on Human Development
18. ^ MDG info pdf
19. ^ Leger Marketing. "Sponsorship effect seen in survey of most-trusted
professions: pollster"., pg. 2, The occupations most-trusted by Canadians,
according to a poll by Leger Marketing... Engineering 88 per cent of
20. ^ APEGBC - Professional Engineers and Geoscientists of BC
21. ^ Vincenti, Walter G. (1993). What Engineers Know and How They Know It:
Analytical Studies from Aeronautical History. Johns Hopkins University Press.
22. ^ Classical and Computational Solid Mechanics, YC Fung and P. Tong. World
Scientific. 2001.
23. ^ Reader's Digest, December 2005, p. 110
24. ^ a b Bjerklie, David. “The Art of Renaissance Engineering.” MIT’s Technology
Review Jan./Feb.1998: 54-9. Article explores the concept of the “artist-engineer”,
an individual who used his artistic talent in engineering. Quote from article: Da
Vinci reached the pinnacle of “artist-engineer”-dom, Quote2: “It was Leonardo da
Vinci who initiated the most ambitious expansion in the role of artist-engineer,
progressing from astute observer to inventor to theoretician.” (Bjerklie 58)
25. ^ Ethical Assessment of Implantable Brain Chips. Ellen M. McGee and G. Q.
Maguire, Jr. from Boston University
26. ^ IEEE technical paper: Foreign parts (electronic body implants).by Evans-Pughe,
C. quote from summary:Feeling threatened by cyborgs?
27. ^ Institute of Medicine and Engineering: Mission statement The mission of the
Institute for Medicine and Engineering (IME) is to stimulate fundamental research
at the interface between biomedicine and engineering/physical/computational
sciences leading to innovative applications in biomedical research and clinical
28. ^ IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology: Both general and technical articles
on current technologies and methods used in biomedical and clinical
29. ^ a b Royal Academy of Engineering and Academy of Medical Sciences: Systems
Biology: a vision for engineering and medicine in pdf: quote1: Systems Biology is
an emerging methodology that has yet to be defined quote2: It applies the
concepts of systems engineering to the study of complex biological systems
through iteration between computational and/or mathematical modelling and
30. ^ Science Museum of Minnesota: Online Lesson 5a; The heart as a pump
31. ^ Minnesota State University emuseum: Bones act as levers
32. ^ UC Berkeley News: UC researchers create model of brain's electrical storm
during a seizure
33. ^ a b Lehigh University project: We wanted to use this project to demonstrate the
relationship between art and architecture and engineering
34. ^ a b National Science Foundation:The Art of Engineering: Professor uses the fine
arts to broaden students' engineering perspectives
35. ^ MIT World:The Art of Engineering: Inventor James Dyson on the Art of
Engineering: quote: A member of the British Design Council, James Dyson has
been designing products since graduating from the Royal College of Art in 1970.
36. ^ University of Texas at Dallas:The Institute for Interactive Arts and Engineering
37. ^ Aerospace Design: The Art of Engineering from NASA’s Aeronautical Research
38. ^ Princeton U: Robert Maillart's Bridges: The Art of Engineering: quote:no doubt
that Maillart was fully conscious of the aesthetic implications...
39. ^ quote:..the tools of artists and the perspective of engineers..
40. ^ Drew U: user website: cites Bjerklie paper

[edit] Further reading

• Billington, David P. (1996-06-05). The Innovators: The Engineering Pioneers
Who Made America Modern. Wiley; New Ed edition. ISBN 0-471-14026-0.
• Petroski, Henry (1992-03-31). To Engineer is Human: The Role of Failure in
Successful Design. Vintage. ISBN 0-679-73416-3.
• Petroski, Henry (1994-02-01). The Evolution of Useful Things: How Everyday
Artifacts-From Forks and Pins to Paper Clips and Zippers-Came to be as They
are. Vintage. ISBN 0-679-74039-2.
• Lord, Charles R. (2000-08-15). Guide to Information Sources in Engineering.
Libraries Unlimited. doi:10.1336/1563086999. ISBN 1-563-08699-9.
• Vincenti, Walter G. (1993-02-01). What Engineers Know and How They Know It:
Analytical Studies from Aeronautical History. The Johns Hopkins University
Press. ISBN 0-80184588-2.
• Hill, Donald R. (1973-12-31) [1206]. The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious
Mechanical Devices: Kitáb fí ma'rifat al-hiyal al-handasiyya. Pakistan Hijara
Council. ISBN 969-8016-25-2.

[edit] External links

Look up engineering in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

At Wikiversity, you can learn about: Engineering

• National Society of Professional Engineers article on Licensure and
Qualifications for the Practice of Engineering
• American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE)
• The US Library of Congress Engineering in History bibliography
• ICES: Institute for Complex Engineered Systems, Carnegie Mellon University,
Pittsburgh, PA
• History of engineering bibliography at University of Minnesota
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