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Advanced Artificial Intelligence

V Th Hng Nhn (vthnhan@vnu.edu.vn) Faculty of Information Technology University of Engineering & Technology VNU, Hanoi

Objectives of this course


To introduce students to the field of AI To explain the challenges inherent in building an intelligent system To explain

The key paradigms, Core techniques, Algorithms

Understand the role of basics


Knowledge representation Learning methods in AI, in engineering intelligent systems

Assess the applicability, strengths, and weakness of these methods in solving particular engineering problems

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Schedule
Week
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Day
Dec. 07 Dec. 14 Dec. 21 Dec. 28 Jan. 4 Jan. 11 Jan. 18 Jan. 25 Feb. 01 Feb. 08 Feb. 15 Feb. 22 Feb. 29 Mar. 01 Mar. 08

Lecture
Introduction to AI Intelligent agents Knowledge representation & Proposition Logic First order logic Rule-based system Rule based Expert System Reasoning with uncertainty Mid-term Fuzzy reasoning Introduction to learning Rule induction & Decision tree Probabilistic learning Neural network Natural language processing Final

Remark

Student seminar

Student seminar

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Introduction to AI
1. What is AI 2. Example systems 3. Approaches to AI 4. A brief history

1. What is AI?
Artificial intelligence

Is concerned with the design of intelligence in an artificial device

Its difficult to define the term AI simply & robustly The term AI was coined by John McCarthy, 1956

The goal of AI is to develop machines that behave as though they were intelligent

What is intelligence?

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1. What is AI? (cont.)


What is intelligence? Humans?

If we take human beings to be intelligent, AI is something that is characterized as humans or something that has behavior like humans

Two school of thoughts


Systems/ Machines behave intelligently as a human Humans dont believe intelligently all the time, AI concerns machines that behave rationally

Two main types of behaviors

Thinking intelligently: reasoning intelligently and properly in order to come up with a solution

Act/ behave intelligently


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1. What is AI? (cont.)


Look at different ways of defining AI

Thought processes/reasoning vs. behavior Human-like performance vs. ideal performance

How to measure performance

Thought/reasoning

Human-like performance

Ideal performance (rationally)

Behavior A diagram that shows the 4 different definitions that emerge


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1. What is AI?

Approach to AI
Thought/reasoning Systems that think like humans (Alan Turing test Alan test) Human-like performance Systems that act like human (Cognitive science ) Cognitive Systems that act rationally (Rational agent Rational agent)

Systems that think rationally (Laws of thought/Logic Laws thought/Logic)

Ideal performance (rationally)

Behavior A diagram that shows the 4 different definitions that emerge


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1. What is AI?

Turing Test
a computer human

The interrogator asks questions

The being inside the room processes the questions & return answers

The interrogator receives the answers on a screen

He need to make out from the answer whether the being inside the room is computer or human

an interrogator outside the room doesnt know the


being inside the room is either computer or human
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1. What is AI?

Turing Test (cont.)


The computer tries to convinces that it is human

The interrogator must decide who is human

If the interrogator cannot reliably distinguish the human from the computer

Then the computer does posses (artificial) intelligence

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1. What is AI?

Typical AI problem
Intelligent entities (agent) need to be able to do both

Mundane & expert tasks

Mundane tasks

Planning route, activity Recognizing people, objects (through vision) Communicating (through natural language) Navigating round obstacles on the street

Expert tasks

Medical diagnosis Mathematical problem solving

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1. What is AI?

Typical AI problem (cont.)


Which of these problems are easy/hard? Surprisingly, it has been

easier to mechanize many of the high-level tasks which are so-called expert tasks in the history of AI, easier to solve the problem in the domain of expert E.g.,

symbolic integration Proving theorems Playing chess Medical diagnose

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1. What is AI?

Typical AI problem (cont.)


AI doesnt have the same success in dealing with mundane task

Its been very hard to mechanize tasks that many animals can do E.g., walking around without running into things Catching prey and avoiding predators

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1. What is AI?

Intelligent behavior
Perception Reasoning Learning Understanding language Solving problems

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2. Example systems
Computer vision Image recognition Robotics Natural language processing Speech processing

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2. Example systems

Practical impact of AI
AI components are embedded in numerous devices

E.g., copy/vending machines

AI systems are in everyday use


Detecting credit card fraud Configuring products Aiding complex planning tasks Advising physicians

Intelligent tutoring systems

Provide students with personalized attentions

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2. Example systems (cont.)


Machine translation

Immediate translation between people speaking different languages Would be a remarkable achievement of enormous economic and cultural benefit

Autonomous agents

In space exploration, robotic space probes autonomously monitor their surroundings, makes decisions & act to achieve their goals

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2. Example systems

Internet agents
The explosive growth of the internet has also led to growing interest in internet agent

Monitor users tasks Seek needed information Learn which information is most useful

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3. Approaches to AI
Strong AI aims to build machines

that can truly reason & solve problem which is self-aware & whose overall intellectual ability is distinguishable from that of a human being Can be human-like or non-human-like

When AI was first conceived in the 1950s and 1960s there were a huge optimism about AI

A prediction that very soon AI systems will be able to overtake humans Can do anything that humans can & can do much better Even can do the task that humans cannot within a short time

But we now know the true difficulty that AI faces


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3. Approaches to AI (cont.)
Weak AI: deals with the creation of some form of AI of computer-based artificial intelligence

they cannot truly reason and solve problems, but can act as if they were intelligent

Weak AI holds that

Suitably programmed machines can simulate human recognition

Strong AI really deal with

machines that have mental states that think, reason, understand behaviors

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3. Approaches to AI (cont.)
Applied AI

Aims to produce commercially viable smart systems E.g., a security system that is able to recognize the faces of people who are permitted to enter a particular building

Applied AI has already enjoyed considerable success

Cognitive AI

Computers are used to test theories about how the human mind works E.g., theories about how we recognize faces & other objects, or about how we solve abstract problem

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3. Approaches to AI

AI topics
Core areas

General algorithms

Knowledge representation Reasoning Machine learning

Search Planning Constraint satisfaction

Perception

Applications

Vision Natural language Robotics

Game playing AI & education Distributed agents

Uncertainty

Decision theory Reasoning with symbolic data

Probabilistic approaches

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3. Approaches to AI

Limits of AI today
Todays successful AI systems

Operate in well-defined domains Employ narrow, specialized knowledge

Commonsense knowledge

Needed in complex, open-ended worlds Understand unconstrained Natural Language

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4. AI history
The dream of making a computer imitate us began many centuries ago Intellectual roots of AI stretch back thousands of years into the earlier studies of the nature of knowledge & reasoning The concept of intelligent machine is found in Greek mythology

8th century Hephaestus created a huge robot, Talos to guard Crete inland

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4. AI history

Foundations
Psychology Physiology Biology

Artificial intelligence Mathematics Computer engineering

Economics

Linguistics

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4. The history of AI

The main movements of AI

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4. The history of AI

The first beginnings


In the 1930s, Godel, Church, & Turing

laid important foundations for logic and theoretical computer science

In the 1940s, based on the results from neuroscience

McCulloch, Pitts, and Hebb designed the first mathematical models of neural networks

Computers at that time lacked sufficient power to simulate simple brains

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4. The history of AI Logic solves almost all problems


AI as a science of thought mechanization could begin once there were programmable computers In the 1950s

Nell & Simon introduced a program Logic Theorist, showed that with computers, which actually work with numbers, one can process symbols

McCarthy introduced a programming language with the language LISP, esp. for the processing of symbolic structures

Both of these systems were introduced in 1956 at the Darthmouth conference, which is considered the birthday of AI

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4. The history of AI Logic solves almost all problems (cont.)


In the 1970s, the logic programming language PROLOG was introduced

Offers the advantage of allowing direct programming using Horn clauses, a subset of predicate logic

Until the 1980s

A breakthrough spirit dominated AI, esp. among logicians, thanks to the string of impressive achievements in symbol processing With the 5th Generation Computer System project in Japan & ESPRIT program in Europe, heavy investment into the construction of intelligent computers

For small problems automatic provers & other symbol processing problems, systems sometimes worked very well But, the combinatorial explosion of the search space defined a narrow window for these successes
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4. The history of AI

The new connectionism


Computer scientist, physicians, and cognitive scientists showed that

Mathematically modeled neural networks are capable of learning using training examples to perform tasks which previously required costly programming

Because of the fault-tolerance of such systems & their ability to recognize patterns, considerable successes became possible, esp. in pattern recognition

The neural networks could acquire impressive capabilities

Attempts to combine neural networks with logical rules or the knowledge of human experts met with great difficulties

No satisfactory to the structuring & modularization of the network was found


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4. The history of AI

Reasoning under uncertainty


One of wishes to unite logics ability to explicitly represent knowledge with neural networks strength in handling uncertainty Several alternatives

The most promising, probabilistic reasoning, works with conditional probabilities for propositional calculus formulas Since then, many diagnostic & expert systems have been built for problems of everyday reasoning using Baysian Networks

Since 1990, data mining has developed

as a subdiscipline of AI in the area of statistical data analysis for extraction of knowledge from large databases Bring no new techniques to AI, rather it introduces the requirement of using large DB to gain explicit knowledge

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Summary
Different definitions of AI

Thought/reasoning vs. behavior Human-like performance vs. ideal performance (rationally)

Example systems Approaches to solving AI problems

Strong AI, weak AI, applied AI, cognitive AI

Brief history

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Questions
1. 2. 3. Define intelligence What are the different approaches in defining AI? Suppose you design a machine to pass the Turing Test. What are the capabilities such a machine must have? 4. Will building an artificially intelligent computer automatically shed light on the nature of natural intelligence

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