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DURBAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF POWER ENGINEERING

ELECTRICAL PROTETION III

ASSIGNMENT- I: TRANSMISSION LINE OF KWAZULU NATAL

SURNAME: LUIS INITIALS: N.J.F. STUDENT NUMBER: 20717175

CONTENTS 1. INTRODUTION 2. DEVELOPMENT -TUTUKA & INGAGANE POWER STATION -GENERATION AND TRANSMISSION SYTEM -LINE LENGTH TABLE 3. SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM CONCLUTION

1. INTRODUTION

For these assignments we are required to research and report on the complete transmission system in KwaZulu-Natal. According to research was realized that the main source of KwaZulu-Natal comes from Tutuka power station which is in Mpumalanga. Tutuka is an important link in the 765KV extra-highvoltage transmission system linking Mpumalanga with the Western Cape and KwaZulu-Natal. In South Africa, our most abundant source of energy is coal. Most of our coal is low quality with a low heat value and a high ash content. The majority of our coal deposits which are suitable for cheap power generation are found in eastern and south-eastern Gauteng and in the northern Free State. In Gauteng it is generally found at shallow depths and in thick seams, whereas in KwaZulu-Natal, the seams are deeper and thinner, but of a higher quality. Eskom relies on coal fired power stations to produce approximately 90% of its electricity. Eskom uses over 90 million tons of coal per annum. Coal mining in South Africa is relatively cheap compared to the rest of the world. These low costs have had an important effect on the nation's prosperity and potential for development. In Europe, by contrast, costs are almost four times higher.

Tutuka Power Station was put into full commercial operation in June 1990. Tutuka a Zulu word meaning progress is a 3,600 MW thermal power station located in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. Each of Tutukas six turbine-generator runs separately with its own fuel and water supply, output transformer and instrumentation. Each turbine generated 609MW at full load. The power station is owned and operated by Eskom, a state-owned utility that supplies 95 percent of South Africas electricity, as well as exports power to neighboring countries. Eskom owns and operates 24power stations with a nominal capacity of 39,872MW (equalizing more than half of electricity generated in continental Africa), making it one of the top utilities in the world.

2. DESENVELOPMENT Talk about power station is in general but to be specific when talking about power station we have to specify what kind power station are we talking about. There are of course many other methods by which electricity can be generated and it is done in different type of power station which are : Steam power station Hydroelectric power stations Diesel station Nuclear station

Steam power station is also used in South Africa, it basically works on the Rankin cycle. Steam is produced in the boiler by utilizing the heat of coal combustion. The steam is expanded in the prime mover (i.e., steam turbine) and is condensed in a condenser to be fed boiler again. The steam turbine drives the alternator which converts mechanical energy into of the turbine into electrical energy. This type of power station is suitable where coal and water are available in abundance and a large amount of electric power is to be generated During the research and visit to the EThekwini Electricity better understanding and ideas of the system working was gained because the transmission line diagram was very understandable starting from the Tutuka power up to Kwazulu-Natal. According to the system it was seen that Tutuka to Kwazulu-Natal is shown a lot of station that it takes up to a Durban North and Durban South, Tutuka power station is 6 by 606 MW configurations, indirect wet cooling and the output power is 3654MW and is localized at Standerton. And one of the stages is: Majuba power station, Venues power station, ottowa power station, Ingagane power station and Illovo power station. Those are the stages that Tutuka feeds up to Kwazulu-Natal.

INGAGANE POWER STATION This power station is also along the line to supply Kwazulu-Natal in one of station that is also feed from Tutuka and then goes up to Georgedal. Ingagane power station is located at an altitude of 1197.8m above sea level, 12.8Km from Newcastle in Kwazulu-Natal (formerly Natal). It has five 100MW hydrogen cooled turbo-generator, driven by five pulverized Fuel boiler. During its 27 year of operation, ingagane fed into 88KV network and four 275KV transmission connecting Ingagane with Georgedale, via Bloukra substation to Durban and other areas of the province it was connected to the 400KV national grid via chivelton substation.

Prerequisites for such a power station, which was to have double the output of Ungeni, were abundant cheap coal and water close at hand. This meant that is should not be near Durban, due to the difficulties in the supply of coal. Accordingly, the new power station would have to be located in coal-rich northern Natal. The Dundee, Newcastle or Ballangeich areas were all viewed as possible sites. Negotiations with power station be located near the river, south of Newcastle in Northern Natal. This decision also ensured a supply of coal, since Newcastle lies at the northern extremity of the klip River coalfield. BY 1958, the supply of water and coal had been organized snd preliminary work on the site had begun. Water was gravity fed from the Chelmsford Dam via a 16km long pipeline. Coal reached ingagane from the near kilbarchan colliery via overland coal conveyors, capable of transporting 453.5 tons an hour. Meanwhile following review of the tenders for the first units, the contract was awarded to AEG for the turbo-generators and to I.C.A.L. for boiler 1 and 2. The removal of generation to the coalfields meant that high-voltage circuits had to be established. Thus it was proposed that ingagana would feed into the southern network over a 275 KV transmission line.

INGAGANA POWER STATION

Coal, oil, gas and nuclear fuels can be used to heat water and convert it into steam at high temperatures and pressures. This is done in boilers or reactors.

The very hot steam, at temperatures of between 500 C and 535C, is released and turns a large turbine, connected to the rotating magnet and electricity is generated. In this way the energy in the fuel has been converted into electricity. A Power Station can therefore be defined as a converter of energy.

There are of course many other methods by which electricity can be generated, for example, by harnessing nature.

GENERATION AND TRANSMITION SYTEM

LINE LENGTH TABLE

The Eastern region that supply Kwazulu Natal 400 & 275KV line lengths are: Tutuka Camden 80 km Tutuka Majuba 59 km & 57 km for two cables Tutuka - Pegasus 220km Camden Incandu 127km Camden Chivels 141km Camden Norman 102 km Incandu chivels 15 km Chivels Pegasus 57 km Chivels Mersey 194 km Chivels Ingaba 0,2 km Norman Umfolo 129km Umfolo Invubu 120km Umfolo Athene 125km Umfolo Pegasus 89 km Invubu Athene 7km Invubu Impala 14km2 Pegasus Athene 191km Pegasus Hector 186km Pegasus Majuba 155km Pegasus Drakens 138km Venus Ariaden 100km venus Georgedal 140km2 Venus Bloukra 20km2 Mersey Hector 79 km Mersey Avon 69km2 Mersey Georgedal 50km Hector Illovo 50km Hector Klaarw 23km2 Hector Ariadne 33km Impala Avon 115km2 Avon ottowa 22.2km2 Majuba Venus 219km & 235 km Ottowa DBN/NOR DBN/NOR - Ungeni Ingaga- Bloedriv 61km2 Ingaga Danskra 95km Ingaga Bloukra 110km Danskra Bloukra 24km Bloukra Tugela 61km2 & 87km Georgedal Klaarw 28km

Drakens Venus 91km Venus Mersey 86km Umgeni klaarw

Geordal Illovo 49km Georgedal Latus Park SVC

COMCLUSION Is very important for the electrical engineer to know and understand the type of power station that we have and the operation of them and as in the project some of the power station are: steam, nuclear, hydroelectric, and diesel power station. Is important to know their advantage and disadvantage in order to understand how to work with each of them, because each one of them has their own advantage and disadvantage. One of the things to remember also is the place to be located according to each type. And it has to be quite far from the consumers and is good to know also the transmission and distribution line that is going to take power to the consumers.

BIBLIOGRATH

1. http://www.machinerylubrication.com/Read/181/lubricant-consumption-savings 2. http://heritage.eskom.co.za/heritage/ingagane.htm 3. http://www.google.co.za/imgres?imgurl=http://www.eskom.co.za/annreport08/ar_2008/image s/pic_electricity.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.eskom.co.za/annreport08/ar_2008/electricity.htm& h=587&w=567&sz=108&tbnid=K_HpF6XEXvg42M:&tbnh=135&tbnw=130&prev=/images%3Fq% 3Deskom%2Bpower%2Bstations&zoom=1&q=eskom+power+stations&hl=en&usg=__v1THbWLK 4ueR-yLH01QiVKs5BgM=&sa=X&ei=aSWATIaUB4G0lQfA8tQb&ved=0CDUQ9QEwBw 4. http://www.eskom.co.za/live/content.php?Category_ID=96 5. Principles of power system V.K. METHA ROHIT MEHTA (S. CHAND) 6. ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION (ELDN-3) SPECIAL NOTES 7. EThekwini Electricity