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You are on page 1of 13

Answer Section

COMPLETION

1. ANS: seconds

2. ANS: distance

3. ANS: speed

4. ANS: independent

5. ANS: instantaneous

6. ANS: acceleration

7. ANS:

kilogram

kg

8. ANS: unit

9. ANS: controlled experiment

10. ANS: scientific method

11. ANS: line graph

12. ANS: technology

13. ANS: chemistry

14. ANS: physical science

15. ANS: responding variable

16. ANS: scientific law

17. ANS:

scientific theory

theory

18. ANS:

scientific model

model

19. ANS:

safety rules

safety procedures

20. ANS:

scientific model

model

21. ANS: 3.0 × 107

22. ANS: 14

23. ANS: Accuracy

24. ANS: 293

25. ANS: direct proportion

26. ANS: significant figures

27. ANS:

distance

length

28. ANS: vectors

29. ANS: meters per second

30. ANS: average speed

31. ANS: direction

32. ANS: direction

33. ANS: vector addition

34. ANS:

speed

velocity

35. ANS: positive

36. ANS: work

37. ANS: output, input

38. ANS: efficiency

39. ANS: distance

40. ANS: power

41. ANS: energy

42. ANS: force

43. ANS: weight

44. ANS: net force

45. ANS:

balanced forces

balanced

46. ANS: friction

47. ANS:

greater

larger

48. ANS:

air resistance

drag

49. ANS: zero

50. ANS: air resistance

51. ANS: projectile

52. ANS: inertia

53. ANS: inertia, forward

54. ANS: force, mass

55. ANS: weight

56. ANS: bowling

57. ANS: wall

58. ANS: equals

59. ANS: two

60. ANS: gravity

61. ANS: direction

62. ANS: move

63. ANS: work

64. ANS: joule

65. ANS: motion

66. ANS: power

67. ANS: watt

68. ANS: power

69. ANS: force

70. ANS: machine

71. ANS: input

72. ANS: increase

73. ANS: mechanical advantage

74. ANS: less

75. ANS: screw

76. ANS: first

77. ANS: second

78. ANS: less

79. ANS: decreases

80. ANS: compound

81. ANS: lever

82. ANS: work

83. ANS: joule

84. ANS: mass

85. ANS: speed

86. ANS: potential

87. ANS: elastic

88. ANS: PE = mgh

89. ANS: chemical

90. ANS: mechanical

91. ANS: potential

92. ANS:

kinetic

mechanical

93. ANS: conversion

94. ANS: conservation of energy

95. ANS: 0 joules

96. ANS: E

97. ANS: light

98. ANS: nonrenewable

99. ANS: kelvins, degrees Celsius

100. ANS: temperature

101. ANS: greater

102. ANS: from, to

103. ANS:

equal

the same

104. ANS: conduction

105. ANS: conductor

MATCHING

106. ANS: B

107. ANS: C

108. ANS: D

109. ANS: A

110. ANS: A

111. ANS: E

112. ANS: C

113. ANS: A

114. ANS: D

115. ANS: B

116. ANS: C

117. ANS: B

118. ANS: E

119. ANS: A

120. ANS: F

121. ANS: D

122. ANS: E

123. ANS: C

124. ANS: F

125. ANS: B

126. ANS: D

127. ANS: B

128. ANS: F

129. ANS: A

130. ANS: C

131. ANS: D

132. ANS: A

133. ANS: E

134. ANS: B

135. ANS: F

SHORT ANSWER

136. ANS:

You would not use any fertilizer in your control set-up, but you have to use it in the

experimental set-up, because you are trying to determine how the fertilizer affects the

growth of tomato plants. The fertilizer is the experimental variable.

137. ANS:

The passengers will remain at rest relative to the train car, and since the train is rapidly

accelerating, they will feel as if they are being pushed into the backs of their seats.

Newton's first law applies to this situation, because the passengers at rest remain at rest.

138. ANS:

The horseshoe would weigh less. Weight is a measure of the pulling force of gravity, and

since the gravity exerted by the moon on the horseshoe is less (by 1/6th) than the gravity

exerted by the Earth on the horseshoe, the horseshoe would actually weigh less on the

moon.

139. ANS:

The mass of the horseshoe would be the same. Mass is a measure of the amount of matter

in an object, and the amount of matter in the horseshoe does not change when it is taken

from one place to another.

140. ANS:

Always follow your teachers instructions and textbook directions exactly.

141. ANS:

to communicate with other scientists about the results of their investigations

142. ANS:

a process in which scientists examine other scientists’ work

143. ANS:

Earth and space science, life science, and physical science

144. ANS:

a proposed answer to a question

145. ANS:

a well-tested explanation for a set of observations or results

146. ANS:

to help understand things that are too difficult to observe directly

147. ANS:

larger

148. ANS:

three

149. ANS:

32°F, 0°C, and 273 K

150. ANS:

Science is a system of knowledge, while technology is the practical application of that knowledge

to the solving of problems.

151. ANS:

a bar graph

152. ANS:

an inverse proportion

153. ANS:

life science and Earth and space science

154. ANS:

The universe is very old (about 13.7 billion years old) and very large (7.0 × 1026 meters in

diameter).

155. ANS:

Answers may vary. Correct answers include:

first class: seesaw, pliers, scissors, can opener (punches hole in can top)

second class: door, wheel barrow, book cover, bottle cap remover

third class: arms or legs of the human body, fishing pole, hammer to pound nails, baseball

bat

156. ANS:

work = force × distance

work = 50 newtons × 5 meters

work = 250 newton-meters or 250 joules

157. ANS:

a. joule (also newton-meter or watt-sec)

b. joule (or newton-meter)

c. newton

d. watt

158. ANS:

a. The same

b. The same

159. ANS:

Answers may vary. Correct answers include:

a. heat from the sun

b. electrical from a generator

c. chemical from a battery

d. nuclear from splitting atoms at a power plant

e. light from a fluorescent bulb

160. ANS:

The swimmer that swims faster develops more power only if both swimmers do the same amount

of work.

161. ANS:

Heat flows spontaneously from hot objects to cold objects.

162. ANS:

Frequency and period are inversely related.

163. ANS:

A and C

164. ANS:

0.5 seconds

165. ANS:

30 centimeters

166. ANS:

velocity = frequency × wavelength

or

velocity = wavelength ÷ period

167. ANS:

b

168. ANS:

destructive interference

or

They cancel each other out.

PROBLEM

169. ANS:

You would be more likely to win the race at a speed of 6 miles per hour, because it is a

faster speed than 8 kilometers per hour.

1 kilometer = 0.62 mile

10 kilometers = 6.2 miles

If you ran at 6.2 miles per hour, it would take about one hour to complete 10 km. If you

ran at 8 kilometers per hour, you would have run only 8 kilometers after one hour, and

would still have 2 kilometers to go before reaching the finish line.

170. ANS:

speed = distance ÷ time

speed = 13. kilometers ÷ 2.0 hours

speed = 6.5 km/h

171. ANS:

4.00 minutes = 4.00 minutes × 60.0 seconds

4.00 minutes = 240. seconds

speed = distance ÷ time

speed = 1500. meters ÷ 240. seconds

speed = 6.25 m/sec

172. ANS:

speed = distance ÷ time

speed = 60 meters ÷ 0.8 seconds

speed = 75 meters per second

173. ANS:

total distance = (first speed × 3 hours) + (second speed × 1 hour)

total distance = (10 miles per hour × 3 hours) + (20 miles per hour × 1 hour)

total distance = 30 miles + 20 miles = 50 miles

total time = five hour period = 5 hours

average speed = total distance ÷ total time

average speed = 50 miles ÷ 5 hours

average speed = 10 miles per hour

174. ANS:

weight in newtons = weight in pounds ÷ 0.228 pounds per newton

weight in newtons = 5.00 pounds ÷ 0.228 pounds per newton

weight in newtons = 21.9 newtons

175. ANS:

weight in newtons = mass × acceleration of gravity

weight in newtons = 5.0 kilograms × 9.8 m/sec2

weight in newtons = 49 newtons

176. ANS:

force required = weight of object ÷ number of supporting ropes

force required = 250 newtons ÷ 5 ropes

force required = 50 newtons

177. ANS:

input arm length × input force = output arm length × output force

(input arm length × input force) ÷ output force = output arm length

(6.0 feet × 125 pounds) ÷ 500 pounds = output arm length

output arm length = 1.5 feet

178. ANS:

a. work input = force × distance

work input = 250 newtons × 50 meters

work input = 12,500 joules

b. work output = force × distance

work output = 2,400 newtons × 4 meters

work output = 9,600 joules

c. efficiency = work output ÷ work input × 100%

efficiency = (9,600 joules ÷ 12,500 joules) × 100%

efficiency = 77%

179. ANS:

Judy does more work. She does 2,400 joules of work.

work = force × distance

work = 600 N × 4.00 m

work = 2,400 J

Jennifer does only 1,800 joules of work

work = force × distance

work = 450 N × 4.00 m

work = 1800 J

power = work ÷ time

For Judy,

power = 2,400 J ÷ 4.0 sec

power = 600 watts

For Jennifer,

power = 1,800 J ÷ 3.0 sec

power = 600 watts

180. ANS:

Dad is wrong! It is sixteen times as dangerous. Increasing speed from 20 to 80 mph

(quadrupling the speed) increases the kinetic energy by 16 times. Ek = 1/2mv2

181. ANS:

182. ANS:

183. ANS:

184. ANS:

185. ANS:

186. ANS:

187. ANS:

188. ANS:

= 10 J

decreased by 10 J

189. ANS:

190. ANS:

velocity = wavelength ÷ period

velocity = 2.0 m ÷ 5 sec

velocity = 0.4 m/sec

ESSAY

191. ANS:

The steel ball started out slowly. Then it continued to speed up throughout the experiment.

192. ANS:

A scientific law is a statement that summarizes a pattern found in nature, without attempting to

explain it. A scientific theory explains the pattern.

193. ANS:

Possible answers: The universe is very large and very old. A small amount of the universe is

matter. Matter on Earth usually is either a solid, liquid, or gas. All matter is made of atoms.

Forces cause changes in motion. Energy can be transferred from one form or object to another,

but it can never be destroyed.

194. ANS:

Possible answer: 1) make observations, 2) ask questions, 3) develop a hypothesis, 4) test the

hypothesis, 5) analyze data, 6) draw conclusions, 7) revise hypothesis.

195. ANS:

In peer reviews, scientists review and question other scientists’ data. Scientists also help

determine if the data is accurately reported. If the review finds errors in the data, in the

conclusions, or in the experimental procedures, the hypothesis may need to be revised.

196. ANS:

a. Reflection occurs as a wave meets a boundary and bounces off, traveling in a new

direction.

b. Refraction occurs as a wave passes through a boundary. It may change wave direction.

c. Diffraction occurs when a wave travels around an obstacle or through an opening in a

boundary. Wave direction is usually changed.

d. Absorption occurs as the amplitude of the wave decreases when the wave passes into

and through a material.

OTHER

197. ANS:

The length of the object is 2.60 cm. (Note: The centimeter scale is marked off in

millimeters, so you can read to the nearest 0.5 mm, or 0.05 centimeter.)

198. ANS:

A = inverse, B = strong, C = none, D = weak

199. ANS:

a. NO

b. YES

c. YES

d. YES

e. NO

200. ANS:

The line should be drawn horizontally at a speed of 6.0 meters/second

201. ANS:

a. 3rd

b. 1st

c. 3rd

d. 2nd

e. 1st

202. ANS:

8.8 g/cm3

203. ANS:

mass

204. ANS:

a direct proportion

205. ANS:

the density of the fluid

206. ANS:

g/cm3

207. ANS:

monthly precipitation in centimeters

208. ANS:

December

209. ANS:

The precipitation data might provide insight into agriculture growth trends.

210. ANS:

approximately 165 cm

211. ANS:

about 18 cm, which equals 0.18 meters

212. ANS:

Graph A shows periods of constant speed (0–8 s, 8–12 s, 12–20 s).

213. ANS:

The object moves at constant speed for 8 seconds, is at rest for the next 4 seconds, and then

moves at constant speed for the next 8 seconds.

214. ANS:

Graph B shows acceleration. The upward slope of the line indicates that an increasing distance is

covered each second.

215. ANS:

The object moved a distance of 300 m in 8 s. The object’s average speed is 37.5 m/s.

216. ANS:

Graph A; the slope is steeper.

217. ANS:

a. fulcrum at the wheel, output force at the load, input force at the handle

b. second class

c. the load/output force is located between the fulcrum and input force

218. ANS:

0 kg m/s

219. ANS:

The momentums of both skaters are equal in size but opposite in direction.

220. ANS:

The push on Skater B by Skater A accelerates Skater B forward.

221. ANS:

According to Newton’s third law of motion, as Skater A pushes on Skater B, an equal and

opposite force pushes back on Skater A. The unbalanced force causes Skater B to accelerate

backward.

222. ANS:

No; Skater A is exerting the same force on Skater B as before and so Skater B is exerting the

same force on Skater A as before. The result is that Skater’s A motion will be the same.

223. ANS:

Ideal mechanical advantage = 3

224. ANS:

The ramp’s AMA would increase.

225. ANS:

Its efficiency would increase; friction would decrease.

226. ANS:

an inclined plane

227. ANS:

It is less.

228. ANS:

1.0 m

229. ANS:

wheel and axle

230. ANS:

C

231. ANS:

The gravitational potential energy of the ball is the same at both locations; the height is the same.

232. ANS:

No; since the ball is always moving to the right between locations A and F, at every point between

A and F, the ball has kinetic energy. Because the ball has kinetic energy at each point, it has some

mechanical energy at each point.

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