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EXHIBIT B-25 STATION PIPING AND APPURTENANCES

This Exhibit on Station Piping and Appurtenances includes the following: 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 1.0 1.1 Station Piping Flanged Joints, Flanges, Bolts, Gaskets, and Fittings Nozzles and Instrument Connections Welding Heat Treatment Forging Bending Cleaning Testing Requirements

STATION PIPING All piping, fittings, and connections coming within the jurisdiction of the ASME Power Boiler Codes shall conform strictly to the provisions of this Code. All piping other than that described above shall conform to the requirements of the Power Piping Section of the Code for Pressure Piping, ANSI B31.1. FLANGED JOINTS, FLANGES, BOLTS, GASKETS, AND FITTINGS Flanges

1.2

2.0 2.1

2.1.1 All flange dimensions and ratings shall conform to the American Standard ANSI B16.5. 2.1.2 Where flanged joints are required, flanges shall be of the welding neck type, for 63mm (2-1/2 in.) and larger and socket weld type for 50-mm (2 in.) and under. 2.1.3 Flanges shall have raised-face, ring-joint male and female facing in accordance with ANSI B16.5. 2.1.4 Flanges shall have smooth plane finish for use with chevron-type gaskets. 2.1.5 Flanges mating with cast iron flanges shall be flat face with full-face gaskets. 2.2 Bolting

2.2.1 Bolts and studs shall be threaded full length. Length of bolts and bolt studs shall be such as to project at least one full thread beyond each nut after the joint is assembled. Bolting for all services shall consist of bolt studs fitted with a nut at each end. All bolt studs and nuts shall be threaded in accordance with the
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American Standard for Screw Threads for High Strength Bolting, ANSI B1.1. Nut dimensions shall be in accordance with the American "Heavy" Hexagon Nut Dimensions, ANSI B18.2. 2.2.2 Bolt studs for alloy steel piping system shall conform to ASTM A 193, B16 (chromium-molybdenum-vanadium steel). Bolt studs for carbon steel piping systems shall conform to ASTM A 193, B7 (Chromium-molybdenum steel). Nuts for all high pressure systems shall conform to ASTM A 194, Grade 2H. 2.2.3 All alloy steel bolts studs and nuts and sizes 25-mm (1 in.) diameter and smaller shall be of Coarse Thread Series; size 28.6-mm (1-1/8 in.) diameter and larger shall be of the 8 Pitch Thread Series. All bolt studs shall have Class 2A dimensions; nuts shall have Class 2B dimensions. 2.3 Gaskets

2.3.1 Gaskets shall cover the bottom of the recess of the female flange faces with minimum clearance practicable, after taking into account the tolerance of 0.40mm (1/64 in.) in the diameter of the face allowed for in ANSI B16.5. 2.3.2 All gaskets shall be "Flexitallic," or equal. 2.4 Fittings

2.4.1 All steel fittings shall conform to the dimensional standards of ANSI B16.9 for butt weld fittings 65-mm (2-1/2 in.) nominal and larger and ANSI B16.11 for socket weld fittings 50-mm (2 in.) nominal and smaller. 2.4.2 Wall thickness of all fittings shall be at least equal to that of the pipe to which they will be welded. 2.4.3 Fittings may be fabricated from pipe, plate, or they may be forged or cast. 2.4.4 Where screwed fittings are used, they shall be forged of steel of the same material as that of the adjacent pipe. 2.4.5 The use of forged steel fittings of 2000 lb class (threaded) and 300 lb or 6000 lb class (socket weld) shall be restricted to the permissible pressure-temperature service ratings as tabulated in ANSI Specification B16.11. Where screwed unions are used, they shall be 6000 lb Crane No. 246X or equal. 2.4.6 Where socket weld unions are used, they shall be Watson-Stillman or equal of the same schedule number and materials as that of the piping. 2.4.7 Screwed fittings shall be used only downstream of the first shutoff valve in any branch of the high pressure systems.

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3.0 3.1.

NOZZLES AND INSTRUMENT CONNECTIONS Nozzles

3.1.1 Side outlets smaller than the size of the main pipe shall be shop fabricated by welding, in preference to the use of welding tees. Care shall be taken in shaping the ends of nozzles and holes in the pipe to ensure accurate fits with suitable provisions for weld metal so that the branch connections do not project inside the pipe. The inside corners shall be rounded as required by the applicable code. 3.1.2 Nozzle connections for branches 65-mm (2-1/2 in.) nominal and larger may be made from castings, forgings, or pipe, of material similar to that used in the main run piping. Reinforcing shall be used where required by the applicable code. 3.1.3 Branches 50-mm (2 in.) nominal and smaller shall not be directly welded to main run of pipe 80-mm (3 in.) nominal or larger, unless called for on the drawings. 3.1.4 Nozzles welds shall be subject to heat treatment, radiographic and dye penetrant or magnetic particle inspection where required as defined in this Specification. 3.2 Instrument Connections

3.2.1 Threaded couplings shall be re-tapped after welding and heat treated. All instrument openings shall be plugged before shipment. 3.2.2 Connections for thermometer well shall be in accordance with Exhibit I-3. Instrument connections shall generally be 20-mm (3/4 in.) nominal. Connections for level instruments shall generally be 50-mm (2 in.) nominal. Process instrument connections shall be welded except at instrument. Connections at instrument shall be compression or union fittings. 4.0 4.1. WELDING Welding Joints

4.1.1 Weld joint details shall conform in general to ANSI Standard B16.25. 4.1.2 Line joints for all pipe sizes 65-mm (2-1/2 in.) nominal and larger shall be buttwelded. 4.1.3 Shop welds may be either of the conventional backing ring type, or of the inert gas welded type using no backing ring; or a "consumable" insert. Backing rings shall not be used in critical systems (main steam, hot and cold reheat, or boiler feed water pump discharge piping). Joint detail and welding procedure shall be submitted to MARAFIQ for acceptance. 4.1.4 For shop and field welded joints, on pipe sizes 80-mm (3 in.) nominal and larger utilizing backing rings, the ends of the pipe shall be prepared (recessed) suitable for the use of flat, solid-machined backing rings. 4.1.5 All backing rings shall be machined from the same material as is used in the pipe.

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4.1.6 Special weld joint preparation as may be required by the steam generator and turbine manufacturers shall be made as shown on the manufacturer's weld and detail drawings. 4.2 Welding Procedures

4.2.1 All piping which falls within the jurisdiction of the ASME Code for Power Boilers shall be welded in accordance with the provisions of that Code. Published Code interpretations by the Boiler Code Committee are considered acceptable only if specifically cited in the body of this specification. 4.2.2 All shop and field welding procedures, and welders and operators of machine welding equipment, shall be qualified in accordance with the rules of Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. 4.2.3 Standard welding procedure specifications, covering all the similar and dissimilar material welds to be performed for this project, shall be submitted for approval. 4.3. Welding Processes

4.3.1 Carbon steel pipe may be welded by one of the following processes: a. b. c. d. Manual metal arc with covered electrodes Automatic or manual submerged arc Automatic or manual inert gas shielded arc Oxyacetylene or pipe up to 40-mm (1-1/2 in.) nominal size

4.3.2 Alloy steel pipe may be welded by all processes listed above with the exception of oxyacetylene welding. Submerged arc welding shall be performed using a multiple layer technique in which the maximum thickness of any layer shall not exceed 4.76mm (3/16 in.). 4.4 Welding Material

4.4.1 All welding electrodes, welding rods, and filler metal which is used shall be designated by ASTM number in the procedure qualification forms. 4.4.2 Both filler metal and fluxing material shall be such that sound weld deposits having a chemical analysis and physical properties within the limits of the specification of the parent metal shall be obtained. Alloying elements shall be confined to the filler metal. 4.5 Preparation of Base Metal

4.5.1 The joint edge preparation may be made by machining, chipping, grinding, or flame cutting, or by a combination of these methods. If gas cutting is employed on alloy pipe, the cut shall leave a minimum of 1.6-mm (1/6 in.) to be removed by mechanical means. 4.5.2 Before alignment of pipe for field welds, welding faces shall be cleaned of all rust, scale, lacquer or paint, and grease.
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4.6

Securing of Backing Rings

4.6.1 Backing rings shall be secured by tack welding to the inside of the pipe at four equally spaced points on the upstream side of the joint. Tack welds shall be ground to remove all objectionable projections, and all weld spatter shall be removed prior to welding the joint. Welds shall be inspected and properly finished to ensure sound welds and smooth internal finish. 4.7 Tack Welding and Alignment

4.7.1 Carbon steel pipe may be tack welded for assembly purposes. Tack welds of sound metal made by "qualified" operators may be used as part of the permanent weld. All other tack welds shall be removed before completing deposit of the first bead. Preheat temperature for tack welding shall be the same as those for welding carbon steel pipe as given in Section 5.0 of this Exhibit. Tack welds shall not exceed 50.8-mm (2 in.) in length. 4.7.2 Alloy steel pipe may be tack welded for assembly purposes only if special spacer blocks or brackets are used and tack welds are made between the blocks and the surface of the pipe. Welding rod electrodes used for tack welds must have the same chemical analysis as the pipe. Tack welds on alloy steel pipe must be removed together with the immediate area of the base material when the spacer blocks are removed during the welding. Preheat temperatures for tack welding shall be the same as given in Section 5.0 of this Exhibit. 4.7.3 For field assembly, tack welds shall be limited to carbon steel pipe and to the procedure outlined above. Alloy pipes, fittings, and valves shall be aligned by the use of suitable clamps, jigs, or alignment fixtures. Tack welds shall not be used between alignment fixtures and pipe material. Piping assembly shall be supported, as far as practical, by counterbalanced supports or spring supports in order to minimize stresses in the heated area resulting from thermal expansion and contraction during welding and stress relieving. 4.8 Weld Continuity

4.8.1 The welding of all joints should, if practical, be completed without interruption. Carbon steel welds which require preheat and alloy steel welds up to and including 2-1/4 percent chrome material may be interrupted, if necessary, provided the following conditions are satisfied: a) The weld deposit, before interruption, is 9.5-mm (3/8 in.) thick or 25% of the welding groove is filled, whichever is thicker. b) c) d) Low hydrogen electrodes are used. Preheat temperature is restored before welding is resumed. Preheated and welded area is properly insulated upon interruption and allowed to cool slowly in still air.

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4.9

Weld Finish

4.9.1 The start and stop of each weld bead shall be closely examined and any defects shall be removed by chipping and grinding. All slag, scale or weld spatter shall be removed from each bead before the succeeding bead is deposited. A power-driven wire brush shall preferably be used for this purpose. 4.9.2 The exterior of all piping, hanger lugs, nozzles, etc., shall be free of burrs and tool marks. The interior surfaces shall be smooth, with rounded corners at all nozzles and joints. 4.9.3 The weld reinforcement of butt joints shall be ground smooth and shall not exceed the following: Component Thickness Mm In 12.7 Upto 1/2 12.7 to 25.4 Over 1/2 to 1 25.4 to 50.8 Over 1 to 2 50.8 Over 2 Reinforcement Thickness Max mm Max in 1.6 1/16 2.4 3/32 3.2 1/8 4.0 5/32

.9.4

With the exception that the joints subject to radiographic inspection shall have a maximum reinforcement of 1.6-mm (1/16 in.), the reinforcement shall blend into the parent metal without undercut or shoulder.

4.9.5 The weld surface or nozzle or other fillet welds shall be ground reasonably smooth with depressions between beads removed where they can mask defects when subjected to magnetic particle or liquid penetrant inspection. 5.0 5.1 HEAT TREATMENT General

5.1.1 All material, as far as practical, shall normalized and tempered condition. be purchased in full annealed or 5.1.2 All alloy pipe shall be purchased fully annealed and shot blasted, pickled, or otherwise made free of scale by the manufacturer. 5.1.3 For furnace heat-treating operations, the components and assemblies shall be completely enclosed in a furnace and shall be adequately supported to minimize change in shape. Machine finished surfaces shall be protected to prevent oxidation. Pipe ends shall be closed to reduce air circulation through the pipe, but pipe must not be sealed. Furnace temperature control shall be of such quality that holding temperatures are kept within 14C (57F) and that the maximum temperature differential at the various points during heating or cooling does not exceed 66C (150F). 5.1.4 A record of heating and holding temperatures for normalizing, and heat hold and cooling temperatures for stress relieving operations shall be kept, except for welded
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joints of 50-mm (2 in.) nominal size and smaller which may be controlled by the use of Tempils or Tempilstiks. Thermocouples or resistance thermometers used shall have been calibrated against certified standards throughout their range shortly before their use. 5.1.5 While material is in the hot state, care shall be exercised to avoid contact between the material and any nonferrous metals or alloys. 5.1.6 Whenever possible, heat treatment operations shall be performed in a furnace. Where this is not possible, metal temperature of the material shall be measured and recorded by means of thermocouples attached directly to the pipe; except for pipe 50-mm (2 in.) nominal and smaller, Tempils or Tempilstiks may be used. A minimum of two thermocouples shall be used with one couple located at each boundary of the zone to be heated. One additional recently calibrated thermocouple and independent potentiometer shall be used as a check. 5.1.7 All local heat treatment shall be performed by the induction heating process. In isolated instances where this is not possible, resistance heating may be used. However, special precautions and sufficient time shall be taken as to ensure uniform temperature distribution throughout the thickness of the material. 5.2 Normalizing

5.2.1 The following material shall be normalized: a) b) Any alloy steel pipe which was not initially fully annealed or normalized and tempered before receipt in Contractor's shop, regardless of work performed. Any carbon steel or alloy steel pipe which was subjected to forging operations, such as "upsetting" or swaging of ends, "Van Stoning," removal of bulges, and so forth.

5.2.2 The holding temperature for normalizing shall be 913C + 14C (1675F + 25F) with a minimum holding time of one hour. Furnace temperature distribution shall be sufficiently uniform to prevent differences exceeding 93C (200F) during the heating and cooling phase and 28 C (50F) during the holding period. Above 316C (600F), the maximum heating rate shall be 222C (400F) per hour divided by the pipe wall thickness in inches. Cooling shall take place in still air down to 316C (600F) . 5.2.3 The following joints for welding shall be preheated: a) b) c) All piping joints which are at temperatures below 15C (60F). All carbon steel joints where pipe wall thickness is 25.4-mm (1 in.) or greater. All carbon steel joints involving materials having minimum tensile strength of 483 MPa (70,000 psi) or higher (e.g., valves and castings of ASTM A 216, Grade WCB or forgings of ASTM A 105, Grade II material). All joints between carbon steel pipe and alloy steel material having a minimum chrome content of 2-1/4 percent.

d)

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e)

All alloy steel piping joints, access openings for radiographic inspection, drilled and tapped or socket welded branch connections, and thermometer well connections, and welds for nozzle and branch connections. Preheat shall be controlled and recorded as outlined herein.

5.2.4 Preheat temperatures shall be as follows: a) All carbon steel joints below 16C (60F) shall be preheated until material is at least hand hot. All carbon steel joints where pipe wall thickness exceeds 19-mm (3/4 in.) shall be at a temperature range of 204C to 316C ( 400F to 600F) during welding. All carbon steel joints involving materials having a minimum tensile strength of 483 MPa (70,000 psi) shall be preheated to a minimum temperature of 149C (300F) and a maximum of 260C (500F). All joints between carbon steel pipe and a low alloy steel material shall be preheated to a minimum temperature of 149C (300F) and a maximum of 315C (600f). All alloy steel joints shall be preheated to a minimum temperature range of 204C (400F) to 371C (700f) during welding regardless of wall thickness.

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5.3

Stress Relieving

5.3.1 The following material shall be stress relieved: a) All carbon steel welds where wall thickness of welded material is greater than 19-mm (3/4 in.). For branch connections, the thickness of the run shall govern. Carbon-molybdenum steel with carbon exceeding 0.25 percent or wall thickness greater than 12.7-mm (1/2 in.). Chromium-molybdenum steel welds where outside diameter of pipe exceeds 100-mm (4 in.), or wall thickness of 12.7-mm (1/2 in.), or greater. Any weld in which one of the two joint materials falls into the classification of Items a, b, or c above. All alloy steel pipe which was subjected to hot bending or forging operations followed by furnace normalizing shall be subjected to a full furnace stress relief. All alloy steel branch or nozzle welds, seal welds of access openings for radiographic inspection, drilled and tapped or socket welded branch, and thermometer well connections.

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5.3.2 Holding temperature for stress relieving shall be as follows: Carbon Steel Piping 593 - 676C (1100 -1250F) Alloy Steel Piping 704 - 774C (1300 -1425F). 5.3.3 Holding time for this temperature shall be one hour per inch of thickness with a minimum holding time of one hour. Heating and cooling shall be uniform along circumference of pipe. 5.3.4 Where furnace stress relief is not possible, local stress relieving may be employed. A minimum length of pipe equivalent to six pipe wall thicknesses on both sides of the weld shall be stress relieved. 5.3.5 The outside of the pipe shall be insulated for a distance of four pipe diameters on each side of the heated zone. 5.3.6 Pipe 150-mm (6 in.) nominal and larger shall be stress relieved by induction heating. Pipes smaller than 150-mm (6 in.) nominal may be stress relieved by induction or resistance heating or by use of a gas burner (propane gas). 5.3.7 Cooling after stress relieving may be accomplished by allowing the treated region to cool slowly in the furnace or in still air, in accordance with the requirements of Paragraph PW-39 of the ASME Power Boiler Code or Paragraph 131 of the Code for Power Piping ANSI B31.10, whichever is applicable. 5.3.8 Branch connection welds, nozzle welds and other attachment welds which are jointed to the pipe by other than circumferential butt welds, and which are subject to stress relieving, shall be stress relieved in a furnace whenever practical. 5.3.9 Alloy material of chrome content not exceeding 1-1/4 percent do not require stress relieving immediately after completion of the weld, provided welded area is properly insulated and allowed to cool from welding temperature to room temperature in still air. 5.3.10 Any welded section which has been given partial stress relief only must be given a complete stress relief subsequently. 6.0 6.1 FORGING For forging operations, the pipe shall be heated uniformly, preferably in a furnace, to permit simultaneous heating of the entire section to be forged. Forging of alloy steel shall be performed between the temperatures of 871C and 1093C (1600F and 2000F). During beating and forging, the temperature of the pipe shall be checked with optical pyrometers to prevent overheating, and to ensure working within the specified temperature range. Neither water nor other cooling agents shall be applied to the heated pipe. After the forging operation has been completed, the pipe shall be allowed to cool in still air.
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6.2

6.3

6.4

6.5 6.6

After completion, all forgings shall be heat treated. Following the heat treating operation, upset or swaged ends shall be machined, ground or blasted to clean metal, and subjected to magnetic particle or dye penetrant inspections, and repaired, if necessary. BENDING Both alloy and carbon steel pipe may be bent hot or cold in accordance with Paragraph 129 of the Code for Power Piping ANSI B31.10-10 and the following: a) All cold bends shall be performed on suitable equipment designed for the pipe size and bend diameters used. Minimum temperature while performing hot bends shall be 760C (1400F) for carbon steel pipe and 788C (1450F) for alloy steel pipe. The maximum temperature for hot bending carbon steel shall not exceed 954C (1750F). Maximum temperature for hot bending alloy steel shall not exceed 1093C (2000F). All hot bends of alloy material shall be subjected to a full furnace stress relief treatment. Carbon steel piping that has been heated to 899C (1650F) of higher during bending and cooled in still air shall require no subsequent heat treatment. Pipe 80-mm (3 in.) nominal size and larger, which is to be subjected to hot bending, shall be heat treated in a furnace which will uniformly heat the entire section to be bent. Pipe is to be held at the desired temperature only long enough to obtain a uniform temperature throughout. Pipe below 80-mm (3 in.) nominal size may be locally treated by gas torches or other suitable means. Pipe shall be sand filled and tamped for hot and cold bending. Sand shall be high temperature silica sand of suitable grade and fineness. During heating and bending, the temperature of the pipe shall be checked with optical pyrometers to prevent overheating and to ensure bending within the specified temperature range. Neither water nor other cooling agents shall come in contact with the heated pipe. After the bending operation has been completed, the pipe shall be allowed to cool in still air.

7.0 7.1

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7.2

All bends and offsets shall be made true to the size and radius indicated on the drawings. They shall be free from creases and buckles, and the cross section of the pipe shall not be changed so as to increase or decrease axial dimensions more than 5 percent of original size. Special care shall be taken to avoid stretching the
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metal unduly on the outside of the bends. In accordance with the Code for Power Piping ANSI B31.10, Paragraph 102.4.5, the minimum wall thickness at any point in a completed bend shall not be less than the minimum thickness calculated by code formula. Contractor shall retain for a period of three years after completion of this project, certified records indicating either that the pipe prior to bending meets the wall thickness requirements of Table 102.4.5 (B31.1) or that the piping after bending, by measurements in accordance with Pipe Fabrication Standard ES-20, meets the Code minimum standards. 7.3 Objectionable wrinkles or bulges shall be removed by hot pressing or hammering conducted in accordance with the restrictions given under "Forging," Section 6.0 of this Exhibit. CLEANING Following shop fabrication, the outside pipe surface shall be cleaned free of heavy or loose scale. Cleaning with a wire brush will usually be satisfactory. The inside surface must be smooth and free from weld spatter, scale, seams, and excessive die marks. All hot bends shall have been cleaned by means of rotary cleaner, shot blasting, or pickling. Immediately after inspection, following the final inside operation, the pipe ends shall be capped or sealed. This sealing shall be witnessed by the shop inspector and pipe shop foreman. 8.2 Cleaning After Field Erection

8.0 8.1

8.2.1 The following work will be done in the field: a) After complete erection of a pipe system, the system including connecting tanks, pressure vessels, and equipment will be thoroughly cleaned internally. Cleaning will be performed by blowing or flushing out the system with steam, water, or air. All temporary provisions (such as steam blowout piping, water wash and drainage piping, temporary strainers, and so forth) will be completed prior to proceeding with cleanout.

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9.0 9.1

TESTING REQUIREMENTS Hydrostatic Field Tests

9.1.1 After a system is cleaned, it will be subjected to a hydrostatic test prior to initial operation. The test shall be performed in accordance with the requirements of the ASME Power Boiler Code or the Power Piping Code, ANSI B31.1, whichever has jurisdiction. 9.1.2 Each system including pressure vessels and equipment shall be subjected to a pressure of 1-1/2 times the design pressure.

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9.1.3 Where a failure is detected as a result of the hydrostatic test, such repairs as necessary will be made. The portion of the system containing the fault will then be retested. 9.1.4 Hydrostatic tests of all forgings and castings shall be performed as required by the applicable ASTM Specifications. 9.2 Radiographic Inspection

9.2.1 General a) All shop and field welds on alloy steel pipe 150-mm (6 in.) nominal size and larger on main steam, hot and cold reheat shall be 100 percent radiographed. Access holes and plugs for field radiographic inspection shall be provided by Contractor. Carbon steel welds other than those specified above shall be subjected to radiographic inspection only where required by the ASME Power Boiler Code or the Power Piping Code, ANSI B31.1. All radiographic inspection shall be in accordance with the methods and standards of the ASME Power Boiler Code, Paragraph PW-51 and Recommended Practice for Radiographic Testing ASTM E 94.

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9.2.2 Penetrameters a) b) A penetrameter shall be provided for each exposure. Each penetrameter shall be identified as to material, thickness, and part number. In addition, markers shall be provided to identify the film with the specific area of the casting which is being examined.

c)

9.2.3 X-Ray Film a) All film shall be free from processing and mechanical defects. Film shall be stored, exposed, and processed in accordance with the procedures given in ASTM E 94 specifications. Contrast sensitivity quality level shall not be less than 2 percent and shall clearly show the outline of the penetrameter used. Detail sensitivity shall show clearly the drilled hole in the penetrameter which is twice the thickness of the penetrameter. Selection of film, focus-film distance, and radiation intensity shall be such that density of each exposure ranges between 1.5 and 3.7. Paragraph PW-51 and Appendix A-250 of the ASME Power Boiler Code shall be used for interpretation of radiographs of welds.

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9.3

Magnetic Particle or Dye Penetrant Inspection

9.3.1 General a) All nozzle, branch connection, and attachment welds in the alloy steel pipe, as well as alloy pipe butt-welds which are not subject to radiographic examination shall be subjected to magnetic particle or dye penetrant inspection. All pressure-containing material which has been subjected to forging operations shall be subjected to magnetic particle or dye penetrant inspection. For magnetic particle inspection, the dry continuous method in accordance with ASTM E 109 shall be used. Care shall be taken, by use of lead plates clamped in place or by other means, to avoid arcing or burning of the pipe. Any defects caused by arcing shall be removed by grinding. Where the liquid penetrant method is used, the procedure and nature of penetrant used shall be described in the inspection records.

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9.3.2 Visual Inspection a) Visual inspection of welding operations, performed by shop or field inspectors, shall include examination of groove details, suspension of the Pipe for field welds to ensure that pipe pieces are in proper alignment, examination for surface holes, cracks and other defects, and reinforcement dimensions after welding. Visual examination of the completed weld shall be made and repairs made prior to the heat treatment. Examination of each joint shall also be made after heat treatment. Hot and cold bends shall be subject to visual inspection for cracks or other surface defects. The repair of any unacceptable defect disclosed by visual or magnetic particle inspection shall be made by removing the material in the defective area until free of the defect, rewelding and reinspecting, while observing all the requirements of the specification for each operation performed.

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