46 views

Uploaded by nesrinc

- A Guide to Implementing Lesson Study
- example.docx
- understanding_the_problem
- Difficult People Ward Jan2011
- Models of Design in Studio Teaching
- jessica valdez observation 1 lesson plan
- Campoy critical thinking
- Problem Solving
- another looking for pattern
- labsyll
- Teaching Style Inventory
- Problem Solving Method
- Graphical user interface
- Styles.docx
- meisha math observation
- Artículo 2.pdf
- Transforming Community Schools in Open Learning Communities
- Students
- kursman final clincal supervision
- math lesson 8 10

You are on page 1of 22

• Welcome

• Working on a mathematical task

• Examining student thinking

• Examining your students’ thinking

• Analyzing facilitation moves and

decisions

1

Goals of the Session

• Making connections among different strategies

• Developing the knowledge and skills for

analyzing student thinking

• Confronting students’ misconceptions and/or

shallow understandings

• Identifying difficulties that students might have

when working on ratio comparison problems

• Developing skills for facilitating professional

development around examining student work

2

Pizza Problem

! Consider this drawing of pizzas and people. Assume that

each person within each group gets the same amount of

pizza.

• Who gets more pizza, the people in Group 1 or the

people in Group 2?

• Explain your answer.

Group 1 Group 2

3

Source: Vermont Mathematics Partnership, The Vermont Institutes

Analyzing the Task

• How is the mathematics in this task

connected to the GLCEs?

• How is this problem similar to or

different from previous tasks?

4

Examining Student Thinking

understand or know? What is the

evidence?

• What are the implications for

instruction?

5

Examining Your Students’ Work

understand or know? What is the

evidence?

• What are the implications for

instruction?

6

Facilitating Professional Development

Around Examining Student Work

• Examining student work

• Discussing implications of this

analysis for instruction

7

Facilitating Professional Development

Around Examining Student Work

• Solving the problem

• Discussing different solutions

• Making connections among multiple solutions

and representations

• Providing justifications

• Identifying mathematical goals of the task

• Anticipating possible student solutions and

student struggles

8

Facilitating Professional Development

Around Examining Student Work

• Identifying different student strategies or

ways of thinking

• Considering the reasonableness of each

strategy

• Identifying what students understand and

the evidence to support your claim

• Identifying student misconceptions and the

evidence to support your claim

9

Facilitating Professional Development

Around Examining Student Work

analysis for instruction

• Deciding what kind of scaffolding might be

appropriate

• Identifying concepts and procedures to be

revisited if needed

• Deciding what to pursue publicly

10

Reflection

• What stood out for you today?

• For the next session:

– Read “Thinking through a lesson:

Successfully Implementing High-

Level Tasks” by Smith, Bill, & Hughes

– Respond to question(s) posed on

Moodle

11

MMSTLC OGAP Problem December 12, 2008, SVSU

Source: Vermont Mathematics Partnership

The Vermont Institutes

o

!"#$

o %

o &

'

o

o (

o

o

Thinking through a Lesson:

Successfully Implementing High-Level Tasks

m

Margaret S. Smith, Victoria Bill, and Elizabeth K. Hughes

Mathematical tasks that give students

Margaret S. Smith, pegs@pitt.edu, is an associate professor of mathematics educa- the opportunity to use reasoning skills

tion at the University of Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania. Over the past decade, she has been while thinking are the most difficult for

developing research-based materials for use in the professional development of math-

teachers to implement well. Research

ematics teachers and studying what teachers learn from their professional development.

BRUCE LONNGREN/ISTOCKPHOTO.COM

by Stein and colleagues (Henningsen

Victoria Bill, vbill@pitt.edu, is a fellow at the Institute for Learning at the University of

Pittsburgh. She provides professional development to coaches and other instructional

and Stein 1997; Stein and Lane 1996;

leaders who are supporting mathematics education reform in urban school districts. Stein, Grover, and Henningsen 1996)

Elizabeth K. Hughes, ekhughes@verizon.com, is an assistant professor at the Univer- makes the case resoundingly that cog-

sity of Northern Iowa in Cedar Falls. Her areas of interest include preservice secondary nitively challenging tasks that promote

mathematics teacher education and the use of practice-based materials in developing thinking, reasoning, and problem

teachers’ understanding of what it means to teach and learn mathematics. solving often decline during implemen-

132 MATHEMATICS TEACHING IN THE MIDDLE SCHOOL L Vol. 14, No. 3, October 2008

Copyright © 2008 The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc. www.nctm.org. All rights reserved.

This material may not be copied or distributed electronically or in any other format without written permission from NCTM.

tation as a result of various classroom Fig. 1 The Bag of Marbles task

factors. When this occurs, students

must apply previously learned rules Ms. Rhee’s mathematics class was studying statistics. She brought in three bags

and procedures with no connection to containing red and blue marbles. The three bags were labeled as shown below:

meaning or understanding, and the op-

portunities for thinking and reasoning

are lost. Why are such tasks so difficult

to implement in ways that maintain

75 red 40 red 100 red

the rigor of the activity? Stein and Kim 25 blue 20 blue 25 blue

(2006, p. 11) contend that lessons based

on high-level (i.e., cognitively chal- Bag X Bag Y Bag Z

lenging) tasks “are less intellectually Total = 100 marbles Total = 60 marbles Total = 125 marbles

‘controllable’ from the teacher’s point of

view.” They argue that since procedures Ms. Rhee shook each bag. She asked the class, “If you close your eyes,

for solving high-level tasks are often reach into a bag, and remove 1 marble, which bag would give you the best

not specified in advance, students must chance of picking a blue marble?”

draw on their relevant knowledge and

experiences to find a solution path. Which bag would you choose?

Take, for example, the Bag of Marbles

Explain why this bag gives you the best chance of picking a blue marble. You

task shown in figure 1. Using their

may use the diagram above in your explanation.

knowledge of fractions, ratios, and

percents, students can solve the task in

a number of different ways:

marbles in each bag and select the EXPLORING THE LESSON

v Determine the fraction of each bag bag that has the smallest difference PLANNING PROTOCOL

that is blue marbles, decide which between red and blue (not correct) The TTLP, shown in figure 2,

of the three fractions is largest, provides a framework for developing

then select the bag with the largest The lack of a specific solution path lessons that use students’ mathemati-

fraction of blue marbles is an important component of what cal thinking as the critical ingredient

v Determine the fraction of each bag makes this task worthwhile. It also in developing their understanding

that is blue marbles, change each challenges teachers to understand the of key disciplinary ideas. As such, it

fraction to a percent, then select wide range of methods that a student is intended to promote the type of

the bag with the largest percent of might use to solve a task and think careful and detailed planning that is

blue marbles about how the different methods are characteristic of Japanese lesson study

v Determine the unit rate of red related, as well as how to connect (Stigler and Hiebert 1999) by helping

to blue marbles for each bag and students’ diverse ways of thinking to teachers anticipate what students will

decide which bag has the fewest important disciplinary ideas. do and generate questions teachers

red marbles for every 1 blue marble One way to both control teaching can ask that will promote student

v Scale up the ratios representing with high-level tasks and promote suc- learning prior to a lesson being taught.

each bag so that the number of cess is through detailed planning prior The TTLP is divided into three

blue marbles in each bag is the to the lesson. The remainder of this sections: Part 1: Selecting and Set-

same, then select the bag that has article focuses on TTLP: the Thinking ting Up a Mathematical Task, Part

the fewest red marbles for the fixed Through a Lesson Protocol. TTLP is 2: Supporting Students’ Exploration

number of blue marbles a process that is intended to further of the Task, and Part 3: Sharing and

v Compare bags that have the same the use of cognitively challenging tasks Discussing the Task. Part 1 lays the

number of blue marbles, eliminate (Smith and Stein 1998). We begin groundwork for subsequent planning

the bag that has more red marbles, by discussing the key features of the by asking the teacher to identify the

and compare the remaining two TTLP, suggest ways in which it can be mathematical goals for the lesson

bags using one of the other methods used with collaborative lesson plan- and set expectations regarding how

v Determine the difference be- ning, and conclude with a discussion students will work. The mathemati-

tween the number of red and blue of the potential benefits of using it. cal ideas to be learned through work

Vol. 14, No. 3, October 2008 L MATHEMATICS TEACHING IN THE MIDDLE SCHOOL 133

on a specific task provide direction mathematical horizon” (Ball 1993) as they explore the task (individu-

for all decision making during the and never lose sight of what they are ally or in small groups). Students are

lesson. The intent of the TTLP is trying to accomplish mathematically. asked questions based on the solution

to help teachers keep “an eye on the Part 2 focuses on monitoring students method used to assess what they

Fig. 2 Thinking Through a Lesson Protocol (TTLP)

PART 1: SELECTING AND SETTING UP v assess students’ understanding of key mathematical

A MATHEMATICAL TASK ideas, problem-solving strategies, or the representations?

What are your mathematical goals for the lesson (i.e., what v advance students’ understanding of the mathematical

do you want students to know and understand about math- ideas?

ematics as a result of this lesson)? v encourage all students to share their thinking with others

or to assess their understanding of their peers’ ideas?

In what ways does the task build on students’ previous knowl-

edge, life experiences, and culture? What definitions, concepts, How will you ensure that students remain engaged in the task?

or ideas do students need to know to begin to work on the

task? What questions will you ask to help students access their v What assistance will you give or what questions will you ask

prior knowledge and relevant life and cultural experiences? a student (or group) who becomes quickly frustrated and

requests more direction and guidance in solving the task?

What are all the ways the task can be solved? v What will you do if a student (or group) finishes the task

almost immediately? How will you extend the task so as

v Which of these methods do you think your students will use? to provide additional challenge?

v What misconceptions might students have? v What will you do if a student (or group) focuses on non-

v What errors might students make? mathematical aspects of the activity (e.g., spends most of

his or her (or their) time making a poster of their work)?

What particular challenges might the task present to strug-

gling students or students who are English Language Learners PART 3: SHARING AND DISCUSSING THE TASK

(ELL)? How will you address these challenges? How will you orchestrate the class discussion so that you

accomplish your mathematical goals?

What are your expectations for students as they work on and

complete this task? v Which solution paths do you want to have shared during

the class discussion? In what order will the solutions be

v What resources or tools will students have to use in presented? Why?

their work that will give them entry into, and help them v In what ways will the order in which solutions are

reason through, the task? presented help develop students’ understanding of the

v How will the students work—independently, in small mathematical ideas that are the focus of your lesson?

groups, or in pairs—to explore this task? How long will v What specific questions will you ask so that students will—

they work individually or in small groups or pairs? Will stu-

dents be partnered in a specific way? If so, in what way? 1. make sense of the mathematical ideas that you want

v How will students record and report their work? them to learn?

2. expand on, debate, and question the solutions being

How will you introduce students to the activity so as to provide shared?

access to all students while maintaining the cognitive demands 3. make connections among the different strategies that

of the task? How will you ensure that students understand the are presented?

context of the problem? What will you hear that lets you know 4. look for patterns?

students understand what the task is asking them to do? 5. begin to form generalizations?

PART 2: SUPPORTING STUDENTS’ How will you ensure that, over time, each student has the oppor-

EXPLORATION OF THE TASK tunity to share his or her thinking and reasoning with their peers?

As students work independently or in small groups, what

questions will you ask to— What will you see or hear that lets you know that all students

in the class understand the mathematical ideas that you

v help a group get started or make progress on the task? intended for them to learn?

v focus students’ thinking on the key mathematical ideas

in the task? What will you do tomorrow that will build on this lesson?

134 MATHEMATICS TEACHING IN THE MIDDLE SCHOOL L Vol. 14, No. 3, October 2008

- A Guide to Implementing Lesson StudyUploaded byupsid033538
- example.docxUploaded byStephanie Marie Mateo Daep
- understanding_the_problemUploaded byLapnd
- Difficult People Ward Jan2011Uploaded byKmt_Ae
- Models of Design in Studio TeachingUploaded bynabahali
- jessica valdez observation 1 lesson planUploaded byapi-337264976
- Campoy critical thinkingUploaded byDirma Yu Lita
- Problem SolvingUploaded byFreddy XanXus
- another looking for patternUploaded bynitafron
- labsyllUploaded byapi-261478273
- Teaching Style InventoryUploaded byJessie L. Labiste Jr.
- Problem Solving MethodUploaded byNazmi Nasir
- Graphical user interfaceUploaded byShweYi
- Styles.docxUploaded bymayilsamy.s
- meisha math observationUploaded byapi-252166606
- Artículo 2.pdfUploaded byMayumi Argueso Calero
- Transforming Community Schools in Open Learning CommunitiesUploaded byJan Velasco
- StudentsUploaded byshingavi_s
- kursman final clincal supervisionUploaded byapi-251991144
- math lesson 8 10Uploaded byapi-312347558
- chemistry exemplarUploaded bysandeep
- your rubric math - problem solving areas of polygonsUploaded byapi-351763452
- Table of SpecificationUploaded byfrancessich
- A Short Report Concerning the Einstellung EffectUploaded byJoseph
- activity nameUploaded byapi-276379219
- justification for choice of topic -final copyUploaded byapi-286079666
- Dpe 101 Final Exam Part 1 (Ay '10-11)Uploaded byMarthaCruz
- stem lesson planUploaded byapi-325616927
- March 31, 2014Uploaded bymonicatindall
- assessmatrixUploaded byapi-250409640

- Proportional Graphic OrganizerUploaded bynesrinc
- Task Pizza House Meal PlansUploaded bynesrinc
- Ses8 MariosPizzaProblem ClareUploaded bynesrinc
- Ses8 MariosPizzaProblem ClareUploaded bynesrinc
- PreAssessment_6thGradeUploaded bynesrinc
- Pics MariosPizzaProblemUploaded bynesrinc
- Session8 CompleteUploaded bynesrinc
- Pics MariosPizzaProblemUploaded bynesrinc
- 1c PPT OGAPOverviewUploaded bynesrinc
- Pre Assessment ParticipantsUploaded bynesrinc
- Pics Cadre1Uploaded bynesrinc
- Pics ComparingProportionalityUploaded bynesrinc
- PreAssessment_7thGradeUploaded bynesrinc
- Pics MariosPizzaProblemUploaded bynesrinc
- Session 17 CompleteUploaded bynesrinc
- Ppt Pics c2s7 PtskyUploaded bynesrinc
- Ppt Pics c2s6Uploaded bynesrinc
- 1a Task Assessment Cards LargeUploaded bynesrinc
- Transcript Erroneous Additive Thinking ScalingUpUploaded bynesrinc
- Ppt Pics c2s7 DbrnUploaded bynesrinc
- Task_Sim&Diff_CE&DYUploaded bynesrinc
- Task_Sim&Diff_CE&DYUploaded bynesrinc
- Ppt Pics c2s7Uploaded bynesrinc
- Ppt Linkingtoglcesc2s6Uploaded bynesrinc
- Task HexTrain CE&DYCaseUploaded bynesrinc
- Task ConnectingToGLCEsUploaded bynesrinc
- Task Coffee ProblemUploaded bynesrinc
- Ppt Ce&Dycase Dearbornc2s7Uploaded bynesrinc
- Ppt Ce&Dycase Dearbornc2s7Uploaded bynesrinc

- Review of Ugos Reflection (1)Uploaded byUgo Okechukwu
- art integrated lessonUploaded byapi-248517029
- topfer referenceUploaded byapi-296641501
- Standards ApproachUploaded byGatot Setyo Utomo
- S2-2014-294764-bibliographyUploaded byMoh Inam Latif
- Paul Ricoeur PhilosophyUploaded byRosa Luxemburg
- A Book Review of Renato noUploaded byExodia Ampharo
- My Culture BoxUploaded byMichael Mcclanathan
- Principles Ray Dalio Summary From Allencheng.comUploaded byAsif Kureishi
- Do u Speak GlobleUploaded bySylvia Sun
- Nudler 2001 - Is There Progress in Philosophy - A Russelian ViewUploaded byCastuloCastulo
- JAB G.pdfUploaded bysangram
- S11 Math118 Course SyllabusUploaded byFatin Chowdhury
- PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL USING BASIC T- NORMS BY SOFTWARE FUZZY ALGORITHMUploaded byJASH MATHEW
- Sbfc2e Chapter 2 IrgUploaded bymankax
- Veris MultitudeUploaded byjoshumax
- dosmatthewkillham 2015 12 1Uploaded byapi-384442224
- Career DevelopmentUploaded byGeofrey
- Amazing Race PowerpointUploaded byAntonio Antonio
- LBM 1 - Effective Communication Skills (1)Uploaded byIkrima Nsn
- case study-developmentUploaded byapi-246221764
- day 2Uploaded byapi-252811687
- finalengassignment1Uploaded byapi-356855050
- MKT 330 Syllabus Semester 113 (2) (1)Uploaded byFadzlli Amin
- Infusing Interprofessional Education Into the.7Uploaded byDominique Excelsis J. Degamo
- Fish.pdfUploaded byHudson Rabelo
- act core reading unit planUploaded byapi-259381516
- Structuring an Internship ProgramUploaded bySandeep Reddy
- Engaging Students in Problem-Based Learning. VU5Uploaded byesti munawaroh
- Beginner_LL5.pdfUploaded byCodrutza Horgea