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Fall final review

Answer Section

COMPLETION

1. ANS: seconds
2. ANS: distance
3. ANS: speed
4. ANS: independent
5. ANS: instantaneous
6. ANS: acceleration
7. ANS:
kilogram
kg
8. ANS: unit
9. ANS: controlled experiment
10. ANS: scientific method
11. ANS: line graph
12. ANS: technology
13. ANS: chemistry
14. ANS: physical science
15. ANS: responding variable
16. ANS: scientific law
17. ANS:
scientific theory
theory
18. ANS:
scientific model
model
19. ANS:
safety rules
safety procedures
20. ANS:
scientific model
model
21. ANS: 3.0 × 107
22. ANS: 14
23. ANS: Accuracy
24. ANS: 293
25. ANS: direct proportion
26. ANS: significant figures
27. ANS:
distance
length
28. ANS: vectors
29. ANS: meters per second
30. ANS: average speed
31. ANS: direction
32. ANS: direction
33. ANS: vector addition
34. ANS:
speed
velocity
35. ANS: positive
36. ANS: work
37. ANS: output, input
38. ANS: efficiency
39. ANS: distance
40. ANS: power
41. ANS: energy
42. ANS: force
43. ANS: weight
44. ANS: net force
45. ANS:
balanced forces
balanced
46. ANS: friction
47. ANS:
greater
larger
48. ANS:
air resistance
drag
49. ANS: zero
50. ANS: air resistance
51. ANS: projectile
52. ANS: inertia
53. ANS: inertia, forward
54. ANS: force, mass
55. ANS: weight
56. ANS: bowling
57. ANS: wall
58. ANS: equals
59. ANS: two
60. ANS: gravity
61. ANS: direction
62. ANS: move
63. ANS: work
64. ANS: joule
65. ANS: motion
66. ANS: power
67. ANS: watt
68. ANS: power
69. ANS: force
70. ANS: machine
71. ANS: input
72. ANS: increase
73. ANS: mechanical advantage
74. ANS: less
75. ANS: screw
76. ANS: first
77. ANS: second
78. ANS: less
79. ANS: decreases
80. ANS: compound
81. ANS: lever
82. ANS: work
83. ANS: joule
84. ANS: mass
85. ANS: speed
86. ANS: potential
87. ANS: elastic
88. ANS: PE = mgh
89. ANS: chemical
90. ANS: mechanical
91. ANS: potential
92. ANS:
kinetic
mechanical
93. ANS: conversion
94. ANS: conservation of energy
95. ANS: 0 joules
96. ANS: E
97. ANS: light
98. ANS: nonrenewable
99. ANS: kelvins, degrees Celsius
100. ANS: temperature
101. ANS: greater
102. ANS: from, to
103. ANS:
equal
the same
104. ANS: conduction
105. ANS: conductor

MATCHING

106. ANS: B
107. ANS: C
108. ANS: D
109. ANS: A
110. ANS: A

111. ANS: E
112. ANS: C
113. ANS: A
114. ANS: D
115. ANS: B

116. ANS: C
117. ANS: B
118. ANS: E
119. ANS: A
120. ANS: F

121. ANS: D
122. ANS: E
123. ANS: C
124. ANS: F
125. ANS: B

126. ANS: D
127. ANS: B
128. ANS: F
129. ANS: A
130. ANS: C

131. ANS: D
132. ANS: A
133. ANS: E
134. ANS: B
135. ANS: F

SHORT ANSWER

136. ANS:
You would not use any fertilizer in your control set-up, but you have to use it in the
experimental set-up, because you are trying to determine how the fertilizer affects the
growth of tomato plants. The fertilizer is the experimental variable.
137. ANS:
The passengers will remain at rest relative to the train car, and since the train is rapidly
accelerating, they will feel as if they are being pushed into the backs of their seats.
Newton's first law applies to this situation, because the passengers at rest remain at rest.
138. ANS:
The horseshoe would weigh less. Weight is a measure of the pulling force of gravity, and
since the gravity exerted by the moon on the horseshoe is less (by 1/6th) than the gravity
exerted by the Earth on the horseshoe, the horseshoe would actually weigh less on the
moon.
139. ANS:
The mass of the horseshoe would be the same. Mass is a measure of the amount of matter
in an object, and the amount of matter in the horseshoe does not change when it is taken
from one place to another.
140. ANS:
Always follow your teachers instructions and textbook directions exactly.
141. ANS:
to communicate with other scientists about the results of their investigations
142. ANS:
a process in which scientists examine other scientists’ work
143. ANS:
Earth and space science, life science, and physical science
144. ANS:
a proposed answer to a question
145. ANS:
a well-tested explanation for a set of observations or results
146. ANS:
to help understand things that are too difficult to observe directly
147. ANS:
larger
148. ANS:
three
149. ANS:
32°F, 0°C, and 273 K
150. ANS:
Science is a system of knowledge, while technology is the practical application of that knowledge
to the solving of problems.
151. ANS:
a bar graph
152. ANS:
an inverse proportion
153. ANS:
life science and Earth and space science
154. ANS:
The universe is very old (about 13.7 billion years old) and very large (7.0 × 1026 meters in
diameter).
155. ANS:
Answers may vary. Correct answers include:
first class: seesaw, pliers, scissors, can opener (punches hole in can top)
second class: door, wheel barrow, book cover, bottle cap remover
third class: arms or legs of the human body, fishing pole, hammer to pound nails, baseball
bat
156. ANS:
work = force × distance
work = 50 newtons × 5 meters
work = 250 newton-meters or 250 joules
157. ANS:
a. joule (also newton-meter or watt-sec)
b. joule (or newton-meter)
c. newton
d. watt
158. ANS:
a. The same
b. The same
159. ANS:
Answers may vary. Correct answers include:
a. heat from the sun
b. electrical from a generator
c. chemical from a battery
d. nuclear from splitting atoms at a power plant
e. light from a fluorescent bulb
160. ANS:
The swimmer that swims faster develops more power only if both swimmers do the same amount
of work.
161. ANS:
Heat flows spontaneously from hot objects to cold objects.
162. ANS:
Frequency and period are inversely related.
163. ANS:
A and C
164. ANS:
0.5 seconds
165. ANS:
30 centimeters
166. ANS:
velocity = frequency × wavelength
or
velocity = wavelength ÷ period
167. ANS:
b
168. ANS:
destructive interference
or
They cancel each other out.

PROBLEM

169. ANS:
You would be more likely to win the race at a speed of 6 miles per hour, because it is a
faster speed than 8 kilometers per hour.
1 kilometer = 0.62 mile
10 kilometers = 6.2 miles
If you ran at 6.2 miles per hour, it would take about one hour to complete 10 km. If you
ran at 8 kilometers per hour, you would have run only 8 kilometers after one hour, and
would still have 2 kilometers to go before reaching the finish line.
170. ANS:
speed = distance ÷ time
speed = 13. kilometers ÷ 2.0 hours
speed = 6.5 km/h
171. ANS:
4.00 minutes = 4.00 minutes × 60.0 seconds
4.00 minutes = 240. seconds
speed = distance ÷ time
speed = 1500. meters ÷ 240. seconds
speed = 6.25 m/sec
172. ANS:
speed = distance ÷ time
speed = 60 meters ÷ 0.8 seconds
speed = 75 meters per second
173. ANS:
total distance = (first speed × 3 hours) + (second speed × 1 hour)
total distance = (10 miles per hour × 3 hours) + (20 miles per hour × 1 hour)
total distance = 30 miles + 20 miles = 50 miles
total time = five hour period = 5 hours
average speed = total distance ÷ total time
average speed = 50 miles ÷ 5 hours
average speed = 10 miles per hour
174. ANS:
weight in newtons = weight in pounds ÷ 0.228 pounds per newton
weight in newtons = 5.00 pounds ÷ 0.228 pounds per newton
weight in newtons = 21.9 newtons
175. ANS:
weight in newtons = mass × acceleration of gravity
weight in newtons = 5.0 kilograms × 9.8 m/sec2
weight in newtons = 49 newtons
176. ANS:
force required = weight of object ÷ number of supporting ropes
force required = 250 newtons ÷ 5 ropes
force required = 50 newtons
177. ANS:
input arm length × input force = output arm length × output force
(input arm length × input force) ÷ output force = output arm length
(6.0 feet × 125 pounds) ÷ 500 pounds = output arm length
output arm length = 1.5 feet
178. ANS:
a. work input = force × distance
work input = 250 newtons × 50 meters
work input = 12,500 joules
b. work output = force × distance
work output = 2,400 newtons × 4 meters
work output = 9,600 joules
c. efficiency = work output ÷ work input × 100%
efficiency = (9,600 joules ÷ 12,500 joules) × 100%
efficiency = 77%
179. ANS:
Judy does more work. She does 2,400 joules of work.
work = force × distance
work = 600 N × 4.00 m
work = 2,400 J
Jennifer does only 1,800 joules of work
work = force × distance
work = 450 N × 4.00 m
work = 1800 J

The girls generate the same amount of power:


power = work ÷ time
For Judy,
power = 2,400 J ÷ 4.0 sec
power = 600 watts
For Jennifer,
power = 1,800 J ÷ 3.0 sec
power = 600 watts
180. ANS:
Dad is wrong! It is sixteen times as dangerous. Increasing speed from 20 to 80 mph
(quadrupling the speed) increases the kinetic energy by 16 times. Ek = 1/2mv2
181. ANS:

182. ANS:
183. ANS:

184. ANS:

185. ANS:

186. ANS:

187. ANS:

188. ANS:
= 10 J
decreased by 10 J
189. ANS:

190. ANS:
velocity = wavelength ÷ period
velocity = 2.0 m ÷ 5 sec
velocity = 0.4 m/sec

ESSAY

191. ANS:
The steel ball started out slowly. Then it continued to speed up throughout the experiment.
192. ANS:
A scientific law is a statement that summarizes a pattern found in nature, without attempting to
explain it. A scientific theory explains the pattern.
193. ANS:
Possible answers: The universe is very large and very old. A small amount of the universe is
matter. Matter on Earth usually is either a solid, liquid, or gas. All matter is made of atoms.
Forces cause changes in motion. Energy can be transferred from one form or object to another,
but it can never be destroyed.
194. ANS:
Possible answer: 1) make observations, 2) ask questions, 3) develop a hypothesis, 4) test the
hypothesis, 5) analyze data, 6) draw conclusions, 7) revise hypothesis.
195. ANS:
In peer reviews, scientists review and question other scientists’ data. Scientists also help
determine if the data is accurately reported. If the review finds errors in the data, in the
conclusions, or in the experimental procedures, the hypothesis may need to be revised.
196. ANS:

a. Reflection occurs as a wave meets a boundary and bounces off, traveling in a new
direction.
b. Refraction occurs as a wave passes through a boundary. It may change wave direction.
c. Diffraction occurs when a wave travels around an obstacle or through an opening in a
boundary. Wave direction is usually changed.
d. Absorption occurs as the amplitude of the wave decreases when the wave passes into
and through a material.

OTHER

197. ANS:
The length of the object is 2.60 cm. (Note: The centimeter scale is marked off in
millimeters, so you can read to the nearest 0.5 mm, or 0.05 centimeter.)
198. ANS:
A = inverse, B = strong, C = none, D = weak
199. ANS:
a. NO
b. YES
c. YES
d. YES
e. NO
200. ANS:
The line should be drawn horizontally at a speed of 6.0 meters/second
201. ANS:
a. 3rd
b. 1st
c. 3rd
d. 2nd
e. 1st
202. ANS:
8.8 g/cm3
203. ANS:
mass
204. ANS:
a direct proportion
205. ANS:
the density of the fluid
206. ANS:
g/cm3
207. ANS:
monthly precipitation in centimeters
208. ANS:
December
209. ANS:
The precipitation data might provide insight into agriculture growth trends.
210. ANS:
approximately 165 cm
211. ANS:
about 18 cm, which equals 0.18 meters
212. ANS:
Graph A shows periods of constant speed (0–8 s, 8–12 s, 12–20 s).
213. ANS:
The object moves at constant speed for 8 seconds, is at rest for the next 4 seconds, and then
moves at constant speed for the next 8 seconds.
214. ANS:
Graph B shows acceleration. The upward slope of the line indicates that an increasing distance is
covered each second.
215. ANS:
The object moved a distance of 300 m in 8 s. The object’s average speed is 37.5 m/s.

216. ANS:
Graph A; the slope is steeper.
217. ANS:
a. fulcrum at the wheel, output force at the load, input force at the handle
b. second class
c. the load/output force is located between the fulcrum and input force
218. ANS:
0 kg m/s
219. ANS:
The momentums of both skaters are equal in size but opposite in direction.
220. ANS:
The push on Skater B by Skater A accelerates Skater B forward.
221. ANS:
According to Newton’s third law of motion, as Skater A pushes on Skater B, an equal and
opposite force pushes back on Skater A. The unbalanced force causes Skater B to accelerate
backward.
222. ANS:
No; Skater A is exerting the same force on Skater B as before and so Skater B is exerting the
same force on Skater A as before. The result is that Skater’s A motion will be the same.
223. ANS:
Ideal mechanical advantage = 3

224. ANS:
The ramp’s AMA would increase.
225. ANS:
Its efficiency would increase; friction would decrease.
226. ANS:
an inclined plane
227. ANS:
It is less.
228. ANS:
1.0 m
229. ANS:
wheel and axle
230. ANS:
C
231. ANS:
The gravitational potential energy of the ball is the same at both locations; the height is the same.
232. ANS:
No; since the ball is always moving to the right between locations A and F, at every point between
A and F, the ball has kinetic energy. Because the ball has kinetic energy at each point, it has some
mechanical energy at each point.