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The term solid waste includes garbage (food wastes), rubbish (paper, plastics, wood, metal, throw away containers, glass), demolition products ( bricks, pipes, masonary), sewage treatment residue (sludge and solids from the coarse screening of domestic sewage), dead animals, manure and other discarded materials. According to the central pollution control board, the daily per capital generation of municipal solid waste in India ranges from 100gm in small towns to 500gms in large towns. The recyclable content is said to be between 13-20%. The output of daily waste depends upon the dietary habits, life styles, living standards and the degree of urbanisation and industrialization. Solid waste, if allowed to accumulate is a health hazard becausea) it decomposes and favours fly breeding b) it attracts rodents and vermin c) the pathogens which may be present in the solid waste may be conveyed back to man’s food through flies and dust. d) There is possibility of water and solid pollution. e) Heaps of refuse present an unsightly appearance and nuisance from bad odours.
Collection of Solid Wastes
In India, there is no house to house collection system. People are expected to dump the refuse in the nearest public bin, which is usually not done. Waste is dispersed all along the street and some is thrown out in front of and around the houses. As a result an army of sweepers is required for sweeping the streets in addition to the gang fro collecting the refuse from public bins. The waste in then transported in refuse collection vehicles to the place of ultimate disposal.
Segregation of Wastes
• • • Metals and glasses are separated as they can be easily recycled Paper can also be recycled Organic components are separated for composting
• Cow dung and human excreta *** he separated and colleced for *** and electric power generation. • Combustible matters are separated for incineration. Highly combustible substances like flash, papers, plastics cardboards and ** scrap. Combustible like wood scraps, cartons, floor sweepings
It is the most satisfactory method where suitable land is available. Sanitary Landfills It is an engineering method of disposing solid waste on land. In developed countries. Then . paper.Animal & vegetable wastes of restaurants and other combustible articles from hospitals and industries. Dumping should be outlawed and replaced by sound procedures. This separation is often done in homes by using different bins for the disposal of different items. As a result of bacterial action. In India. The environment problems of rolling garbage in open disposal on land are not encountered in sanitary landfills. some people just do this kind of work an earn their livelihood my selling renewable resources handpicked from garbage. waste is not separated though some cities are trying to persuade the public to segregate waste. The drawbacks of upon dumping area) The waste is exposed to flies and rodents b) It is a source of nuisance from the small and unsightly appearance. DISPOSAL METHODS There is no single method of refuse disposal which is equally suitable in all circumstances. useful or recyclable articles are segregated. c) The loose refuse/waste is dispersed by the action of wind. The principle methods of waste disposal are1. other categories etc. bacteriological and physical changes occur in buried waste. adequately compacted and bulldozers and covered ie bunches of dust at the conclusion of each days’ operation and a final cover of 2 fee when the area is full. Calcutta disposes of its refuse by dumping and the reclaimed land is leased out for cultivation. 2. d) The drainage from dumps contributes to pollution of land surface or ground water A WHO expert committee (1967) condemned dumping as a most in sanitary method that creates public health hazards a nuisance and severe pollution of environment. Once the garbage is collected. On the contrary sanitary landfills helps in reclamation of otherwise unsuitable land for fruitful use chemical. • Inert residues are finally separated and are land filled. Dumping – Waste is dumped in one lying areas partly as a method of reclamation of land but mainly as an easy method of disposal of dry waste. It differs from ordinary dumping in that the material is placed in a trench or other prepared area. glass. In developing countries. The temperature rises to over 60°C within 7 days and hills the pathogens and hastens the decomposition process. household waste is separated in the categories such as organic material. waste decreases considerably in volume and is converted gradually into humus.
packed and consolidated in uniform layers upto 22. Trench Method: When the level ground is available. This method often has the disadvantage of requiring supplemental earth from outside sources. 3. This partly recovers the cost of waste collection. these .it takes 2-3 weeks to cool down. There is one another method of breaking down the solid waste involving heat i. The ramp method. 2. Pyrolysis is the distructive distillation in the absence of oxygen. This method involves heavy outlay and expenditure. rubber. the trench method is usually chosen. compaction and burning. Some excavation is done to secure the covering material.This method is well suited where the terrain is moderately sloping. plastics are the main bulk of the solid wastes. Hospital waste which is particularly dangerous is best disposed of by incineration. The following points should generally be considered• Site should be sufficiently away from the municipal are but not too far to make transportation very costly. Therefore careful segregation of such materials is desirable before compaction and incineration. Further. The waste is deposited. Incineration is practiced in several of industrialized countries particularly in large cities due to lack of suitable land. Incineration Waste can be disposed of hygienically by learning or incineration. This acid corrodes the steam pipes. Normally it takes 4-6 months for complete decomposition of organic matter into innocuous mass. • Water should be sufficiently away. The waste is compacted and covered with excavated earth. Area method: This method is used for filing land depression. Each layer is sealed on its exposed surface with a mud cover at least 30cm thick. besides manipulative difficulties in the incinerator. disused quarries and day pits. These are1. • Internal and approach to the site should be available. disposal of waste by burning in a loss to the community in terms of much needed manure. Substances like cellulose. depending upon local conditions.5m deep. The selection of site for landfill should be very carefully done after careful environment impact assessment. Incinerations are carefully engineering furnaces in such a way as to utilize the heat so generated. PVC plastics used in manufacture of pipes and hoys on burning release chlorine which combine with stream to produce hydrochloric acid. There basic landfilling operation methods are generally used. A long trench = 2-3 in deep 4-12 in wide. Some articles in the wastes are not good fuel and produce correction fumes. Mostly steam is generated and sold to nearby industries. On exposure to high temperature. • Area of the site should be sufficiently large to last for a long period (10-12 yrs).e pyrolysis.
In this process. odourless. temperature increases billing harmful pathogens.are broken down in the gases like CO . insect eggs. The heat produced during composting 60°C or higher over a period of several days destroys eggs and larvae of flias. The advantages of composting are: • • Technology is simple and doesn’t require much *** Plant nutrients (N. It is a very viable option because of the following reasons• Decomposition or degradation is rapid. H . water and heat. ii) The Aerobic composting. The principle by-products are Co2. The end product compost contains few or no disease producing organisms and is a good soil builder containing small amounts of major plant nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates. Degradable organic matter is put in puts with layers of cow dung as a source of bacteria and covered with soil. Temperature should not rise above 70°C. C H . light oil. need seeds. innocuvers materials of high manurial value ready for application to the land.e. Some favourable conditions should be maintained for best results i. • During the process. Moisture content should be between 20-40% excess moisture stimulates anerobic bacteria. decomposition is complete and the resulting manure is well decomposed. The end product has the ratios of 20. Co. CH and liquids like tar. normally completed within 4-6 weeks. and liquid and water soluble distillate and solid tar. weed seeds and pathogenic agents. Periodic turning of the waste controls the temperature and allows access of air. It is a process of nature in which organic matter breaks down under bacterial action resulting in the formation of relatively stable humus like materials called compost which has considerable manorial value for the soil. At the end of 6-9 months. The end product is safe to handle. . Methods of Composting i) Anaerobic Composting: It is a common practice followed in farming Anaerobic bacteria the degradation of bio degradable matters.. The operation of the process but the long time taken does not make it attractive option for disposal of solid wastes. 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 Composting It is a method of combined disposal of waste and night soil/sludge. C H . Thus resource is recovered. Besides the compost is not free from pathogens.P &K) are attained. It is normally done. A carbon/nitrogen ratio of 30 is best suited for the microorganisms. the bacterial action takes place in the presence of oxygen.
This compost can be prepared with the normal farm compost prepared in compost puts in its hygiene level. directly . Pune and Sambalpur University. Any electromagnetic or particulate radiation capable of producing ions. Bombay has developed a controlled aerobic composting process with the following strategies Waste sanitation at the site of first collection (bins from thee the garbage is lifted). X -ray fluoroscopy. Controlled aerobic composting and mechanical screening of digested compost. Radiation is the emission of energy from a point of origin. Increasing the usage of nuclear testing. has been developed by Ms.Mechanization can be introduced into the process to accelerate it and mechanical composting is done in 2 ways. Extensive works on vermicomposting have been done in the Bhawalhar Earthwarm institute.and soil and dangerously deteriorate man's vital life support system. Almitra H. Even the smallest increase in radiation above the natural background radiations is reported to cause risks. Any radioisotope with a sufficient long half-life introduced into the environment is reported to find its way into human's body. Orissa. which is practical and suitable for small towns. Radionuclides contaminate air. it does not become cost effective. however doesn’t produce germs free compost t the extend as in the Excels process. • • Windrow process Close cell process The Excel Industries Ltd.. iv) Vermi Composting: This h as been recently developed as a low cost method of garbage treatment using certain species of earthworms as the composting agent. This process. This method has been found very suitable for treating kitchen wastes at domestic level. This technology is ideally suited for large towns where the quantity of garbage collected is high with low garbage input. An attractive method of low cost aerobic composting. radars. water. Many plants based on these principles (Excel’s technology) have been established in several cities in India. Hazardous Waste Management Radioactive Pollution Radioactive pollution is a physical type of environmental pollution. and luminous substances like' Colour TV's and installation of power plant pose new dimensions of radiation pollution. soil or land in respect that it not only 1 affects critically the individuals but also brings physiological changes in the I subsequent generations. It differs from other pollutions of air. in hotels and hostels. water. Patel.- Control of wind and flues is important iii) Mechanical composting. Pilot scale experiments are in progress at different places to extend this to community scale.
(b) Hydrogen or lithium as fusion material. mining and refining of plutonium an< thorium. They are consisted of particles of very high energy. All the elements above atomic number of 82(Lead) are radioactive in nature and emit a variable quantity of radiations. Huge clouds of fine radioactive particles and gases are thrown up in the environment and are carried away to distant areas by the agency of wind. Sources. primarily of protons and some heavy nuclei. plutonium and some other important isotopes. The spent materials obtained from the reactors. and the naturally occurring radioisotopes present in the environment and those contained within the body of the organisms. They give rise to very large neutron flux conditions that cause other materials in the surrounding environment to become radioactive. Atomic explosions are uncontrolled chain reactions. Thorium and Potassium . are reprocessed to recover unburnt uranium. and gamma rays. Natural sources H Another source of natural radiation is the presence of radionuclides in the lithosphere. which probably arise from the sun or even beyond it. Gradually they settle down on earth as fall out or are brought down by rain. .40. 2. The whole operation from the mining of the fuel to its final disposal is called nuclear fuel cycle. rocks and even building material contain small quantities of 40K. by interaction with matter is referred to as Ionizing radiation. hydrosphere and atmosphere. Uranium undergoes several processes. and preparation of radioactive isotope. These particles also form substantial quantities 3 and 14c in the atmosphere. Eventually a complex mixture of particles reaches the earth as cosmic rays. Nuclear Weapons: Testing of nuclear arms comprises: (a) The use of Uranium 235 and Plutonium 239 for fission. Man-Made Sources Man causes radioactive pollution by testing of nuclear weapons establishment of nuclear power plants. after the energy has been utilized. which can be used in medicine or for some other useful purposes. and Uranium and its daughters. nuclear and industrial uses. Atomic Reactors and Nuclear Fuel: The most common fuel used for fission in the nuclear power plants are uranium.or indirectly. Ionizing radiation is generated during various medical. 1. right from its mining to its inception into the reactors. thorium and plutonium. mesons. Soils. The cosmic radiations are of extraterrestrial origin. These cosmic particles collide with the gas molecules of the upper atmosphere bringing about intense ionization in gases accompanied with the formation of secondary cosmic rays composed mainly of neutrons. The most abundant naturally occurring radionuclides on the earth are Uranium. Effects and Control of Radioactive Pollution Sources of Radio active Pollution The two main sources of radioactive pollution are i) and ii) Man-made sources Natural Sources The natural sources of radioactivity are considered mainly of the cosmic radiation received from the space.
Other Sources: During different medical treatments. *** of skin. and therapy for cancer patients often includes radium and other isotope radiations. Delayed Most common & dreaded in cancer of different types. loss of **. anemia. There are-two main modes in which radioactive pollution can be dangerous to a biological system. A common types" of ionizing radiation is X-ray which is produced by radiographic equipment. varying concentrations of radiations enter the human body for instance. Instantaneous 2. burning sensation. sorption. which are very harmful to a living system. filtration and ion-exchange process.' 14c and 32p and their compounds find wide usage in scientific research institutions contain varying amounts of radioactive materials. saddening of slun. if not properly shielded.000 . loss of sight natural resistance and fighting capacity organist germs is reduced. (ii) Damages caused by radiations from sources inside the body. liquid. (i) Damages caused by radiations from outside source. When this wastewater reaches the different water sources such as rivers. retarded growth Low activity effluents and precipitation are first subjected to normal waste-water treatments like fiocculation. dental X-rays that can operate at a voltage about 10 KV produce more penetrating radiation and may be more hazardous. Genetic defects on ovary and testes affecting Reproductive ability and deformation of produced offspring’s He young children grow into short men. anemia. Radioactive iodine and phosphorus also enter the food chain through water and may finally reach man through fish etc. Delayed types Instantaneous On exposure be 100-250 reads. brain. lakes etc.fatigue. streams. 250-400 bluster formation. The effects can be of 2 types: 1.** individuals by damaging heart. precipitation. diarrhea. **** Around 10. Effects of Radioactive Pollutants Most of the damages 'caused by radioactive pollutants stem from their capacity to produce high-energy radiations. X-ray therapy equipment. 3. nausea. Then different . a great care is to be taken for the environmental safety during the nuclear operations. through the sewers they cause water pollution. It has been reported that about 240 million dental and medical X-rays are taken annually and that 15 million tests using radioactive materials as tracers in the human body are also made.At almost all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. gaseous and solid radioactive wastes are released having a tremendous potential to contaminate the environment and hence. Radioactive Isotopes: Radioactive isotopes such as 125. 4. vomiting. X-rays are common for detecting skeletal disorders.
Bituminiza tion is still another method in which the wastes are solidified and immobilized from its natural flow in ecosystem. Then it is subjected to evaporation in (iii) evaporators. Through strong metal casing with perforated sides. In the deep fractures of crevices thus formed. The gases emitted from the evaporator are led to a (iv) gas waste treatment system while the slurry is either sent to (v) deep under ground slurry tanks or (vi) packed in disposal drums. Radioactive isotopes or nuclides are usually strontium and cesium. The first step is to separate the unfissioned uranium from the products of fission or harmful fractions. Uranium oxide gets dissolved and leached down. The wastes from boiling water reactors and high pressure reactors are drained to (i) radioactive waste hold up tanks where from they are passed to (ii) filtration unit. They are supposed to decay there. Another method of medium level waste is called hydrofracture. The spent fuel is allowed to cool for about three and half months during which period the short half-life components like I decay sufficiently. or cement is injected so that the radioactivity is locked deep underground in the crevices. Filtered liquid is then taken to demineraliser unit. Ion exchange. filtration and evaporation are done in low solid content and low to medium radioactive effluent wastes from nuclear power plants. In this process very deep wells are drilled passing through different rock strata say upto 300 to 400 metres. The left over solid is put in drums and buried deep in the ground. High radioactivity wastes need very careful and elaborate processing treatments. the geological formations like layers between the rocks are fractured under an applied high pressure. Then the waste is finely cut into small bits and treated to hot nitric acid. The leached liquid fraction of nitric acid and uranium fission products are then subjected to a solvent extraction process in which uranium and plutoniurn are recovered and then separated using nitric acid 131 . away from human environment and away from normally tapped ground waters. the radioactive concentrates mixed with fly ash.categories of radioactive materials are separated.