You are on page 1of 31

Diagnostic Maintenance and Monitoring of Machines

UG Course

Diagnostics Maintenance & Monitoring of Machines


Course Objectives To introduce undergraduate student to the concept of diagnostics for detection of faults that are most often encountered in practice in industry Awareness about the existing vibration and noise based fault detection and other conventional monitoring techniques Their applications and economic benefits Credits: 4 Weekly Engagement: 3-1-2/2 Course Teacher: SPH Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
1

Diagnostic Maintenance and Monitoring of Machines

UG Course

Diagnostics Maintenance & Monitoring of Machines


Course Objectives To introduce undergraduate student to the concept of diagnostics for detection of faults that are most often encountered in practice in industry Awareness about the existing vibration and noise based fault detection and other conventional monitoring techniques Their applications and economic benefits Credits: 4 Weekly Engagement: 3-1-2/2 Course Teacher: SPH Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
2

Diagnostic Maintenance and Monitoring of Machines

The desire and need for accurate diagnostic and real predictive prognostic capabilities have been around for as long as human beings have operated complex and expensive machinery.

The area of intelligent maintenance and diagnostic and prognosticenabled condition-based maintenance (CBM) of machinery, is a vital one for todays complex systems in industry, aerospace vehicles, military and merchant ships, the automotive industry, and elsewhere.

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

Diagnostic Maintenance and Monitoring of Machines

Cont..
For fault detection, the ability is specified to detect mechanical system degradation below required performance levels (incipient or impending failure) owing to physical property changes through detectable phenomena.

The industrial and military communities are concerned about critical system and component reliability and availability. The goals are both to maximize equipment up time and to minimize maintenance and operating costs.

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

Diagnostic Maintenance and Monitoring of Machines

Six-stage diagnostics process

1. Verify the fault 2. Collect further information 3. Evaluate the evidence 4. Carry out further tests in a logical sequence 5. Rectify the problem 6. Check all systems.

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

Diagnostic Maintenance and Monitoring of Machines

The art of diagnostics:


The knowledge needed for accurate diagnostics is in two parts: 1. understanding of the system in which the problem exists; 2. having the ability to apply a logical diagnostic routine.

Diagnostics Routine

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

Diagnostic Maintenance and Monitoring of Machines

Mechanical diagnostic techniques


1. Check first the obvious faults Start all hands on diagnostic routines with hand and eye checks. In other words look over the vehicle for obvious faults. If the engine is blowing blue smoke out of the exhaust consider the worth of tracing the cause of a tapping noise in the engine! When an engine will not start check that there is fuel in the tank!

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

Diagnostic Maintenance and Monitoring of Machines

Cont
2. Noise, vibration and harshness Noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) concerns have become more important as drivers have become more sensitive to these issues. Drivers have higher expectations of comfort levels. The main areas of the vehicle that produce NVH are: tyres; engine accessories; suspension; driveline.

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

Diagnostic Maintenance and Monitoring of Machines

Cont
3. Noise conditions Noise is very difficult to describe. Gear noise is typically a howling or whining due to gear damage or incorrect bearing preload. It can occur at various speeds and driving conditions, or it can be continuous. Chuckle is a rattling noise that sounds like a stick held against the spokes of a spinning bicycle wheel. It usually occurs while decelerating. Knock is very similar to chuckle though it may be louder and occurs on acceleration or deceleration. Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
9

Diagnostic Maintenance and Monitoring of Machines

Cont
4. Vibration conditions Clicking, popping or grinding noises may be noticeable at low speeds and be caused by the following: inner or outer joints worn (often due to lack of lubrication so check for split gaiters); loose drive shaft; another component contacting a drive shaft; damaged or incorrectly installed wheel bearing, brake or suspension component. The following may cause vibration at normal road speeds: out-of-balance wheels; out-of-round tyres. Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
10

Diagnostic Maintenance and Monitoring of Machines

Auxiliary diagnostics system analysis

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

11

Diagnostic Maintenance and Monitoring of Machines

Engine Control with Self Diagnostics

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

12

Diagnostic Maintenance and Monitoring of Machines

References
1. Sound and Vibration book, KTH, Stockholm, 2006. 2. Collacott, R.A., Mechanical fault diagnosis and condition

monitoring, Chapman & Hall, 1977.


3. Davies,

M., Handbook of condition monitoringTechniques and Methodology, Springer, 2006. Based Maintenance and Machine Diagnostics, Springer, 2006.

4. John H. Williams, Alan Davies, Paul R. Drake, Condition-

5. B. K. N. Rao, Handbook on Condition Monitoring, Elsevier

Science, 1998.

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

13

Diagnostic Maintenance and Monitoring of Machines

Contents
Introduction Typical defects in gears and rolling element bearings Vibrations of gears and bearings Monitoring methods Vibration analysis Sound monitoring Discrete frequencies Machine condition indicators Measurement techniques Signal processing tools Case studies Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
14

Diagnostic Maintenance and Monitoring of Machines

Chapter 1: Introduction

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

15

Diagnostic Maintenance and Monitoring of Machines

Maintenance Philosophies

Corrective maintenance Preventive maintenance Condition based maintenance

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

16

Diagnostic Maintenance and Monitoring of Machines

Cont
Corrective Maintenance: Run to failure The maintenance is done after some part breaks. Maintenance costs are low. Operating costs are high because of the downtime and damages.

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

17

Diagnostic Maintenance and Monitoring of Machines

Cont
Preventive Maintenance: Scheduled maintenance action. Schedule is created from lifetime statistics of similar machines. High maintenance costs due unnecessary maintenance actions. Possibility to equipment failures.

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

18

Diagnostic Maintenance and Monitoring of Machines

Cont
Condition Based Maintenance:

Maintenance when required Unnecessary maintenance is avoided. Availability of the equipment is guaranteed Overall cost of maintenance is reduced Monitoring creates costs. Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
19

Diagnostic Maintenance and Monitoring of Machines

Total Cost of Maintenance

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

20

Diagnostic Maintenance and Monitoring of Machines

Cont
Architecture for condition based maintenance Open System Architecture Maintenance (OSA-CBM) for Condition Based

ISO 13374-1&2 Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines presentation Data processing, communication and

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

21

Diagnostic Maintenance and Monitoring of Machines

Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI)


FDI methods Data-driven Based on data measured from the model Statistical Process Control (SPC), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) Analytical Based on detailed mathematical models Parameter estimation, Observers, Parity relations Knowledge-based Based on qualitative models Causal analysis, Signed directed graph, Expert systems, Case based reasoning, ANN Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
22

Diagnostic Maintenance and Monitoring of Machines

Introduction to Condition Based Maintenance


Condition-based maintenance (CBM) is the use of machinery run-time data to determine the machinery condition and hence its current fault / failure condition, which can be used to schedule, required repair and maintenance prior to breakdown. CBM is based on detecting causes or symptoms of a future failure so that it can be handled most cost effectively before its occurrence.

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

23

Diagnostic Maintenance and Monitoring of Machines

Condition-based maintenance (CBM) is a methodology that strives to identify incipient faults before they become critical in order to enable more accurate planning of preventive actions.

By using efficient maintenance policies, a number of system improvements can be realized, including improvements to system performance, productivity, reliability metrics, cost, and cost-related metrics.

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

24

Diagnostic Maintenance and Monitoring of Machines

Advantages of CBM

well-orchestrated

program

will

all

but

eliminate

catastrophic equipment failures. Maintenance activities can be scheduled to minimize or eliminate overtime costs. Additionally, inventory can be minimized because parts or equipment will not have to be ordered ahead of time to support anticipated maintenance needs.

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

25

Diagnostic Maintenance and Monitoring of Machines

Cont

With equipment operating at an optimal level, energy costs are reduced and plant reliability is increased. Importantly, CBM not only reduces the amount of maintenance performed but also avoids maintenanceinduced failures. However, existing CBM models have many limitations that prevent them from effectively modeling all kinds of complex situations that arise in CBM decision-making.
26

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

Diagnostic Maintenance and Monitoring of Machines

Value potential of CBM


As systems get more costly, instrumentation and information systems tend to become more cheap and reliable, CBM becomes an important tool for running a plant or factory in an optimal manner. More optimal operations will lead to lower production cost and lower use of resources. And lower use of resources may be one of the most important differentiators in a future where environmental issues become more important by the day. A more down to earth scenario where value can be created is by monitoring the health of your car motor. Rather than changing parts at predefined intervals, the car itself can tell you when something needs to be changed based on cheap and simple instrumentation. Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
27

Diagnostic Maintenance and Monitoring of Machines

Categorization of application of CBM technologies Region I - High Cost / Low Effectiveness: Do not implement technology. For mission critical applications (e.g. as identified in RCM / FMECA analysis) use other approaches (e.g. time based maintenance) to ensure functionality / reliability of equipment. Region II - High Cost / High Effectiveness: Only implement technology on mission critical equipment and only if other more effective / lower cost CBM technologies are not available.

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

28

Diagnostic Maintenance and Monitoring of Machines

Cont
Region III - Low Cost / Low Effectiveness: Only implement technology in mission critical applications as a confirmatory technology in conjunction with more effective technologies or where no other CBM technology is feasible. For non-critical applications, implement only if quantitative calculations indicate an acceptable return on investment can be achieved. Region IV - Low Cost / High Effectiveness: Implement technology failure. wherever practicable. Implement in all applications except those specifically identified as run-to

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

29

Diagnostic Maintenance and Monitoring of Machines

Cont

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

30

Diagnostic Maintenance and Monitoring of Machines

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

31