Master in Business administration theses

Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) Inside Bahraini Organizations

By Ali Mearaj ID# 51080103

To Dr. Isa K. Aljeeran

May, 2010

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Abstract Each organization is seeking methods for increasing the performance of their employees and encouraging positive behavior in the work environment. Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is one of the most important types of behavior.

This is an attempt to explore the factors that affect the Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) inside the Bahraini organizations. It also attempts to discover some of the factors that might affects OCB.

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Dedication To my Mother, father and my Wife for all the support they gave me during my study, and absolutory for little Jassim and little Yousif for the sacrifices they made.

Acknowledgment To Dr. Isa K. Al Jeeran for all the effort and guidance he provided. And to all those who provided help, guidance and advise during this research specially Anwar Al Khunaizi & Anwar Sarhan.

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Table of Contents
Abstract ....................................................................................................................................... I Dedication .................................................................................................................................. II Acknowledgment ....................................................................................................................... II Table of Contents ....................................................................................................................... 1 1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 4 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 2 Background of the study ................................................................................................ 4 Statement of the Problem ............................................................................................... 5 Research Objective......................................................................................................... 6 The Significance of the Project ...................................................................................... 6 Definition of terms ......................................................................................................... 6 Methodology .................................................................................................................. 7 Limitation ....................................................................................................................... 7

Literature Review ................................................................................................................... 8 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.1 2.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................... 8 Evolution of OCB .......................................................................................................... 8 The Importance of OCB ................................................................................................. 9 Drawback of low OCB ................................................................................................. 10 The negative sides of Overloaded OCB ....................................................................... 10 Other Factors that effects OCB .................................................................................... 12

3

Research Methodology......................................................................................................... 13 3.1 3.2 Research Design ........................................................................................................... 13 Study Population .......................................................................................................... 13

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3.3 4

Research Instruments ................................................................................................... 14

Data Analysis and Results .................................................................................................... 19 4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.4 4.1.5 4.1.6 4.1.7 4.1.8 4.1.9 4.1.10 4.1.11 Descriptive statistics..................................................................................................... 19 Gender .................................................................................................................. 19 Age ....................................................................................................................... 20 Nationality ............................................................................................................ 21 Sector ................................................................................................................... 22 Organization Size ................................................................................................. 23 Position................................................................................................................. 24 Educational level .................................................................................................. 25 Work Experience.................................................................................................. 26 Number of years with the current employer ......................................................... 27 Job Satisfaction .................................................................................................... 28 Research Sample distributed based on their evaluation of the Organization's

services for the customers .................................................................................................... 29 4.1.12 4.2 4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.4 4.1.5 Summary of responses ......................................................................................... 30

Initial Data Analysis..................................................................................................... 31 One Way ANOVA tests ............................................................................................... 32 The impact of Interpersonal Citizenship on Interpersonal Citizenship. ............... 32 The impact of the position on Organizational Citizenship. .................................. 34 The impact of Work Experience on Organizational Citizenship. ........................ 36 The impact of Job Satisfaction on Organizational Citizenship. ........................... 38 The impact of the employee evaluation of the organization services for the

customers on organizational Citizenship.............................................................................. 40 4.1.6 The impact of Employee’s nationality on Job\Task Citizenship. ......................... 41

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4.1.7 4.1.8 5

The impact of the employee position on the Job\Task Citizenship. ..................... 42 The impact of Job Satisfaction on the overall citizenship. ................................... 44

Discussion ............................................................................................................................ 46 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 “Job satisfaction” ......................................................................................................... 46 “Position” ..................................................................................................................... 47 “Work experience” ....................................................................................................... 48 “Employee evaluate the organization`s services to customers” ................................... 49 “Nationality” ................................................................................................................ 49 Factors that does not affect OCB ................................................................................. 50

6

Summary and Conclusion .................................................................................................... 51 6.1 Recommendations ........................................................................................................ 52

7

Appendixes........................................................................................................................... 53 7.1 7.2 Appendix 1: Sample distribution based on organization ............................................. 53 Appendix 2: Means of responses for each question in the questioner ......................... 56

8

Table of contents .................................................................................................................. 60 8.1 8.2 List of Tables ............................................................................................................... 60 Table of Figures ........................................................................................................... 61

9

References ............................................................................................................................ 62

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1 Introduction

1.1 Background of the study Utilizing current resources is one of the factors for the success in any organization, and in order to achieve the highest utilization; managers should understand the different types of Individual Behavior inside the organization. As defined by McShane & Von Glinow 20081, the most often discussed behavior types are:      Task Performance. Exhibiting Organizational Citizenship. Counterproductive Work Behavior. Joining & Staying in the Organization. Maintaining Work Attendance.

Figure 1 Types of Work-Related Behavior

1

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While the other positive behaviors are related directly to the employee’s productivity within his role; Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) focuses on extra activities performed by the employee beyond his formal duties (Barnard, C.I. 1938 2 , Katz, D., & Kahn, R.L. 19663, Organ, D.W. 19884). OCB is important for effective functioning of an organization because its ultimate goal is to make all the employees work toward achieving the organization goals rather than accomplishing their duties. As a result this would get the job done in a fast and smooth way without the limitation and delay caused by having the management involved to solve each and every problem. And while the global research on OCB is conducted in other cultures, those result cannot be applied directly on local organizations. New researches are required in order to understand OCB locally and analyze the differences, and to formulate a clear idea about the challenges faced when applying OCB practices locally.

1.2 Statement of the Problem All organizations needs to improve their efficiency, “Organizational Citizenship Behavior” (OCB) is critical for these organizations in order to turn the whole organization into an active & self-healing environment where the employees would take the initiative to solve any difficulty that faces them with no management intervention or overhead. In order to embrace OCB, these organizations need to know the exact factors that affect OCB. And while the factors that affect OCB are known, it is not clear if these relationships would be valid in Bahrain where we have our own unique culture; this is why these organizations needs to discover those factors specifically in the Bahraini environment.

This research is an attempt to tap OCB inside the Bahraini Organizations in term of: 1. Gender.

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2. Age. 3. Nationality. 4. Sector. 5. Organization Size. 6. Position. 7. Educational level. 8. Work Experience. 9. Number of years with the current employer. 10. Job Satisfaction. 11. Evaluation of the Organization's services for the customers.

1.3 Research Objective 1. Highlight the factors that affect OCB in local Organizations. 2. Provide insight for future researches about the areas that need more research and clarifications. 3. Providing a statistical reference that can be used to measure and compare OCB in Bahrain. 1.4 The Significance of the Project This project can be used as an exploratory research. Future researchers can use its result to dig further in:   The relationship between OCB and the multiple groups inside the organizations in Bahrain. Mapping the uniqueness of Bahraini culture to the differences in OCB motivation methods. 1.5 Definition of terms   OCB: Organizational Citizenship behavior. CSB: Civil Service Bureau.

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1.6 Methodology This report is divided into five chapters:  Chapter 1 The Introduction: covers a brief about Organizational Citizenship Behavior. It also includes the statement of the problem, research objective limitation and definition of terms.      Chapter 2 Literature Review: explore briefly some of the current knowledge related to OCB. Chapter 3 Research methodology. Chapter 4 Data Collection and Analysis. Chapter 5 Discussion: discussion and interpretation of the research findings. Chapter 6 Conclusion: The closing chapter of the report that contain the Summary, Conclusion and the Recommendation.

1.7 Limitation This research is limited in the following areas:  The research is relying on an Internet survey, but many groups of employees do not have internet access or are not willing to use. Those groups are mainly low educated and old Bahraini employees besides, Non Bahrainis’ field workers.  The number of employees in Bahrain is huge; any sample collected would only represent a tiny fraction of the population.

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2 Literature Review
2.1 Introduction Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB): many researchers has referred to OCB as the voluntarily behavior (beyond job duties) performed by the individual to help the organization to achieve its goals. OCB includes Task performance, social support for other colleges, transferring knowledge, defending the organization, proposing solution and suggestions to enhance the organization performance…etc. This is what many researchers concluded, such as:         Allen, T.D., Facteau, J.D. & Facteau, C.F., 20045. Bolino, M.C. & Turnley, W.H. 20056. Bolino, M.C., Turnley, W.H. & Niehoff, B.P. 20047. Coleman, V.I. & Borman, W.C. 20008. LePine, J.A., Hanson, M.A., Borman, W.C. & Motowildo, S.J., 20009. Paine, J.B. & Organ, D.W. 200010. Podsakoff, P.M., MacKenzie, S.B., Paine, J.B. & Bachrach, D.G. 200011. Vey, M.A. & Campbell, J.P., 200412.

2.2 Evolution of OCB Organ (1990)13 Classified OCB into five categories: 1. General Compliance: performing an in-role behavior (i.e. task) well beyond the minimum required levels. 2. Altruism: helping others. 3. Civic Virtue: participating in the political life of the organization. 4. Sportsmanship: showing positive attitudes. 5. Courtesy: treating others with respect. While Williams and Anderson (1991)14 reclassified OCB into two dimensions: 1. OCB-I: behaviors focused toward the individual. 2. OCB-O: behaviors targeted at the organization or the unit.

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But based on the work of Coleman and Borman (2000)15 and Borman et al. (2001)16 a three-factor model has been developed: 1. Interpersonal citizenship performance (mapped to Altruism & Courtesy in Organ Model): Helping others by offering suggestions, teaching them, directly performing some of their tasks and providing emotional support for their personal problems, cooperating with others by accepting suggestions, informing them of events they should know about, putting team objectives ahead of personal interests. Showing consideration, courtesy and tact in relation to others as well as motivating and showing confidence in them. 2. Organizational citizenship performance (mapped to Sportsmanship, Civic virtue & General compliance in Organ Model): Favorably representing the organization by defending and promoting it as well as expressing satisfaction and showing loyalty by staying with the organization despite temporary difficulties. Supporting the organization's mission and objectives, complying with organizational rules and procedures and suggesting improvements. 3. Job/task citizenship performance (mapped to in Organ Model) persisting with extra effort despite difficult conditions. Taking the initiative to do all that is necessary to accomplish objectives even if they are not normally a part of one’s duties and finding additional productive work to perform when one’s duties are completed. Developing knowledge and skills by taking advantage of opportunities within the organization and outside the organization through the use of one’s own time and resources.

2.3 The Importance of OCB It is very important for employees to be motivated not only to increase in-role performance but also to engage in citizenship behaviors that are important to the wellbeing of the organization (Organ, D.W 1988)17.

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Moreover, job satisfaction has a significant relationship with citizenship behaviors. Because satisfied workers would engage in citizenship behaviors as shown by many researchers including:       Bettercourt et al., (2001)18 Bettercourt, L. A., Gwinner, K. P., & Meuter, M. L. (2001)19. Ladebo, O. (2004)20 LePine, J. A., Erez, A., & Johnson, D. E. (2002)21 Munene, J. C. (1995)22 Vigoda-Gadot, E., & Angert, L. (2007)23.

In addition, Podsakoff and MacKenzie (1997)24 found that managers, even if they do not intend to do so, when they evaluate the performance of their employees, they involve citizenship behaviors factor into their assessments. Podsakoff and MacKenzie also concluded that if the performance appraisal system is careful to emphasize civic virtue, managers may receive valuable feedback and suggestions for improvement.

2.4 Drawback of low OCB Researches have also shown that low OCB does not only affect the voluntary activities, but also effects the organizational duties of the employee. Ladebo (2005)25 stated that employees with low OCB are more likely to refuse performing their task and that they would tend to leave the organization. This was also supported by LePine et al. (2002)26 who proved the link between Low OCB and the lack of organizational commitment.

2.1

The negative sides of Overloaded OCB

Although OCB is important, but it has to be within limits, or it would have a negative impact. In this regard, Bolino and Turnley (2003)27 have noted that citizenship behaviors are generally not a substitute for usual job performance. Furthermore, employees may find citizenship behaviors more enjoyable or fulfilling than their normal job activities,

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which may prompt them to focus more on citizenship behaviors than their regular job duties. While Becton J. B., Giles W. F. & Schraeder .M (2007)28 stated that Practitioners must take steps to ensure that the weighting of the performance dimensions does not encourage more personal gratifying OCBs at the expense of other important job behaviors, namely, those associated with task performance. They also stated that organizations must carefully consider the weight given to all dimensions in the performance appraisal and rewards system, especially OCB dimensions. Moreover, employees must clearly understand the relative importance of OCBs in the performance appraisal and reward systems. Practitioners who include OCB in performance appraisal and reward systems must be certain to clearly communicate the relative weight or importance of OCBs and traditional dimensions of job performance to both raters and employees.

Figure 2 Potential consequences of formally evaluating and rewarding OCBs by Becton J. 29 B., Giles W. F. & Schraeder .M (2007)

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29

2.1 

Other Factors that effects OCB Women usually engages in more organizational citizenship behaviors than men, and spending such time on OCB activities detracts from more rewarded behavior as well as from perceptions of value (Ostroff, C & E. Atwater, L, 200330). 

Cropanzano, R., Rupp, D. E., & Byrne, Z. S. (2003)31 has found that emotionally exhausted employee is weakly committed to supervisors and the organization, exercises a withdrawal cognitive style, performs poorly on the job, and is unwilling to engage in the organization-directed citizenship behaviors.

Employees consider the performance of citizenship behaviors as a personal responsibility to assist the organization and co-workers (Janssens, M., Sels, L., & Van den Brande, I. 2003)32.

Perry, Kulik, &Zhou (1999)33 have founded that workers who are older than their supervisors tend to have more positive work behaviors, such as less absence and more citizenship behaviors.

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3 Research Methodology

3.1 Research Design The Research would apply the analytical approach to discover the relationships between the different factors that might affect OCB. For this purpose, the three-factor model of Coleman and Borman (2000)34 has been adopted. According to that model, OCB falls into three categories: 1. Interpersonal citizenship. 2. Organizational citizenship. 3. Job/task citizenship.

3.2 Study Population The research targets all employees in Bahrain. However, the data collection method (internet survey) has excluded some groups which are not using the internet.

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3.3 Research Instruments To evaluate the above dependents, we are going to compare the effect of the following factors: 1. Gender (Male, Female) 2. Age: groups of 5 year that covers the legal working age. 3. Nationality (Bahraini, None Bahraini) 4. Sector (Public sector, Private Sector) 5. Organization Size: a. Micro size (less than 10 employees). b. Small size (between 10 to 49 employees). c. Middle size (between 50 to 249 employees). d. Large size (between 250 to 499 employees). e. Huge (more than 500 employees). 6. Position: a. Field or factory worker. b. Junior office employee. c. Middle Management. d. Upper Management. 7. Educational level: a. Did not finish school. b. Secondary school. c. Diploma. d. BSC. e. Master. f. PHD. 8. Work Experience (number of years). 9. Number of years with the current employer (number of years). 10. Job Satisfaction:

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a. Extremely satisfied. b. Satisfied. c. Neutral. d. Not satisfied. e. Extremely not satisfied. 11. Evaluation of the Organization's services for the customers: a. Excellent. b. Good. c. Fair. d. Bad. e. Horrible.

Questions of a scale of 5 are designed (Always, Sometimes, Usually, Often, Never), and questions are grouped into the three categories, each category measure one factor of OCB as follow: 1. Interpersonal citizenship.

Figure 3 Web form used to measure Interpersonal citizenship

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2. Organizational citizenship.

Figure 4 Web form used to measure Organizational citizenship (Part 1)

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Figure 5 Web form used to measure Organizational citizenship (Part 2)

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3. Job/task citizenship.

Figure 6 Web form used to measure Job/task citizenship

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4 Data Analysis and Results

4.1 Descriptive statistics The sample distribution is shown on the tables bellow: 4.1.1 Gender

Gender Male Female Total

Frequency 207 76 283

Percent 73.1% 26.9% 100%

Table 1 Research Sample by Gender

Figure 7 Research Sample by Gender

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4.1.2 Age Age Frequency Percent 18 – 20 4 21-25 47 26-30 94 31-35 62 36-40 35 41-45 22 46-50 12 51-54 5 56-60 2 Total 283

1.40% 16.60% 33.20% 21.90% 12.40% 7.80% 4.20% 1.80% 0.70% 100%
Table 2 Research Sample by Age

Figure 8 Research Sample by Age

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4.1.3 Nationality

Nationality Bahraini Non Bahraini Total

Frequency 272 11 283

Percent 96.1% 3.9% 100%

Table 3 Research Sample by Nationality

Figure 9 Research Sample by Nationality

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4.1.4 Sector

Sector Privet sector Public Sector (Ministry or Government agency) Total

Frequency Percent 130 153 45.9% 54.1%

283

100%

Table 4 Research Sample by Sector

Figure 10 Research Sample by Sector

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4.1.5 Organization Size

Organization Size Micro size (less than 10 employees) Small size (between 10 to 49 employees) Middle size (between 50 to 249 employees) Large size (between 250 to 499 employees) Huge (more than 500 employees) Total

Frequency 9 46 65 37 126 283

Percent 3.2% 16.3% 23% 13.1% 44.5% 100%

Table 5 Research Sample by Organization Size

Figure 11 Research Sample by Organization Size

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4.1.6 Position

Position Field or factory worker Junior office employee Middle Management Upper Management Total

Frequency 14 143 113 13 283

Percent 4.9% 50.5% 39.9% 4.6% 100%

Table 6 Research Sample by Position

Figure 12 Research Sample by Position

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4.1.7 Educational level

Educational level Did Not Complete School Secondary school Diploma BSC Master PHD Total

Frequency 2 16 52 159 50 4 283

Percent 0.7% 5.7% 18.4% 56.2% 17.7% 1.4% 100%

Table 7 Research Sample by Educational level

Figure 13 Research Sample by Educational level

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4.1.8 Work Experience

Work Experience 1-5 6-10 11-15 16-20 21+ Total

Frequency 114 85 37 20 27 283

Percent 40.3% 30% 13.1% 7.1% 9.5% 100%

Table 8 Research Sample by Work Experience

Figure 14 Research Sample by Work Experience

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4.1.9 Number of years with the current employer

Number of years with the current employer 1-5 6-10 11-15 16-20 21+ Total

Frequency 177 59 20 14 13 283

Percent 62.5% 20.8% 7.1% 4.9% 4.6% 100%

Table 9 Research Sample by Number of years with the current employer

Figure 15 Research Sample by Number of years with the current employer

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4.1.10 Job Satisfaction

Job Satisfaction Extremely Not satisfied Not satisfied Neutral Satisfied Extremely satisfied Total

Frequency 16 40 84 120 23 283

Percent 5.7% 14.1% 29.7% 42.4% 8.1% 100%

Table 10 Research Sample by Job Satisfaction

Figure 16 Research Sample by Job Satisfaction

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4.1.11 Research Sample distributed based on their evaluation of the Organization's services for the customers

Evaluation of the Organization's services for the customers Bad Fair Good Excellent Total 18 52 145 68 283 6.4% 18.4% 51.2% 24% 100% Frequency Percent

Table 11 Research Sample distributed based on their evaluation of the Organization's services for the customers

Figure 17 Research Sample distributed based on their evaluation of the Organization's services for the customers

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4.1.12 Summary of responses    The sample size is 283 responses. The Survey collected 283 responses distributed over at least 66 distinct organizations (See Appendix 1 for full list). The sample did not cover many groups, namely: o Nationality where only 11 Non Bahraini’s responded. o In the level of education only 2 respondents did not complete school, and only 4 hold a PHD degree. o The online collection method seems to be limited also when it comes to reaching field workers who are either non Bahraini’s or Low educated Bahraini’s, which is a combination of the above two groups.  Overall, the respondents average score is above Neutral (3) in all questions except: o Providing negative response (willing to leave) when asked about the company. o Performing extra duty. See Appendix 2 for more details.

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4.2 Initial Data Analysis To analyze the collected data, we applied ANOVA test with the minimum significant level of 5%. “Analysis Of Variance” (ANOVA) is a collection of statistical models that provides a statistical test of whether or not the means of several groups are all equal.

The table below shows the summary of results for all the factors (the three factors and the overall result):

Interpersonal Organizational Citizenship Gender Age Nationality Sector Organization Size Position Educational level Work Experience Number of years with the current employer Job Satisfaction Evaluation of the Organization's services for the customers 32.1% 0.0% 20.7% 9.5% 91.3% 91.7% 37.2% 46.5% 74.1% 55.5% 62.4% 5.0% Citizenship 88.7% 18.2% 16.0% 24.7% 29.4% 0.6% 71.0% 3.1% 83.6% 0.0%

Job/Task Citizenship 90.8% 15.4% 1.8% 5.4% 31.7% 3.7% 32.7% 30.9% 75.9% 93.9%

Overall 52.4% 6.9% 9.0% 16.3% 17.4% 5.5% 45.3% 8.3% 82.8% 0.9%

65.9%

21.9%

Table 12 ANOVA test results

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4.1

One Way ANOVA tests

Factors who passed the required significant level has been tested using One Way ANOVA test to analyze the relationship between each Dependent and the groups on each factor, the results are as shown on the tables bellow:

4.1.1 The impact of Job satisfaction on Interpersonal Citizenship.

(I) Job Satisfaction Extremely Not satisfied

(J) Job Satisfaction

Mean Difference (I-J) -4.08750* -1.65 -1.27 -3.24 4.08750* 2.44167* 2.81667* 0.85 1.65 -2.44167* 0.38 -1.59 1.27 -2.81667*

Std. Error 176.50% 162.76% 158.80% 194.24% 176.50% 114.63% 108.94% 156.14% 162.76% 114.63% 84.88% 140.42% 158.80% 108.94%

Sig.

Not satisfied Neutral Satisfied Extremely satisfied

2.10% 31.30% 42.40% 9.70% 2.10% 3.40% 1.00% 58.60% 31.30% 3.40% 65.90% 25.80% 42.40% 1.00%

Not satisfied

Extremely Not satisfied Neutral Satisfied Extremely satisfied

Neutral

Extremely Not satisfied Not satisfied Satisfied Extremely satisfied

Satisfied

Extremely Not satisfied Not satisfied

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(I) Job Satisfaction

(J) Job Satisfaction Neutral Extremely satisfied

Mean Difference (I-J) -0.38 -1.97 3.24 -0.85 1.59 1.97

Std. Error 84.88% 135.82% 194.24% 156.14% 140.42% 135.82%

Sig. 65.90% 14.90% 9.70% 58.60% 25.80% 14.90%

Extremely satisfied

Extremely Not satisfied Not satisfied Neutral Satisfied

Table 13 Significance of Job Satisfaction relationship with Interpersonal Citizenship

95% Confidence Interval (I) Job Satisfaction (J) Job Satisfaction Lower Bound Upper Bound Extremely Not satisfied Not satisfied Neutral Satisfied Extremely satisfied Not satisfied Extremely Not satisfied Neutral Satisfied Extremely satisfied Neutral Extremely Not satisfied Not satisfied Satisfied Extremely satisfied Satisfied Extremely Not satisfied -756.19% -484.98% -439.69% -706.02% 61.31% 18.52% 67.22% -222.26% -155.81% -469.81% -129.60% -435.48% -185.52% -61.31% 155.81% 185.52% 58.73% 756.19% 469.81% 496.11% 392.48% 484.98% -18.52% 204.60% 117.36% 439.69%

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95% Confidence Interval (I) Job Satisfaction (J) Job Satisfaction Lower Bound Upper Bound Not satisfied Neutral Extremely satisfied Extremely satisfied Extremely Not satisfied Not satisfied Neutral Satisfied -496.11% -204.60% -463.92% -58.73% -392.48% -117.36% -70.80% -67.22% 129.60% 70.80% 706.02% 222.26% 435.48% 463.92%

Table 14 Confidence Interval of Job Satisfaction relationship with Interpersonal Citizenship

4.1.2

The impact of the position on Organizational Citizenship.

(I) Position Field or factory worker

(J) Position

Mean Difference (I-J) 0.04 -1.28 -6.76374* -0.04 -1.32 -6.80420* 1.28 1.32 -5.47992*

Std. Error

Sig.

Junior office employee Middle Management Upper Management

192.52% 98.30% 194.79% 51.00% 264.80% 1.10%

Junior office employee

Field or factory worker Middle Management Upper Management

192.52% 98.30% 86.53% 12.70% 199.16% 0.10%

Middle Management

Field or factory worker Junior office employee Upper Management

194.79% 51.00% 86.53% 201.35% 12.70% 0.70%

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(I) Position

(J) Position

Mean Difference (I-J) 6.76374* 6.80420* 5.47992*

Std. Error 264.80% 199.16% 201.35%

Sig. 1.10% 0.10% 0.70%

Upper Management Field or factory worker Junior office employee Middle Management

Table 15 Significance of Position relationship with Organizational Citizenship

95% Confidence Interval (I) Position (J) Position Lower Bound Upper Bound Field or factory worker Junior office employee Middle Management Upper Management Junior office employee Field or factory worker Middle Management Upper Management Middle Management Field or factory worker Junior office employee Upper Management Upper Management Field or factory worker Junior office employee Middle Management -374.94% -511.83% -1197.63% -383.03% -302.77% -1072.46% -255.06% -37.91% -944.34% 155.12% 288.38% 151.64% 383.03% 255.06% -155.12% 374.94% 37.91% -288.38% 511.83% 302.77% -151.64% 1197.63% 1072.46% 944.34%

Table 16 Confidence Interval of Position relationship with Organizational Citizenship

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4.1.3 The impact of Work Experience on Organizational Citizenship.

(I) Work Experience 1-5

(J) Work Experience 6-10 11-15 16-20 21+

Mean Difference (I-J) 0.06 -0.99 2.49 -3.74659* -0.06 -1.06 2.43 -3.80871* 0.99 1.06 3.48 -2.75 -2.49 -2.43 -3.48 -6.23519* 3.74659* 3.80871* 2.75 6.23519*

Std. Error 99.01% 130.72% 167.49% 147.87% 99.01% 136.08% 171.71% 152.63% 130.72% 136.08% 191.75% 174.87% 167.49% 171.71% 191.75% 203.83% 147.87% 152.63% 174.87% 203.83%

Sig. 95.00% 44.80% 13.80% 1.20% 95.00% 43.80% 15.90% 1.30% 44.80% 43.80% 7.00% 11.70% 13.80% 15.90% 7.00% 0.20% 1.20% 1.30% 11.70% 0.20%

6-10

1-5 11-15 16-20 21+

11-15

1-5 6-10 16-20 21+

16-20

1-5 6-10 11-15 21+

21+

1-5 6-10 11-15 16-20

Table 17 Significance of Work Experience relationship with Organizational Citizenship

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(I) Work Experience 1-5

(J) Work Experience 6-10 11-15 16-20 21+

95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound -188.69% -356.72% -80.86% -665.75% -201.12% -373.47% -95.36% -681.32% -157.95% -162.28% -29.22% -619.52% -578.58% -580.66% -725.71% -1024.76% 83.56% 80.42% -68.97% 222.27% 201.12% 157.95% 578.58% -83.56% 188.69% 162.28% 580.66% -80.42% 356.72% 373.47% 725.71% 68.97% 80.86% 95.36% 29.22% -222.27% 665.75% 681.32% 619.52% 1024.76%

6-10

1-5 11-15 16-20 21+

11-15

1-5 6-10 16-20 21+

16-20

1-5 6-10 11-15 21+

21+

1-5 6-10 11-15 16-20

Table 18 Confidence Interval of Work Experience relationship with Organizational Citizenship

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4.1.4 The impact of Job Satisfaction on Organizational Citizenship.

(I) Job Satisfaction Extremely Not satisfied

(J) Job Satisfaction

Mean Difference (I-J) -4.37500* -4.24405* -7.26667* -11.03804* 4.37500* 0.13 -2.89167* -6.66304* 4.24405* -0.13 -3.02262* -6.79400* 7.26667* 2.89167* 3.02262* -3.77138* 11.03804* 6.66304*

Std. Error

Sig.

Not satisfied Neutral Satisfied Extremely satisfied

194.95% 179.77% 175.40% 214.55% 194.95% 126.61% 120.32% 172.46% 179.77% 126.61% 93.76% 155.10% 175.40% 120.32% 93.76% 150.01% 214.55% 172.46%

2.60% 1.90% 0.00% 0.00% 2.60% 91.80% 1.70% 0.00% 1.90% 91.80% 0.10% 0.00% 0.00% 1.70% 0.10% 1.30% 0.00% 0.00%

Not satisfied

Extremely Not satisfied Neutral Satisfied Extremely satisfied

Neutral

Extremely Not satisfied Not satisfied Satisfied Extremely satisfied

Satisfied

Extremely Not satisfied Not satisfied Neutral Extremely satisfied

Extremely satisfied

Extremely Not satisfied Not satisfied

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(I) Job Satisfaction

(J) Job Satisfaction Neutral Satisfied

Mean Difference (I-J) 6.79400* 3.77138*

Std. Error 155.10% 150.01%

Sig. 0.00% 1.30%

Table 19 Significance of Job Satisfaction relationship with Organizational Citizenship

95% Confidence Interval (I) Job Satisfaction Extremely Not satisfied (J) Job Satisfaction Lower Bound Upper Bound Not satisfied Neutral Satisfied Extremely satisfied Not satisfied Extremely Not satisfied Neutral Satisfied Extremely satisfied Neutral Extremely Not satisfied Not satisfied Satisfied Extremely satisfied Satisfied Extremely Not satisfied Not satisfied Neutral -821.26% -778.28% -1071.95% -1526.15% 53.74% -236.13% -526.03% -1005.80% 70.53% -262.32% -486.82% -984.71% 381.38% 52.31% 117.70% -53.74% -70.53% -381.38% -681.46% 821.26% 262.32% -52.31% -326.81% 778.28% 236.13% -117.70% -374.09% 1071.95% 526.03% 486.82%

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95% Confidence Interval (I) Job Satisfaction (J) Job Satisfaction Lower Bound Upper Bound Extremely satisfied Extremely satisfied Extremely Not satisfied Not satisfied Neutral Satisfied -672.44% 681.46% 326.81% 374.09% 81.83% -81.83% 1526.15% 1005.80% 984.71% 672.44%

Table 20 Confidence Interval of Job Satisfaction relationship with Organizational Citizenship

4.1.5 The impact of the employee evaluation of the organization services for the customers on organizational Citizenship.

(I) Evaluation (J) Evaluation of the of the Mean Std. Error

95% Confidence Interval Sig. Lower Bound -3.08 184.19% 9.50% -670.70% Upper Bound 54.46%

Organization's Organization's Difference services for the services for the customers Bad customers Fair Good Excellent Fair Bad Good Excellent Good Bad Fair (I-J)

-5.29923* 168.32% 0.20% -861.26% -198.59% -7.65359* 178.53% 0.00% -1116.80% -413.92% 3.08 184.19% 9.50% -54.46% 670.70% -7.50%

-2.21804* 108.87% 4.30% -436.11%

-4.57240* 124.08% 0.00% -701.48% -213.00% 5.29923* 168.32% 0.20% 2.21804* 108.87% 4.30% 198.59% 7.50% 861.26% 436.11%

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(I) Evaluation (J) Evaluation of the of the Mean Std. Error

95% Confidence Interval Sig. Lower Bound -2.35436* 98.99% 1.80% -430.30% Upper Bound -40.57%

Organization's Organization's Difference services for the services for the customers customers Excellent Excellent Bad Fair Good (I-J)

7.65359* 178.53% 0.00% 4.57240* 124.08% 0.00% 2.35436* 98.99% 1.80%

413.92% 1116.80% 213.00% 40.57% 701.48% 430.30%

Table 21 Significance of Evaluation of the Organization's services for the customers, relationship with Organizational Citizenship

4.1.6 The impact of Employee’s nationality on Job\Task Citizenship.

Nationality Bahraini

Mean 34.8787

N 272 11 283

Std. Deviation 6.00092 6.10067 6.05393

Non Bahraini 39.2727 Total 35.0495

Table 22 Significance of Nationality with Job/Task Citizenship

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4.1.7 The impact of the employee position on the Job\Task Citizenship.

(I) Position Field or factory worker

(J) Position

Mean Difference (I-J) 1.09 1.08 -3.84 -1.09 -0.02 -4.93007* -1.08 0.02 -4.91355* 3.84 4.93007* 4.91355*

Std. Error

Sig.

Junior office employee Middle Management Upper Management

167.87% 169.85% 230.89% 167.87% 75.45% 173.65% 169.85% 75.45% 175.56% 230.89% 173.65% 175.56%

51.50% 52.60% 9.80% 51.50% 98.30% 0.50% 52.60% 98.30% 0.50% 9.80% 0.50% 0.50%

Junior office employee

Field or factory worker Middle Management Upper Management

Middle Management Field or factory worker Junior office employee Upper Management Upper Management Field or factory worker Junior office employee Middle Management

Table 23 Significance of position relationship with Job\Task Citizenship

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95% Confidence Interval (I) Position (J) Position Lower Bound Upper Bound Field or factory worker Junior office employee Middle Management Upper Management Junior office employee Field or factory worker Middle Management Upper Management Middle Management Field or factory worker Junior office employee Upper Management Upper Management Field or factory worker Junior office employee Middle Management -220.96% -226.51% -838.02% -439.95% -150.18% -834.84% -442.18% -146.88% -836.95% -70.99% 151.17% 145.76% 439.95% 442.18% 70.99% 220.96% 146.88% -151.17% 226.51% 150.18% -145.76% 838.02% 834.84% 836.95%

Table 24 Confidence Interval of position relationship with Job\Task Citizenship

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4.1.8 The impact of Job Satisfaction on the overall citizenship. (I) Job Satisfaction Extremely Not satisfied (J) Job Satisfaction Mean Difference (I-J) -9.12500* -6.49 -9.31667* -15.91848* 9.12500* 2.63 -0.19 -6.79 6.49 -2.63 -2.82 -9.42443* 9.31667* 0.19 2.82 -6.60181* 15.91848* 6.79 9.42443* 6.60181* Std. Error 424.39% 391.34% 381.84% 467.05% 424.39% 275.61% 261.94% 375.43% 391.34% 275.61% 204.10% 337.63% 381.84% 261.94% 204.10% 326.57% 467.05% 375.43% 337.63% 326.57% Sig.

Not satisfied Neutral Satisfied Extremely satisfied

3.20% 9.80% 1.50% 0.10% 3.20% 34.10% 94.20% 7.10% 9.80% 34.10% 16.80% 0.60% 1.50% 94.20% 16.80% 4.40% 0.10% 7.10% 0.60% 4.40%

Not satisfied

Extremely Not satisfied Neutral Satisfied Extremely satisfied

Neutral

Extremely Not satisfied Not satisfied Satisfied Extremely satisfied

Satisfied

Extremely Not satisfied Not satisfied Neutral Extremely satisfied

Extremely satisfied

Extremely Not satisfied Not satisfied Neutral Satisfied

Table 25 Significance of Job Satisfaction with Overall Citizenship

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95% Confidence Interval (I) Job Satisfaction (J) Job Satisfaction Lower Bound Extremely Not satisfied Not satisfied Neutral Satisfied Extremely satisfied Not satisfied Extremely Not satisfied Neutral Satisfied Extremely satisfied Neutral Extremely Not satisfied Not satisfied Satisfied Extremely satisfied Satisfied Extremely Not satisfied Not satisfied Neutral Extremely satisfied Extremely satisfied Extremely Not satisfied Not satisfied Neutral Satisfied -1747.92% -1419.78% -1683.32% -2511.26% 77.08% -279.46% -534.80% -1418.40% -120.97% -805.65% -684.04% -1607.09% 180.01% -496.47% -119.52% -1303.04% 672.44% -59.71% 277.80% 17.32% Upper Bound -77.08% 120.97% -180.01% -672.44% 1747.92% 805.65% 496.47% 59.71% 1419.78% 279.46% 119.52% -277.80% 1683.32% 534.80% 684.04% -17.32% 2511.26% 1418.40% 1607.09% 1303.04%

Table 26 Confidence Interval of Job Satisfaction relationship with Overall Citizenship

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5 Discussion
In light of the results shown in section 4, we can see that OCB might be affected by many factors, including:5.1 “Job satisfaction” Job satisfaction is the most important factor on OCB; it affects Interpersonal Citizenship, Organizational Citizenship, and the Overall Citizenship, which fits with the conclusion of the other researches.

The significant of Job Satisfaction relationship with Interpersonal Citizenship is 5% which is the maximum accepted significant level; The Numbers shows that the “Not Satisfied” employees are significantly different than the others. Still, “extremely Not Satisfied” employees are not significantly different; this might be mainly because this group size is small, where only 16 responses accounting only for 5.70% from the total sample size.

This type of citizenship is mainly about personal level of services between employees; still the numbers indicates that a person willingness to perform those personal services would be affected if he is not satisfied by the organization itself. This can be logical if: a. The other employees are responsible for his dissatisfaction. b. The level of his dissatisfaction with the organization is height, and as a result it goes beyond his relationship with the organization to affect how he behaves with the other.

On the other hand, Job Satisfaction has a significant relationship with Organizational Citizenship with the P value of 0% which indicates a very strong significant level. This is because almost each group within the sample (Extremely satisfied, Satisfied,

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Neutral, Not satisfied, extremely Not satisfied) are significantly different from each other except the “Neutral” group compared to the “Not Satisfied” group. This fits with the definition of Organizational Citizenship where the employee would be willing to defend the organization in from of others and promote its services; a set of acts that requires a satisfied employee who love his organization.

The above two factors resulted in a strong significant level for Job Satisfaction with the Overall Citizenship where P value is 0.9%.

Still, the relationship between Job Satisfaction and Job/Task Citizenship is not proven by the numbers as the P value is 93.9%. Further researches are required to verify such result, because the logical relationship is that a satisfied employee would be willing to perform more tasks (beyond or within the scope of his duty), while the unsatisfied employee would not. Such result might be because of: a. The sample size is not sufficient. b. The survey has not been designed in a proper way that measures Job/Task Citizenship accurately. c. The previous assumption is wrong.

5.2 “Position” “Position” is the second important factor that affects OCB because it affects both the Organizational Citizenship and the Job/Task Citizenship. Based on the results, employees at a higher position are showing higher Organizational citizenship (significant level of 0.6%) and higher Job\Task Citizenship (significant level of 3.7%); in both cases; the “Upper Management” group are significantly different compared to the others.

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This Result can be justified by: a. Upper management is responsible for the whole performance of the organization. His evaluation & rewards (i.e. bonus) rely on that. b. Payment and benefits for the upper management is also different compared to the other groups.

5.3

“Work experience” “Work experience” is affecting only the Organizational Citizenship (significant level of 3.1%) where employees who spent 21 years or above in the work field are more likely to show different Organizational Citizenship attitude.

This has to be read in the light of lack of relationship between any OCB type and both:  Age: This indicates that employees who join work at early age would get the same affect for those who are older in age but spent the same time in the work field.  Number of years with the current employers: leading to the conclusion that even those who switch between organizations during their work experience would have the same change in attitude compared to those who spent the whole period with the same employer.

This might be a result of: a. After such long experience, the employee would appreciate what the organization provides him. b. The employee has more knowledge about the company & its services and how they are compared with the competitors. c. The employee is under the effect of the organization`s strong culture and identity.

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More investigation is needed to investigate the reasons behind the delay of such affect, where it only occurs after 21+ years of work experience.

5.4

“Employee evaluate the organization`s services to customers” Organizational Citizenship is also affected by how the employee evaluate the organization`s services to customers with the significant level of 0%, This is most likely to be because: a. If an employee is convinced that the products and services provided by his organization are superb, then he would be most likely willing to promote them and defend the organization in front of others. He would see this as a service for those consumers rather than a service for his organization. b. An organization with strong culture that is communicated to its employees would assure that they are aware of the value provided in its products and services even if those products are not the best.

5.5

“Nationality” While the number of non-Bahraini in the sample is low (11 respondents compared to 272 Bahrainis) accounting only for 3.9%; the statistics shows that the nationality (Bahraini or Non Bahraini) has an effect on the Job\Task Citizenship.

This can be justified by: a. The Sample does not reflect the real world distribution of non-Bahraini works over occupations where the majority of them are field workers. The sample had only one non-Bahraini Field worker, 2 Junior office employee, 7 middle management, and 1 upper management. b. Non Bahrainis gets more benefit compared to what they get back at home, and the provided package made them leave home and go for a foreign country.

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c. Non-Bahrainis evaluation is strictly based on their performance, and if their performance is low then they can be replaced easily. This motivates them to increase their productivity and seeks better opportunities inside the organization.

5.6

Factors that does not affect OCB This research could not prove any significant relationship between any type of the citizenship and the following:       Gender. Age. Sector (Private\Public). Organization’s size. Educational Level. Number of years with the current employer.

While some of those factors are proven to have impact on OCB by other researchers, this research could not prove such relationship, which can be justified by: a. The cultural differences can the most important factor that affects each research result. b. Other researches that measures OCB in Bahrain were not available to verify the results. c. Sample size (283 respondents) may not provide accurate measurement of any behavior putting in mind the size of the workforce inside Bahrain. d. The survey might have some design errors that caused wrong feedback by the respondents.

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6 Summary and Conclusion
Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is one of the most important behaviors that organizations should encourage in the work environment. It is important because it create a self-healing business where employees would take the right actions by their own, and without any overhead. OCB can be classified into:  Inter Personal Citizenship, where the employee actions would be driven towards personal interaction with the others (i.e. providing personal services & professional help, emotional support, showing courtesy & tact...etc.)  Organizational Citizenship, where the employee is expressing favorable attitudes toward the organization (i.e. loyalty, defending the company and it\s products…etc.).  Job\task citizenship, where the employee would perform all what is required to accomplish his job, find additional tasks when he is done, and he would be motivated to develop his knowledge and skills.

For the scope of this research, the above classification is adopted where marks is given for each type of citizenship (Interpersonal Citizenship, Organizational Citizenship, Job/Task Citizenship) and the marks are summed together to measure the Overall Citizenship. After analyzing the results, the following has been found in the Bahraini organization: 1. “Job satisfaction” is the most important factor on OCB; it affects Interpersonal Citizenship, Organizational Citizenship, and the Overall Citizenship. 2. “Position” is the second important factor because it affects both the Organizational Citizenship and the Job/Task Citizenship. 3. Work experience has an effect only on the Organizational Citizenship. 4. Organizational Citizenship is also affected by how the employee evaluate the organization`s services to customers.

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5. Even that the number of non-Bahraini is low, the statistics shows that the nationality (Bahraini or Non Bahraini) has an effect on the Job\Task Citizenship. 6. This research could not prove any significant relationship between any type of the citizenship and the following:       Gender. Age. Sector (Private\Public). Organization’s size. Educational Level. Number of years with the current employer.

6.1 Recommendations Further detailed study needs to be conducted to dig further in the relationship between OCB and      Nationality. Position. Work Experience. Job Satisfaction. Evaluation of the Organization's services for the customers.

Other studies are also required to verify & justify some of the strange or illogical result in this research, this includes: a. Lack of significant relationship between Job Satisfaction and Job/Task Citizenship. b. Position effect on OCB is limited to upper management. c. The impact of work experience over OCB is delayed until 21+ years.

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7 Appendixes
7.1 Seq 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Not named Aali Intermediate school AFS Al Taweya Society Al Waqt news Paper Atheer Bahrain Access Bahrain Asphalt Establishments Bahrain Business Machines Bahrain Commercial Facilities Company Bahrain Credit Bapco BBK British Council BTI CDN Cityneon Core Technology Delmon University Elect & Water Auth Electricity & Water Authority EWA Appendix 1: Sample distribution based on organization Organization Name Frequency 176 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 15 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 6 1 Percent 62.19% 0.35% 0.71% 0.35% 0.35% 0.71% 0.35% 0.35% 0.35% 0.35% 0.35% 5.30% 0.35% 0.35% 0.35% 0.35% 0.35% 0.35% 1.06% 0.35% 2.12% 0.35%

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23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47

Executive Bureau of Ministers of labor & social Affairs in GCC Garmco GCC Executive bureau Gulf Air Gulf Aviation Academy Gulf University Haji Hassan Group Haji Hassan Readymix BSC(C) Hamad Town Intermediate school hhg HHG Ibn Rushd School IDEAS IT Islamic Society Jaffari Waqf kanoo Lloyd's Register Manama Municipality Council Middle miscibility Council Ministry of Education Ministry of Health Ministry of Justice Ministry of Labor ministry of social development ministry of works

1

0.35%

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 4 5 1

0.35% 0.35% 0.35% 0.35% 0.35% 0.35% 0.35% 0.35% 1.06% 0.35% 0.35% 0.35% 0.35% 0.35% 0.35% 0.35% 0.35% 0.35% 0.71% 0.35% 0.35% 1.41% 1.77% 0.35%

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48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67

Ministry of Works Muharraq Municipality Municipality Affairs National Farming Centre Nuaem Secondary School Nuetel Path Solutions Riffa Intermediate school Riffa views Company Road Department Secondary School Solidarity tazur TCGme Tender Board Trafco U.C.O University of applied Science University of Bahrain zime Total

7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1

2.47% 0.35% 0.35% 0.35% 0.35% 0.35% 0.35% 0.35% 0.35% 0.35% 0.35% 0.35% 0.35% 0.35% 0.35% 0.71% 0.35% 0.35% 0.71% 0.35%

283 100.00%

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7.2

Appendix 2: Means of responses for each question in the questioner

Question No. Q1.1

Question How often do you help & motivate colleagues through the following: [Offering suggestions] How often do you help & motivate colleagues through the following: [Teaching them] How often do you help & motivate colleagues through the following: [Doing some of their tasks] How often do you help & motivate colleagues

Mean 3.19

Difference with Neutral (3) 0.19

Q1.2

3.14

0.14

Q1.3

3.16

0.16

3.43 0.43

Q1.4

through the following: [supporting them emotionally when they have personal problems]

Q1.5

How often do you help & motivate colleagues through the following: [Accepting suggestions] How often do you help & motivate colleagues through the following: [Informing them of events] How often do you help & motivate colleagues

3.16

0.16

Q1.6

3.41

0.41

3.54 0.54

Q1.7

through the following: [Putting team objectives ahead of personal interests] How often do you help & motivate colleagues 3.27

Q1.8

through the following: [Showing consideration, courtesy and tact] How often do you help & motivate colleagues 3.49

0.27

Q1.9

through the following: [Motivating and showing confidence on them]

0.49

Q2.1

When you refer to your company, how often do you use: ["We"]

3.24

0.24

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Q2.2

When you refer to your company, how often do you use: ["Them"] When someone asks about your job, your answer

3.63

0.63

2.81 -0.19

Q2.3

would be: [It is a great company and with a marvelous career path]

Q2.4

When someone asks about your job, your answer would be: [I am waiting for a chance to leave] When someone talks negatively about your

3.39

0.39

3.05 0.05

Q2.5

company or it's services to the customers, you would: [Defend your company, and prove that he was wrong] When someone talks negatively about your 3.56

Q2.6

company or it's services to the customers, you would: [Show him extra negative points that he might not be aware of] If your company is going throw hard time, and you 3.27

0.56

Q2.7

are facing management pressure, you would: [Stay with the company, thigs would go back to normal] If your company is going throw hard time, and you 3.11

0.27

Q2.8

are facing management pressure, you would: [Start searching for a job]

0.11

Q2.9 Q2.10 Q2.11

You: [Understand, believe and support the organisation objectives] You: [Comply with rules and procedures] You: [Perform only your duty but nothing beyond that] You know that an operation is consuming the company resources, but this is not within your

3.63

0.63 0.87 -0.02

3.87 2.98

3.17 0.17

Q2.12

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direct responsibility.. [You would search the internet and ask friends about a solution] You know that an operation is consuming the Q2.13 company resources, but this is not within your direct responsibility.. [it is none of your business] Q3.1 You are going through difficult work conditions, you would: [Fight back] You are going through difficult work conditions, Q3.2 you would: [lay-down and have a break... things would change eventually] You are responsible for a project, but you are waiting for an important service from another Q3.3 department for so long.. [Take action and get the service from another source, or even do it yourself if required] You are responsible for a project, but you are Q3.4 waiting for an important service from another department for so long.. [Nothing] Your boss is on leave, you are ahead of schedule Q3.5 and all your tasks are done: [I have so many ideas that would increase work productivity.] Your boss is on leave, you are ahead of schedule Q3.6 and all your tasks are done: [It is time for unofficial vacation] You are interested in a task, but that task was Q3.7 assigned to your colleague: [I would be willing to be in his team, because I want to be part of this.] 3.23 0.23 3.62 0.62 3.18 0.18 4.35 1.35 0.14 3.14 3.39 0.39 3.46 0.46 4.02 1.02

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You are interested in a task, but that task was Q3.8 assigned to your colleague: [Leave the project, I would mind my own business] You have a challenging tasks that would add to Q3.9 your experience, but it would need to do it voluntarily and in your own time: [Invest your personal time and effort] You have a challenging tasks that would add to Q3.10 your experience, but it would need to do it voluntarily and in your own time: [Do it only if there is a payback]

3.47 0.47

3.55 0.55

3.66 0.66

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8 Table of contents
8.1 List of Tables

Table 1 Research Sample by Gender ........................................................................................... 19 Table 2 Research Sample by Age ................................................................................................ 20 Table 3 Research Sample by Nationality ..................................................................................... 21 Table 4 Research Sample by Sector ............................................................................................. 22 Table 5 Research Sample by Organization Size .......................................................................... 23 Table 6 Research Sample by Position .......................................................................................... 24 Table 7 Research Sample by Educational level ........................................................................... 25 Table 8 Research Sample by Work Experience ........................................................................... 26 Table 9 Research Sample by Number of years with the current employer .................................. 27 Table 10 Research Sample by Job Satisfaction............................................................................ 28 Table 11 Research Sample distributed based on their evaluation of the Organization's services for the customers .......................................................................................................................... 29 Table 12 ANOVA test results ...................................................................................................... 31 Table 13 Significance of Job Satisfaction relationship with Interpersonal Citizenship ............... 33 Table 14 Confidence Interval of Job Satisfaction relationship with Interpersonal Citizenship .. 34 Table 15 Significance of Position relationship with Organizational Citizenship ........................ 35 Table 16 Confidence Interval of Position relationship with Organizational Citizenship ............. 35 Table 17 Significance of Work Experience relationship with Organizational Citizenship.......... 36 Table 18 Confidence Interval of Work Experience relationship with Organizational Citizenship ...................................................................................................................................................... 37 Table 19 Significance of Job Satisfaction relationship with Organizational Citizenship ............ 39 Table 20 Confidence Interval of Job Satisfaction relationship with Organizational Citizenship 40 Table 21 Significance of Evaluation of the Organization's services for the customers, relationship with Organizational Citizenship ............................................................................... 41 Table 22 Significance of Nationality with Job/Task Citizenship ................................................. 41 Table 23 Significance of position relationship with Job\Task Citizenship .................................. 42 Table 24 Confidence Interval of position relationship with Job\Task Citizenship ...................... 43 Table 25 Significance of Job Satisfaction with Overall Citizenship ............................................ 44 Table 26 Confidence Interval of Job Satisfaction relationship with Overall Citizenship ............ 45

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8.2

Table of Figures

Figure 1 Potential consequences of formally evaluating and rewarding OCBs by Becton J. B., Giles W. F. & Schraeder .M (2007) 29 ................................................................... 11 Figure 2 Web form used to measure Interpersonal citizenship ....................................... 15 Figure 3 Web form used to measure Organizational citizenship (Part 1) ........................ 16 Figure 4 Web form used to measure Organizational citizenship (Part 2) ........................ 17 Figure 5 Web form used to measure Job/task citizenship ............................................... 18 Figure 6 Research Sample by Gender.............................................................................. 19 Figure 7 Research Sample by Age ................................................................................... 20 Figure 8 Research Sample by Nationality ....................................................................... 21 Figure 9 Research Sample by Sector ............................................................................... 22 Figure 10 Research Sample by Organization Size........................................................... 23 Figure 11 Research Sample by Position .......................................................................... 24 Figure 12 Research Sample by Educational level ........................................................... 25 Figure 13 Research Sample by Work Experience ........................................................... 26 Figure 14 Research Sample by Number of years with the current employer .................. 27 Figure 15 Research Sample by Job Satisfaction .............................................................. 28 Figure 16 Research Sample distributed based on their evaluation of the Organization's services for the customers ................................................................................................ 29

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9 References

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