Paper Battery NEW | Battery (Electricity) | Lithium Ion Battery

Seminar Report 2011-12

Study Of Paper Battery

I express my sincere gratitude to, Er. Gajendra Singh, Lecturer Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Subharti Institute Of Technology & Engineering, Meerut for his immense cooperation and encouragement given to me throughout the working on this seminar report I also express my heartiest gratitude of Prof.D.V. Avasthi Head, Department of Electrical and

Electronics -Engineering, Subharti Institute Of Technology & Engineering, Meerut for his immense cooperation and encouragement in the making of this seminar report.

I would also like to thank my seminar guide Mr. Vinay Sharma (Lecturer, Department of EEE) for their invaluable advice and wholehearted cooperation without which this seminar would not have seen the light of day.Gracious gratitude to all the faculty of the department of EEE & friends for their valuable advice and encouragement.

Dept. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering

Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering

Seminar Report 2011-12

Study Of Paper Battery

Dept. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering

Seminar Report 2011-12

Study Of Paper Battery



Dept. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering

Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering

Seminar Report 2011-12

Study Of Paper Battery

A paper battery for connection to terminals protruding in same direction has positive and negative electrode plates joined together by a sealing agent therebetween formed with an insulating sheet. A hole penetrating one of the electrode plates and the insulating sheet to reach the other electrode plate and another hole penetrating the other of the electrode plates to reach the insulating sheet are provided such that not only is the battery connected properly to the terminals when it is inserted correctly but also a short circuit will be avoided even if the paper battery is inserted in upside-down direction. Performance parameters of lithium - titanium disulfide (I-i- Ti S2) make it a likely candidate to replace NiCd batteries on satellites and spacecraft. Li-TiS2 batteries are 3-4 times lighter than the equivalent NiCd counterparts. Many planners of future space missions that will use batteries are interested in the lithium technology which means that lithium battery manufacturers will have a new market to pursue. JPL is proceeding on a course that should facilitate opening this market. A ground based program is developing AA and 3 Ah cells using the Teguchi method. At the same time a feasibility study was started to validate the performance of different types of lithium batteries in space. An inexpensive Get-Away-Special based experiment will test Li-TiS2, lithium-ion and lithium polymer batteries for performance in microgravity. The effects influencing charge/discharge and cycle life properties will be investigated. This project is sponsored by NASA Code CF under the In-Space Technology Experiments Program (In- STEP). Lithium has the highest oxidation potential (E0=4 V) and lowest equivalent weight (6.94 g/equivalent) of all atoms (other than hydrogen). Accordingly, electrochemical cells comprising lithium anodes have high specific energies. Until recently, cycling of lithium electrodes was limited to a few cycles. Also, selection of a cathode that would cycle in the presence of lithium was also considered difficult. Recently, however, at JPL the Li-Ti S2 cells achieved 1000 charge/discharge cycles at 20°C. These cells operate at 2V and have demonstrated 130 Wh/kg at the C/4 rate when operated to 50% depth of discharge. The 130 Wh/kg specific energy and 1000 cycles demonstrated is the highest reported for a lithium rechargeable system.

Dept. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering

Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering

Seminar Report 2011-12

Study Of Paper Battery

A paper battery is a flexible, ultra-thin energy storage and production device formed by combining carbons nanotubes with a conventional sheet of cellulose-based paper. A paper battery acts as both a high-energy battery and super capacitor, combining two components that are separate in traditional electronics. This combination allows the battery to provide both longterm, steady power production and bursts of energy. Non-toxic, flexible paper batteries have the potential to power the next generation of electronics, medical devices and hybrid vehicles, allowing for radical new designs and medical technologies. Paper batteries may be folded, cut or otherwise shaped for different applications without any loss of integrity or efficiency. Cutting one in half halves its energy production. Stacking them multiplies power output. Early prototypes of the device are able to produce 2.5 volts of electricity from a sample the size of a postage stamp. The devices are formed by combining cellulose with an infusion of aligned carbon nanotubes that are each approximately one millionth of a centimeter thick. The carbon is what gives the batteries their black color. These tiny filaments act like the electrodes found in a traditional battery, conducting electricity when the paper comes into contact with an ionic liquid solution. Ionic liquids contain no water, which means that there is nothing to freeze or evaporate in extreme environmental conditions. As a result, paper batteries can function between -75 and 150 degrees Celsius. One method of manufacture, developed by scientists at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and MIT, begins with growing the nanotubes on a silicon substrate and then impregnating the gaps in the matrix with cellulose. Once the matrix has dried, the material can be peeled off of the substrate, exposing one end of the carbon nanotubes to act as an electrode. When two sheets are combined, with the cellulose sides facing inwards, a super capacitor is formed that can be activated by the addition of the ionic liquid. This liquid acts as and electrolyte and may include salt-laden solutions like human blood, sweat or urine. The high cellulose content (over 90%) and lack of toxic chemicals in paper batteries makes the device both biocompatible and

Dept. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering

Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering

As a result of the potentially transformative applications in electronics. Dept. numerous companies and organizations are pursuing the development of paper batteries. researchers in Singapore announced that they had developed a paper battery powered by ionic solutions in 2005. hybrid vehicles and medical science. Widespread commercial deployment of paper batteries will rely on the development of more inexpensive manufacturing techniques for carbon nanotubes. especially when compared to the traditional lithium ions battery used in many present-day electronic devices and laptops.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery environmentally friendly. NEC has also invested in R & D into paper batteries for potential applications in its electronic devices. In addition to the developments announced in 2007 at RPI and MIT. however. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . aerospace.

and urine can be used to activate the battery device. the Ann and John H. energy storage. According to Pushparaj ―It’s a way to power a small device such as a pacemaker without introducing any harsh chemicals – such as the kind that are typically found in batteries — into the body. were co-authors and lead researchers of the project. Ajayan. professor of materials science and engineering. and Saravanababu Murugesan. the team printed paper batteries without adding any electrolytes. as the battery’s electrolyte. Broadbent Senior Constellation Professor of Biocatalysts and Metabolic Engineering at Rensselaer. In August 2007. a research team at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Drs. and Omkaram Nalamasu. and demonstrated that naturally occurring electrolytes in human sweat. requiring expertise in materials science. Senior research specialist Victor Pushparaj. It gives the battery the ability to function in temperatures up to 300 degrees Fahrenheit and down to 100 below zero. Manikoth. blood.‖ Kumar said.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery DEVELOPMENT The creation of this unique Nano composite paper drew from a diverse pool of disciplines. Other co-authors include research associate Lijie Ci and Rensselaer Nanotechnology Center Laboratory Manager Robert Vajtai. essentially a liquid salt. Robert Linhardt. The use of ionic liquid also makes the battery extremely biocompatible. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . which contains no water. Pulickel M.‖ Dept. Ashavani Kumar. The researchers used ionic liquid. The use of ionic liquid. professor of chemistry with a joint appointment in materials science and engineering) developed the paper battery. means there’s nothing in the batteries to freeze or evaporate. ―This lack of water allows the paper energy storage devices to withstand extreme temperatures. along with postdoctoral research associates Shaijumon M. and chemistry.

and chemistry. Robert Leonhard. the Ann and John Dept.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery The creation of this unique Nano composite paper drew from a diverse pool of disciplines. energy storage. requiring Expertise in materials science. a research team atRensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Drs. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . In August 2007.

Manikoth. and Omkaram Kalamazoo. and Saravanababu Murugesan. ―This lack of water allows the paper energy storage devices to withstand extreme temperatures.  Electrons are transferred down the pile via the saltwater paper (the ―electrolyte‖). Senior research specialist Victor Pushparaj. means there’s nothing in the batteries to freeze or evaporate. Dept. as the battery’s electrolyte.professor of materials science and engineering. The use of ionic Liquid. were co-authors and lead researchers of the project. Broadbent Senior Constellation Professor of Biocatalysts and Metabolic Engineering at Rensselaer. which builds as it moves down the pile. Other co-authors include research associate Lijie Ci and Rensselaer Nanotechnology Center Laboratory The researchers used ionic liquid. which creates the electrons. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . which contains no water.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery H. It gives the battery the ability to function in temperatures up to 300 degrees Fahrenheit and down to 100. professor of chemistry with anoint appointment in materials science and engineering) developed the paper battery.  Oxidation occurs on the metals (―electrodes‖). Ajayan.‖ Kumar said.Ashavani Kumar. Pickle M. BATTERY CHEMISTRY  Electrochemical reaction-A chemical reaction is between elements which creates electrons. essentially a liquid salt. along with postdoctoral research associates Shaijumon M.  A charge is introduced at one pole.

cheaper and environmentally benign batteries and cells. Within each of these areas there are the demands for longer lasting. Tony Hargreaves. From then on several other cell chemistries were introduced and manufactured batteries soon Dept. telephone exchanges etc.and bigger standby batteries for emergency use in hospitals.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery  An excursion through the cell chemistries of primary and secondary batteries. department stores. from Daniel’s 1836 design to today's micro batteries  The lithium-based rechargeable cell is the size of a grain of rice and has a 10-year life span. His which became known as Volta's pile.  Count Alessandro Volta of Italy described the first battery in a paper to the Royal Society in 1799. comprised alternating discs of zinc and copper with pieces of cardboard soaked in brine between the metals. from flash lamps and radios CA 70 years ago to a host of consumer products today . mobile phones and laptop PCs .  Cell chemistries of batteries have developed as their applications have grown. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering .

In this article we take a look at the range of cell chemistries exploited in primary and secondary batteries on offer. owing to the electrical potential.  The porous separator prevents bulk mixing of the electrolytes but allows aqueous ions to pass through to maintain the ionic balance. Notably. electrons flow from the zinc to the copper. the Daniel cell was invented in 1836 by British chemist John Frederic Daniel (see Box 1). Conventional current flows from the positive (anode) to the negative (cathode): this is the opposite to the direction of electron flow.000 watt-hour molten-sodium batteries which are used in power stations for load leveling. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . CHEMISTRY OF THE DANIL CELLS When the circuit is complete. Anode: Zn(s) Zn2+(aq) + 2eCu(s) Cathode: Cu2+(aq) + 2e- Dept.000. from the tiny batteries for medical implants to the 100.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery followed. In the early days the chemistry was confined to aqueous reactions but as electrochemistry developed interest turned to non-aqueous reactions as an alternative.

76V E Cu2+ + 2e.34V Dept. 1 atmosphere) the cell voltage may be calculated from the oxidation and reduction half reactions.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery  For a copper-zinc cell under standard conditions (25ºC. 1 mol dm-3. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering .Cu E = +0. Zn(s) ½ Zn2+ | Cu2+ (aq) ½ Cu(s) E Zn2++ 2eZn E = -0.

Nowadays as we become more waste conscious we find that many of these cells are giving way to rechargeable (secondary) cells and batteries. These cells have undergone very few population doublings and are therefore more representative of the main functional component of the tissue from which they are derived Dept. For a short period some manufacturers offered mercury cells. biopsy material) and established for growth in vitro. Primary cells are cells taken directly from living tissue (e. The most common primary cells are based on the zinc-manganese dioxide couple: either zinc-carbon cells or alkaline manganese cells.g.they are discharged once and discarded . which were replaced by zinc-air batteries.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery PRIMARY CELLS These are the disposable cells . of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . and some companies now produce 3V lithium-MnO2 cells.that for over a century powered small and portable equipment.

of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . Primary cells from different species may be used. Before in vivo studies mouse or rat cells can be used to refine doses and reduce the number of animals required for preclinical toxicology. allowing you to highlight potential differences between humans and preclinical test species. Human cells can be used to determine accuracy of extrapolating human data from an animal model Dept.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery in comparison to continuous (tumor or artificially immortalized) cell lines thus representing a more representative model to the in vivo state.

(The latter was made up of a conducting solution (electrolyte) of ammonium chloride with a negative terminal of zinc and a positive terminal of manganese dioxide. These cells were Dept.) Replacing the liquid electrolyte with a gel and then sealing the whole cell made it suitable for domestic applications where portability was a key feature.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery ZINC-CARBON This cell became commercially available in the late 1800s and was a dry cell version of the original wet Leclanché cell. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering .

which self-discharge. The first-generation rechargeable alkaline technology was developed by Battery Technologies Inc. Rechargeable alkaline batteries can have a high recharging efficiency and have less environmental impact than disposable cells. A rechargeable alkaline battery (also known as alkaline rechargeable or rechargeable alkaline manganese (RAM)) is a type of alkaline battery that is rechargeable. C. in Canada and licensed to Pure Energy.the well-known case of the dead battery that comes back to life. EnviroCell. and Snap-On 9-volt batteries. the cell chemistry recovers when left idle for a while . Polarization is caused by the products of the electrode reactions building up on the electrode surface and preventing new reactants arriving. Radovan. Rechargeable alkaline batteries are manufactured fully charged and have the ability to carry their charge for years.5V  In earlier cells the zinc doubled as the outer can which tended to leak as the cell ran down and the zinc passed into solution.  Anode: Zn metal  Cathode: MnO2 powder with graphite powder for electrical conduction  Electrolyte: NH4Cl (aq) and/or ZnCl2 (aq)  Reaction: Zn + 2MnO2 + 2NH4Cl 2MnOOH + Zn(NH4)2Cl2 E = 1. ALKAIN-MANGANESE Dept. Subsequent patent and advancements in technology have been introduced. However. D. though Ever Ready has now changed to Energizer and many other makes have become available. The shapes include AAA. AA.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery developed and marketed by Ever Ready for use in radios and torches and are still popular today. diffusion occurs and new reactants reach the electrode as the products disperse. and Grand cell. longer than most NiCad and NiMH batteries. On standing. The dry cell zinc-carbon chemistry performs well in applications where there is intermittent use such as flashlights but performance is not so good in devices that put a heavy drain upon the cell. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . In such applications polarization and loss of output results.

which provides a greater reactive surface area and thus more power.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery These batteries developed from the zinc-carbon cell and became available for domestic use in the 1960s and quickly gained in popularity because they were less prone to polarisation. had greater capacity and were less likely to leak. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . The electrolyte is an alkali in contrast to the previous cell which was acidic. Here the anode is powdered zinc. Anode: Zn metal powder Dept.

of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . Enlarge to see the size code markings. Dept.5V Development of these batteries continues and recently Panasonic introduced a vacuum forming process to compact manganese dioxide and graphite powders.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery Cathode: MnO2 powder with graphite powder for electrical conduction Electrolyte: KOH (aq) Reaction: Zn + 2MnO2 ZnO + 2Mn2O3 E = 1. Some are alkaline and others are silver oxide. CAPACITY There are several sizes of button and coin cells. Two 9v batteries were added as a size comparison. An alkaline cell can provide between three and five times capacity. Capacity of an alkaline battery is greater than an equal size Leclanché cell or zinc-chloride cell because the manganese dioxide is purer and denser. and space taken up by internal components such as electrodes is less. which the company claims gives improved capacity.

the capacity could be as little as 700 mAh. The average voltage under load depends on discharge and varies from 1. depending on the purity of the manganese dioxide used and the contents of zinc oxide in the electrolyte.1 to 1.0 V. On a heavy load.65 V. CURRENT The amount of current an alkaline battery can deliver is roughly proportional to its physical size. An AA-sized alkaline battery might have an effective capacity of 3000 mAh at low drain. Unlike Leclanche cells. The voltage of the battery declines steadily during use.5 V.8 to 1. so the total usable capacity depends on the cut-off voltage of the application. the alkaline cell delivers about as much capacity on intermittent or continuous light loads. can deliver more current. VOLTAGE The nominal voltage of a fresh alkaline cell is 1. but at a load of 1 ampere. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . Dept. A general rule of thumb is that an AA alkaline battery can deliver 700 mA without any significant heating. which is common for digital cameras. Applications requiring currents of several amperes. but the reduction is less than for Leclanche cells. The fully discharged cell has a remaining voltage in the range of 0. Larger cells. The effective zero-load voltage of a non-discharged alkaline battery varies from 1. This is a result of decreasing internal resistance as the internal surface area of the cell increases.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery The capacity of an alkaline battery is strongly dependent on the load. Multiple voltages may be achieved with series of cells. such as C and D cells.3 V.50 to 1. such as powerful flashlights and portable stereos. will require D-sized cells to handle the increased load. capacity is reduced on continuous discharge compared with intermittent discharge.

being a disposable domestic item. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . it represented a worrying input of a neurotoxin Dept. Either way. This is not surprising if we consider that a mercury cell could contain as much as 45 per cent mercury (II) oxide and. being phased out in 1990s by most governments for environmental reasons. was destined to end up in landfill or be incinerated.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery MERCURY CELLS These were not on the domestic market for long.

This stability is in contrast to other cells where the voltage depends on the state of discharge.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery into the environment. only a couple of years ago a free Spider-Man toy containing a mercury battery was put into special packs of Rice Kris pies in the US. hydrogen in the water is reduced to hydrogen gas.35V. In fact. They were also used for small electrical devices. (It will be some years before mercury from remaining batteries has completely worked its way down the path from use to disposal and into the environment. including toys. These properties made them ideal for cameras with a flash and watches with a backlight.) In their short stay the mercury cells did an excellent job because they offered good capacity. Saturated brine is passed into the first chamber of the cell where the chloride ions are oxidized at the anode to chlorine (A in figure): 2Cl– → Cl2 + 2e– At the cathode. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . releasing hydroxide ions into the solution (C in figure): 2H2O + 2e– → H2 + 2OH– The non-permeable ion exchange membrane at the center of the cell allows the sodium ions (Na+) to pass to the second chamber where they react with the hydroxide ions to produce caustic soda (Noah) (B in figure). long storage life and a stable voltage of 1. much to the concern of health authorities. The most common chloralkali process involves the electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride (a brine) in a membrane cell. The overall reaction for the electrolysis of brine is thus: 2NaCl + 2H2O → Cl2 + H2 + 2NaOH A membrane cell is used to prevent the reaction between the chlorine and hydroxide ions. If this reaction were to occur the chlorine would be disproportionate to form chloride and hypochlorite ions: Cl2 + 2OH– → Cl– + ClO– + H2O Dept.

The chloride ions are oxidized to chlorine gas at the anode. In the membrane cell. chlorate can be formed: 3Cl2 + 6OH– → 5Cl– + ClO3– + 3H2O Because of the corrosive nature of chlorine production. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . which is collected. The membrane passes Na+ ions to the cathode compartment (catholyte). The membrane allows only positive ions to pass through to prevent the chlorine from mixing with the sodium hydroxide. whereas the cathode can be made from Nickel. the anode has to be made from a nonreactive metal such as titanium. where it forms sodium hydroxide in solution.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery Above about 60°C. Hydrogen gas and Hydroxide ions are formed at the cathode. Saturated brine is fed to the compartment with the anode (the acolyte).35V Dept. purified and stored. Anode: Zn metal Cathode: HgO Reaction: Zn + HgO ZnO + Hg E = 1. the anode and cathode are separated by an ion-permeable membrane. A DC current is passed through the cell and the NaCl splits into its constituent components.

Anode: Zn metal powder Cathode: O2 Electrolyte: KOH (aq) Reaction: 2Zn + O2 + 2H2O 2Zn (OH)2 E = 1. the zinc-air cell. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering .Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery ZINC-AIR A potential replacement to mercury cells came with another alkaline cell. The air enters through a hole in the cell and oxygen is adsorbed onto a graphite surface where it undergoes reduction to give oxide ions.65 V Dept. which uses air as its cathode.

Zinc–air batteries (non-rechargeable) and zinc–air fuel cells. adding to the weight and taking away some of the advantage of an air electrode. The reactions produce a theoretical 1. The water and hydroxyls from the anode are recycled at the cathode.35V mercury batteries (although with a significantly shorter operating life). Oxygen from the air reacts at the cathode and forms hydroxyl ions which migrate into 4). Dept. Zinc-air batteries can be used to replace the discontinued 1. so the water is not consumed. the reaction rate can be controlled by varying the air flow. Similar to the zinc-air cell is the aluminum-air cell.35 V in available cells.4–1. oxidation takes place at the zinc electrode. to very large batteries used for electric vehicle propulsion.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery Simultaneously. In operation. A disadvantage. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . This cell has the advantage of being lighter than cells with other types of cathode chemistry. converting it to the carbonate. and so an absorbing system needs to be used. a mass of zinc particles forms a porous anode. Possible future applications of this battery include its deployment as an electric vehicle battery and as a utility-scale energy storage system. which in the 70'-80' were commonly used in photo cameras. is that carbon dioxide from the air reacts with the potassium hydroxide electrolyte. (mechanically-rechargeable) are electro-chemical batteries powered by oxidizing zinc with oxygen from the air. the zinc paste and form zincate (Zn(OH)2− releasing electrons to travel to the cathode. larger batteries used in film cameras that previously used mercury batteries. however. which is saturated with an electrolyte. Zinc–air batteries have some properties of fuel cells as well as batteries: the zinc is the fuel.65 volts. as the oxygen is being reduced. These batteries have high energy densities and are relatively inexpensive to produce. but this is reduced to 1. and oxidized zinc/electrolyte paste can be replaced with fresh paste. The zincate decays into zinc oxide and water returns to the electrolyte. providing electrons. Sizes range from very small button cells for hearing aids.

has an electrochemical potential of over 3V. and low toxicity. Lithium batteries generally have lithium metal (or alloy) as the anode but show an extensive range of chemistries for the cathode and the electrolyte. lithium is highly reactive and therefore it is necessary to use a non-aqueous electrolyte. However. Dept.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery LITHIUM CELLS Lithium is the lightest metal. These factors make it an attractive prospect for batteries. being a Group I metal. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering .

and only a slow loss of charge when not in use. Research is yielding a stream of improvements to traditional LIB technology. A lithium-ion battery (sometimes Li-ion battery or LIB) is a family of rechargeable battery types in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge. no memory effect. and aerospace applications. Unlike lithium primary batteries (which are disposable). Some also have solid electrolytes. Dept. LIBs are also growing in popularity for military. and safety characteristics vary across LIB types. performance. along with a liquid electrolyte. such as the lithiumiodine cell which has a very long life at low rates of discharge and is used in pacemakers. Beyond consumer electronics. or as button cells. Chemistry. A commonly used cathode is solid carbon monofluoride (a fluorine-graphite matrix).Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery Electrolytes can be either an organic liquid or a solid polymer . the most popular lithium primary cell is the solid cathode type. and back when charging. comprising powdered manganese dioxide and graphite . durability. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . cost. focusing on energy density. Currently. They are one of the most popular types of rechargeable battery for portable electronics.not unlike the one used in the previous aqueous cells. In this cell the cathode is a polymer into which iodine is absorbed.each with a dissolved lithium salt to make it conducting .or a fused lithium salt. with one of the best energy densities. They have the added advantage of operating over a wide temperature range. from -40ºC to +60ºC. Lithium-ion batteries are common in consumer electronics. cost. and intrinsic Anode: Li metal (or alloy) foil Cathode: MnO2 powder with graphite powder for electrical conduction Electrolyte: Li salt dissolved in aprotic solvent Reaction: Li + MN (IV) MN (III) + Li+ E = 3V These lithium cells are available as cylindrical cells. electric vehicle. lithium-ion electrochemical cells use an intercalated lithium compound as the electrode material instead of metallic lithium.

For example an electric vehicle relying upon a secondary battery as its power source must be capable of being recharged a thousand times or so. to be successful the cell must be capable of much discharge and recharge cycles.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery There are numerous other examples of primary cell chemistry. the chemistry must be reversible. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . or more commonly a battery of cells. otherwise there Dept. including magnesium-manganese dioxide. SECONDRY CELLS For a rechargeable cell. a magnesium version of the alkaline-manganese type. before the battery is worn out. and silver-silver oxide. To achieve this.

Traditionally rechargeable cells were used for high power applications such as engine cranking. located between the primary cell wall and the plasma membrane. It sometimes consists of three distinct layers . Apparently there are no Structural proteins or enzymes in the secondary wall. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . Furthermore. this is an area which will grow as more portable electronic devices become available and as people want to move away from the throwaway batteries. lignin. S2 and S3 . The secondary cell wall consists mainly of cellulose. And so a rechargeable battery must have a long cycle life. Dept.S1. and glycoproteins.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery would be loss of capacity on each recharge cycle which would eventually render the cell useless. The cell starts producing the secondary cell wall after the primary cell wall is complete and the cell has stopped expanding. electric vehicles and emergency lighting but are now making a big contribution in the domestic market and small rechargeable are a part of everyday life. The secondary cell wall is a structure found in many plant cells.where the direction of the Cellulose micro fibrils differs between the layers. but also other polysaccharides.

g. whereas lignification in addition to making the secondary wall impermeable to water also gives a "brittle" texture. e. describing simple and bordered pit cavities). Dept.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery The secondary cell wall has different ratios of wall constituents compared to the primary wall. secondary batteries have a lower capacity and initial voltage. As lignin repels water. Conceptually this give lignified secondary wall properties resembling armored concrete. higher selfdischarge rates and varying recharge life ratings. Generally. Ni-Cd and small-size lead acid batteries require special disposal and should not be simply thrown away. giving rise to a pit cavity. They have the advantage of being more costefficient over the long term. where the cellulose micro fibrils act as the armoring and the lignin as concrete. Secondary batteries are the rechargeable batteries. The Cellulose micro fibrils give tensile strength. Lignification of the secondary wall confers resistance to pathogens by two mechanisms. whereas the primary wall contains xyloglucans and the cellulose fraction is higher in the secondary wall. (this is somewhat simplified and someone who know more about it than the author of this sentence should expand the section. hydrolytic enzymes are less likely to attack and successfully penetrate the wall and it lowers the nutritional value of the wall. Pectin’s may also be absent from the secondary wall and apparently it contain no Structural proteins or enzymes. although individual batteries are more expensive. providing less energy to pathogens. The secondary wall usually is absent under the regions of the primary wall. a flat discharge curve. An example of this is that wood secondary walls contain xylenes. which contain pit pairs. and holds the plant up against gravity. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . Secondary batteries usually have more active (less stable) chemistries which need special handling.Wood consists mostly of secondary cell wall. containment and disposal.

invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planet. Over the years improvements have been made as new materials have become available. are the oldest type of rechargeable battery. These features.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery LEAD-ACID The lead-acid battery. the basic electrode chemistry used is the same as it was over a century ago. But though the electrode structure and container materials have changed. make them attractive for use in motor vehicles to provide the high current required by automobile starter motors. along with their low cost. Dept. Lead–acid batteries. invented by Gaston Planet in 1859. their ability to supply high surge currents means that the cells maintain a relatively large power-to-weight ratio. is the most widely used rechargeable battery. Despite having a very low energy-to-weight ratio and a low energy-tovolume ratio. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering .

The battery's electrolyte level had to be periodically topped up with demineralized water. They are. however. In the 1970s sealed batteries with pressure release valves became available. Recharging simply reverses the discharge reaction but is accompanied by the production of hydrogen and oxygen. These systems contained a catalyst to convert the hydrogen and oxygen back to water. unsuitable for prolonged discharge as required in electric vehicles or in emergency lighting facilities. Later improvements included the use of a calcium-lead alloy as the electrode grid material in place of cadmium-lead alloys. Early batteries had therefore to be ventilated to allow the gas to escape and avoid pressure build up and the risk of explosion.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery Lead–acid batteries (under 5 kg) account for 1. Calcium-lead alloy batteries are less prone to self-discharge and are highly effective in providing a short burst of high current. owing to the electrolysis of water.5% of all portable secondary battery sales in Japan by number of units sold (25% by price). Although these batteries are known as calcium batteries this is misleading because calcium plays no part in the cell chemistry. which makes them suitable for use in cars for engine cranking. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . Dept. Sealed lead–acid batteries accounted for 10% by weight of all portable battery sales in the EU in 2000 Anode: Pb metal as spongy powder Cathode: PbO2 Electrolyte: H2SO4 (aq) Discharge reaction: Pb + PbO2 + 2H2SO 2PbSO4 + 2H2O E = 2V The spongy lead is packed into cadmium-lead alloy grids and the lead dioxide pasted onto alloy plates.

one major disadvantage is their weight and the aim of much research in this area has been to produce lighter versions. If left. the NICAD battery enjoyed more success because it was less prone to corrosion. nickel-iron (NIFE) and nickel-cadmium (NICAD) alkaline batteries had some commercial success at the end of the 19th century. even challenging the lead-acid battery in Dept. Later. the lead sulfate discharge product becomes stable and resists all efforts at recharging. the battery is said to be sulfated and is dead.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery The traditional cadmium-lead alloy batteries do not tolerate deep discharge if they are not recharged soon after reaching this state. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . Of the different chemistries considered. NICKEL-CADMIUM Despite the success of the lead-acid batteries.

and are available in low-maintenance and zero-maintenance versions. and exempt from risk of sudden failure. Nickel-cadmium batteries have a legendary reputation for robustness. with casing in plastic (possibly flame retardant) or stainless steel or nickel steel. in nickel-steel cans. with capacities from 0. Because of the structural materials they use.1 to 1500 Ah. immersed in alkaline solution (electrolyte) comprising potassium. sodium and lithium hydroxides. excellent cycling capability (up to 3.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery applications such as emergency lighting despite its higher price. NICAD chemistry is now used for small rechargeable batteries for domestic use as well as heavier applications such as electric vehicles.2 V during discharge. nickel-cadmium batteries are exceptionally robust. Anode: Cd metal Dept. for high-power units. sintered plate or PBE cathodes (Plastic Bonded Electrodes). and pocket-type. addressing a huge variety of professional and industrial applications. Nickel-cadmium cells can be sealed or open. sintered plate. Open cells are prismatic in shape. foam and Saft’s recent proprietary PNE (for the VNT range) anodes. Saft makes an increasing proportion of its nickel-cadmium batteries using cadmium from recycled batteries.000 cycles). And they can be made with very thin electrodes. Saft and its subsidiaries have been making nickel-cadmium batteries for over 100 years. long storage life. and low or zero maintenance. The cells are rechargeable and deliver a voltage of 1. Several different electrode technologies can be used. Sealed cells are cylindrical in shape. with pocket-type. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . This is the benchmark technology for difficult and demanding applications: operating temperatures from – 40 °C to +60 °C (because the electrolyte has a very low freezing point). Nickel-cadmium cells have an anode (negative) in cadmium hydroxide and a cathode (positive) in nickel hydroxide. reliability and service life.

Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery Cathode: Ni (OH)2 Electrolyte: KOH (aq) Discharge reaction: Cd + 2NiOOH + 4H2O Cd (OH)2 + 2Ni(OH)2.H2O E = 1.3V NICKEL-METAL HYDRID Dept. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering .

these batteries are for small domestic use and for heavier applications such as electric vehicles. As with the NICAD. a factor that has made them very popular. It is very similar to the nickel–cadmium cell (NiCd). but up to a rate of around 1×C (full discharge in one hour). but will operate most devices designed for that voltage. This is significantly better than the typical 40–60 W·h/kg for Ni– Cd. and for larger NiMH cells about 75 W·h/kg (270 kJ/kg). of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . abbreviated NiMH or Ni-MH. significantly better than nickel–cadmium at 50–150 W·h/L.2 V per cell. A NiMH battery can have two to three times the capacity of an equivalent size NiCad. NiMH batteries normally operate at 1. and similar to the 100-160 W·h/kg for Li-ion.5 V cells. measured at the rate that discharges the cell in five hours. nickel chemistry finds use in nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) rechargeable. NiMH has a volumetric energy density of about 300 W·h/L (1080 MJ/m³). it does not differ significantly from the nominal capacity. Useful discharge capacity is a decreasing function of the discharge rate. which have nominal charge capacities (C) ranging from 1100 mA·h to 3100 mA·h at 1. The NiMH cell stores almost twice the energy as the NICAD. Again. and about the same as li-ion at 250-360 W·h/L. like the NiCd. but the negative electrode uses a hydrogen-absorbing alloy instead of cadmium. NiMH use positive electrodes of nickel ox hydroxide (NiOOH). somewhat lower than conventional 1. and their energy density approaches that of a lithium-ion cell. NiMH batteries have replaced NiCd for many roles. is a type of rechargeable battery. Anode: MH where M = Alloy such as LaNi5 Cathode: NiOOH Dept.2 V.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery The NICAD chemistry provided the basis upon which the nickel-metal hydride cell was developed. The typical specific energy for small NiMH cells is about 100 W·h/kg. A nickel–metal hydride cell. NiMH batteries are very common for AA (penlight-size) batteries. notably small rechargeable batteries.

Currently Quall ion in the US uses this technology in micro batteries (the size of a grain of rice) in medical implants for neurological disorders. The batteries have a 10-year life. which is used in lithium primary cells. pound for pound. Lithium-ion batteries are incredibly popular these days. In these alloys some of the component metals absorb hydrogen exothermically whereas others do so endothermic ally. This technology was developed by the British company AEA Technology and commercialized by Sony under license from AEA. hydrogen absorption and release may proceed with no net change in temperature which is desirable for cells. Instead lighthearted graphite is used as the anode. Dept. LaNi5 can store six hydrogen atoms. they're some of the most energetic rechargeable batteries available. PDAs. Anode: Lightheaded graphite (LiC6) Cathode: LiCoO2 Electrolyte: LiPF6 in aprotic solvent Overall reaction: Li 1-x CoO2 + CLix LiCoO2 + C E = 3. LITHIUM ION Metallic lithium. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering .7V Lithium atoms in the lightheaded graphite are intercalated between the hexagonal layer molecular structures of the graphite and are free to move around. They're so common because. On discharge these atoms migrate from the graphite to the lithium cobalt oxide. is unsuitable for rechargeable cells owing to dendritic crystal growth of the metal in the recharge phase which can damage the cell.35V This cell came about when the hydrogen absorptive properties of certain metal alloys were discovered. One of these alloys. By having the correct balance of each type in the alloy. You can find them in laptops. LaNi5H6.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery Electrolyte: KOH (aq) Discharge reaction: NiOOH + MH Ni (OH)2 + M E = 1. cell phones and iPods.

it takes 6 kilograms to store the same amount of energy that a 1 kilogram lithium-ion battery can handle. Lithium is also a highly reactive element. meaning that a lot of energy can be stored in its atomic bonds. we'll answer these questions and more.  Lithium-ion batteries can handle hundreds of charge/discharge cycles. They will only last two or three years from the date of manufacture whether you use them or not.but when it happens. A NiMH (nickel-metal hydride) battery pack can store perhaps 100 watt-hours per kilogram. the failure rate can rise.  They hold their charge. That’s because these batteries have the ability to burst into flames occasionally. Dept. it's extreme. That's a huge difference . A lead-acid battery can store only 25 watt-hours per kilogram. So the question is. The electrodes of a lithium-ion battery are made of lightweight lithium and carbon. A typical lithium-ion battery can store 150 watt-hours of electricity in 1 kilogram of battery. That is not to say that lithium-ion batteries are flawless. compared to a 20 percent loss per month for NiMH batteries. Using lead-acid technology. although 60 to 70 watt-hours might be more typical. as with some other battery chemistries. and when that happens you end up with a worldwide battery recall that can cost manufacturers millions of dollars. which means that you do not have to completely discharge them before recharging. Lithium-ion batteries are popular because they have a number of important advantages over competing technologies:  They're generally much lighter than other types of rechargeable batteries of the same size. Here is a way to get a perspective on the energy density. This translates into a very high energy density for lithium-ion batteries. They have a few disadvantages as well:  They start degrading as soon as they leave the factory. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering .Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery Lithium-ion batteries have also been in the news lately. It's not very common -.just two or three battery packs per million have a problem -.  They have no memory effect. In some situations. what makes these batteries so energetic and so popular? How do they burst into flame? And is there anything you can do to prevent the problem or help your batteries last longer? In this article. A lithium-ion battery pack loses only about 5 percent of its charge per month.

it is ruined.   If you completely discharge a lithium-ion battery.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery  They are extremely sensitive to high temperatures. if a lithium-ion battery pack fails. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . Heat causes lithium-ion battery packs to degrade much faster than they normally would. it will burst into flame Dept. A lithium-ion battery pack must have an on-board computer to manage the battery. This makes them even more expensive than they already are.  There is a small chance that.

of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . Dept. With sodium and sulfur separated by only a couple of millimeters of ceramic. at this temperature the cell presented some tough design problems to avoid explosive reactions. The system works at 350ºC. with a solid electrolyte. molten sodium and molten sulfur. This cell is unusual in that it has liquid electrodes.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery MOLTEN SODIUM CELLS Another Group I metal to have found use in batteries is sodium with the sodium-sulfur cell being an example.

 Cadmium crystals are the culprit! ELECTRICITY IS THE FLOW OF ELECTRICAL POWER OR ELECTRONS  Batteries produce electrons through a chemical reaction between electrolyte and metal in the traditional battery. RECHARGE-ABILITY & THE “MEMORY EFFECT” RECHARGE ABILITY  When the direction of electron discharge (negative to positive) is reversed. THE MEMORY EFFECT  When a battery is repeatedly recharged before it has discharged more than half of its power.000 watt-hours) in the electricity generating industry and to power electric buses.076V -alumina comprises sodium ions in an aluminum oxide lattice.000. During discharge the sodium anode releases sodium ions which migrate through the -alumina to the liquid sulfur.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery Sodium-sulfur batteries are being used for load leveling (100. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering .  Chemical reaction in the paper battery is between electrolyte and carbon nanotubes. These positive ions react with the sulfur to form sodium sulfide and polysulfide. Dept. restoring power. it will ―forget‖ its original power capacity. Anode: Na(l) Cathode: S(l) with carbon fiber conducting matrix Electrolyte: -Al2O3 ceramic Overall reaction: 2Na + 3S Na2S3 and polysulfide E = 2. trains and tractors.

DURABILITY  The use of carbon nanotubes gives the paper battery extreme flexibility.From postage stamp to broadsheet. they can be made in a variety of sizes.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery  Electrons collect on the negative terminal of the battery and flow along a connected wire to the positive terminal. or stacked. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . the sheets can be rolled  Twisted.  Electrons must flow from the negative to the positive terminal for the chemical reaction to continue. or cut into numerous shapes with no loss of integrity or efficiency.  Printer paper (or a Voltaic pile). to boost total output. folded. As well. ―It’s essentially a regular piece of Dept.

 Paper battery is extremely flexible as carbon nanotubes are used as the electrodes. The sheets can be rolled.‖  ―The components are molecularly attached to each other: the carbon nanotube print is embedded in the paper. ―We’re not putting pieces together — it’s a single. says a team of researchers. but it’s made in a very intelligent way.  Professor Robert Linhardt. folded and cut into various shapes with no loss in quality and efficiency. HOW A PAPER BATTERY WORKES? Dept. said the paper battery was a glimpse into the future of power storage. integrated device. twisted. PAPER BATTERY OFFERS FUTURE POWER Flexible paper batteries could meet the energy demands of the next generation of gadgets. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . But the ambition is to produce reams of paper that could one day power a car. of the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. says it can also double as a capacitor capable of releasing sudden energy bursts for high-power applications. They have produced a sample slightly larger than a postage stamp that can store enough energy to illuminate a small light bulb.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery paper.‖ said Linhardt. The components are attached to each other and the carbon nanotube print is embedded in the paper and the electrolyte is soaked in the paper which looks the same like a paper. The team behind the versatile paper. which stores energy like a conventional battery.

"Think of all the disadvantages of an old TV set with tubes. from the New York-based institute. But you lose less energy in an integrated device. INTIGRETED DEVICE The research appears in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). making it more energy efficient. the paper battery integrates all of the battery components in a single structure. power loss. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . "The warm up time." Dept.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery While a conventional battery contains a number of separate components." said Professor Leichardt. When you transfer power from one component to another you lose energy. you don't get those problems with integrated devices. component malfunction. who co-authored a report into the technology.

more environmentally friendly and usable in a wide range of devices. But Professor Linhardt said integrated devices. But at that scale. that's 500 times the voltage. "They are ultimately easier to manufacture.  The flexible battery can function even if it is rolled up.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery The battery contains carbon nanotubes. If we rip the paper in half we cut power by 50%. The ambition is to produce the paper battery using a newspaper-type roller printer. Although the power output is currently modest. ―The world is not going to change as a result of this new invention any time soon. is unconvinced." said Professor Linhardt. "You can implant a piece of paper in the body and blood would serve as an electrolyte. Dept." Professor Linhardt admitted that the new battery is still some way from the commercial market." he said. which act as an electrode. were the direction the world was moving. but electricity storage is much more difficult and expensive than liquid fuels and probably will be so forever." he said. We would have to scale up to sheets of newspaper size to make it commercially viable. MORE DEFFICULT  "Batteries and capacitors are being steadily improved. an expert on alternative power sources for transport. the voltage could be large enough to power a car. but it is going to take time to bring the costs down. and batteries large enough to power a car are unlikely to be cost effective. it could be used to power pacemakers within the body where conventional batteries pose a toxic threat. "I'm a strong enthusiast of electric vehicles." But Professor Daniel Sparling at University of California. he said." Because the battery consists mainly of paper and carbon. like the paper battery." said Professor Sparling.  "The devices we're making are only a few inches across. "I wouldn't want the ionic liquid electrolytes in my body. carbon nanotubes are very expensive. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . However. but it works without them. "If we stack 500 sheets together in a ream. Professor Linhardt said that increasing the output should be easy. which conduct the electricity. folded or cut. each about one millionth of a centimeter thick." he said. So we can control the power and voltage issue. The nanotubes are embedded in a sheet of paper soaked in ionic liquid electrolytes. Davis.

capacitors hold an electric charge. bendable batteries and super capacitors in the form of everyday paper. Like batteries. "We just haven't tested what happens when you burn it. "Paper or plastic?"). high-performance energy storage device. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . said Yi Cui. However. such as batteries and simple super capacitors.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery Stanford scientists create paper batteries that work when crumpled Dip an ordinary piece of paper into ink infused with carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires. The flexibility of paper allows for many clever applications." Cui said." In his lab. "I can use a brush. ―Society really needs a low-cost. and it still works. Crumple the piece of paper. you can crumple or fold the paper battery. What's more. His new research shows that a paper battery is more durable because the ink adheres more strongly to paper (answering the question. "They're a one-dimensional structure with very small diameters." he said. or even soak it in acidic or basic solutions. The paper super capacitor may last through 40. Cue’s work is reported in the paper "Highly Conductive Paper for Energy Storage Devices. Cui said. Simply coating a sheet of paper with ink made of carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires makes a highly conductive storage device." he said." "these nanomaterials are special. BY JANELLE WEAVER Stanford scientists are harnessing nanotechnology to quickly produce ultra-lightweight.000 charge-discharge cycles – at least an order of magnitude more than lithium batteries. but for a shorter period of time." The small diameter helps the nanomaterial ink stick strongly to the fibrous paper. assistant professor of materials science and engineering. A paper super capacitor may be especially useful for applications like electric Dept. Stanford researcher Yi Cui sees many uses for this new way of storing electricity. and the performance does not degrade. and it turns into a battery or super capacitor. he demonstrated the battery to a visitor by connecting it to an LED (light-emitting diode).Cui had previously created nanomaterial energy storage devices using plastics. "If I want to paint my wall with a conducting energy storage device. The nanomaterial’s also make ideal conductors because they move electricity along much more efficiently than ordinary conductors. which glowed brightly. capacitors can store and discharge electricity much more rapidly than a battery." Cui said. making the battery and super capacitor very durable.

essentially. for example. can be used as general household waste to be addressed. ADVANTAGES OF PAPER BATTERY POWER  High energy density means greater power in a smaller package.  This battery will have to avoid the traditional metal batteries."The most important part of this paper is how a simple thing in daily life – paper – can be used as a substrate to make functional conductive electrodes by a simple process. The paper super capacitor’s high surface-to-volume ratio gives it an advantage. Development Corporation." he said. Apple M8511 Battery environmentally sound. "It's nanotechnology related to daily life." said Priding Yang. which depend on the quick transfer of electricity. could be saved for peak-use periods during the day. LONG SHELF-LIFE-only 5% discharge loss per month." Cui predicts the biggest impact may be in large-scale storage of electricity on the distribution grid. "This is potentially a very nice. professor of chemistry at the University of California-Berkeley. low-cost. said the price of this Dept. Excess electricity generated at night. "I don't think it will be limited to just energy storage devices. lithium and alkaline compounds leakage. and graduate student Yuan Yang." Yang said. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . flexible electrode for any electrical device. Wind farms and solar energy systems also may require storage.  160% greater than NiMH  220% greater than NiCd HIGHER VOLTAGE  A strong current allows it to power complex mechanical devices.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery or hybrid cars. ―Cue’s research team includes postdoctoral scholars Liangbing Hu and JangWook Choi. "This technology has potential to be commercialized within a short time.

the new paper battery is implanted electrodes and electrolyte composition of cellulose paper. an integral part of the new battery also includes electrodes. to fold the light "paper battery" has recently attracted attention. power. the price of just one cent. The new paper battery as the main component is cellulose. Specifically. Electrodes are added in the carbon nanotubes and cellulose in the cellulose film covering the lithium. musical greeting cards and e-newspapers. -70 ℃ to 150 ℃ in the temperature range can be used normally. with good flexibility. electrolyte and separators. Apple A1079 Battery.  Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute by the United States. several scientists has developed out of a thin piece of paper can be cut. Dr. According to reports. With the rapid development of RFID technology. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . the new paper battery can produce 10 mA per gram of current. such as flexibility.  Studies have shown that 2 volts. paper made of this new type of battery. but also has many important characteristics. it will be a new type of energy storage devices. cellulose paper. so keeping some of the characteristics of paper. which serves as a partition role. Zhangxia Chang said that the battery can be used as smart cards. So. According to the experiment show that the battery is very strong adaptability to temperature. as this paper has many of the performance of the battery.  Enfucell CTO. the new paper battery Apple M8244 Battery how our lives will be affected? Its development of space in the end how much? These topics may also have to be scientists to explore further.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery battery is also very cheap. this new addition to the production method of battery innovation. Scientists at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute United States is through the three parts of the battery integrated into a thin piece of paper. The researchers believe that. and can be used in RFID (radio frequency identification) tag. and when to achieve mass production. Zhang Xiachang Chinese scientists is that the main developers of paper battery. the electrolyte is lithium hexafluorophosphate solution.  Not replace current lithium batteries Dept.  The unique properties of the new paper battery  The same with the traditional battery. the potential market for such paper battery is expected to reach billions of dollars in the future.

Due process and other reasons. batteries. Since different batteries have different characteristics. so a certain kind of battery cannot be omnipotent. Micromedical devices in the drive (such as a pacemaker) has a incomparable advantage of other cells. experts are to be interpreted?  Harbin Institute of Technology School of Applied Chemistry Department Professor Sun Kenning that each cell are based on the special needs of different design and invention. the new paper battery Apple A1078 Battery is no exception. digital cameras and even cars are ideal drive. Because of plasticity. is not suitable for mass production.  New paper battery cells as a new concept. DISADVANTAGES OF PAPER BATTERY EXPENSIVE -. the use of outlook is definitely yes. the paper published the battery from the current methods of production point of view. such batteries can even be made into the shape of the door. Currently the new paper battery could only be defined as a kind of exploratory research inventions. mobile phones. Dept. However. it is not a substitute for extensive use of other types of batteries. Apple A1148 Battery as did the use of printing technology mass production of batteries. Currently.40% more than NiCd.  For notebook computers. so its usefulness is limited. and cannot market share in a short time.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery  Some reports say the new battery is expected to replace paper now commonly used in consumer electronics products in the field of lithium batteries. expect the future to print newspapers. researchers are working to reduce the cost of paper. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . the production of such paper batteries need high cost of production of carbon nanotubes.

when shipping Li-Ion batteries in bulk (which also raises the price). making them attractive for portable electronics. Battery Comparison Dept.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery DELICATE -. while their ability to use electrolytes in blood make them potentially useful for medical devices such as pacemakers. they would like to be able to make them newspaper size. The medical uses are particularly attractive because they do not contain any toxic materials and can be biodegradable. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . a size which.battery temp must be monitored from within (which raises the price). taken all together would be powerful enough to power a car. a major drawback of chemical cells. Currently they are making devices a few inches in size. because nanotubes are still relatively expensive to fabricate. and toys (such as model aircraft). automobiles. USES The paper-like quality of the battery combined with the structure of the nanotubes embedded within gives them their light weight and low cost. In order to be commercially viable. Professor Sparling cautions that commercial applications may be a long way away. aircraft. REGULATIONS .However. and sealed particularly well.

Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery ENVEROMENTEL IMPACT OF PAPER BATTERIES Dept. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering .

ENERGY USE FOR PRODUCTION AND RECYCLING Table lists several key characteristics for the four selected types. and sulfur production uses little energy.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery  Rechargeable batteries are often recyclable. The most complete data were available for advanced Pbacid batteries. which would not be reusable. The energy to produce the battery for a mini-compact car from virgin materials is approximately 17% of that required to produce the rest of the car. Requiring one or more replacement batteries would multiply that contribution. This does not take into account extra vehicle mass required to support a heavier battery. including rough production and recycling energy estimates for a 25-kWh battery (reasonable size for a small car). Where material composition and production data for several battery types were not readily available. No method has been identified for recycling the electrolyte. 76% of the energy would go to Pb production and most of the rest to the polypropylene case. The data are incomplete because technologies for recycling all of the materials have not yet been developed. and can be extracted from the battery. Recycling these items would offer some energy savings. If the battery were made from all virgin materials. Materials present in very small quantities or having very low production energies were assumed not to be recycled. and used as feedstock for new Li-Ion batteries. neutralized. The energy used in producing this type of battery will be dominated by that for production of the ceramic electrolyte. this might be the least energy-intensive battery to produce. because of corrosion and because Dept. production from recycled materials reduces the required energy by more than a factor of four. Although few data were available for the Na-S battery. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . and thermal enclosure. or extra energy to transport it over the vehicle's lifetime. In spite of these shortcomings. The cell cases would probably not be reusable. and battery Pb and cases are already recycled to a great extent. Energy to produce an 80% recycled battery pack would then represent less than 7% of the vehicle's production energy. However.  Oxidized Lithium is non-toxic. The quantities of electrode material in this battery are relatively small. we can make some interesting observations. several conclusions are possible. we made rough approximations in order to identify important contributions to energy use for material production. but reuse would save essentially all of the production energy. steel cell cases. but even if replacements were needed.

Data for Ni-MH battery materials are hard to obtain. While this type of battery is relatively energy-intensive (approximately 75% as energy-intensive as the Ni-Cd on an equal-mass basis). so it is important. but no energy estimate is available. Nickel recycling is possible. Recycling of the metal hydrides is still at the research stage. A lighter case would use less energy. The plastic separator material is recyclable.Because the NiCd battery uses energy-intensive material inputs. a Zn byproduct. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . Potential health hazards from Cd release are another powerful driver to maintain a closed cycle. Therefore. but recycling is possible. Examples include electrode materials for Ni-Cd and NiDept. The thermal enclosure could probably be reused. meaning it is energy-intensive but recyclable. Recycling of Cd alone could save over one-third of the battery production energy. the energy density is considerably higher than that of the Ni-Cd. Ni-MH battery production energy is about 45% of that for the rest of the vehicle. little can be said except that progress is being made. For a compact car. The Ni-Cd battery would require more than 90% as much energy to produce as would the remainder of a compact vehicle. the mass of battery material per unit vehicle mass is high. and the relative contribution of battery production to total vehicle production energy is reduced. Therefore. but some conclusions are possible. Because this type of battery has a relatively low energy density. Recycling of the electrode materials could also reduce energy requirements. But this is based on assigning the energy intensity of Zn to Cd. Cadmium recycling is currently feasible and not very energyintensive. from an energy standpoint. therefore. The Ni electrode is similar to that in the Ni-Cd battery. This preliminary analysis allows us to focus additional effort on collecting data on those materials that contribute significantly to battery production energy requirements and for which older or approximate data were used. which may be inappropriate. to recycle the materials. The energy density of this battery type is the highest of those included in this study. less battery weight is required per pound of vehicle. recycling is essential on energy grounds.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery dismantling might not leave them intact. More than 80% of the energy is used to produce the electrode materials. the overall contribution of Ni-MH battery production energy to total vehicle energy is only about 60% that of the Ni-Cd. The next-largest contribution is from the stainless steel battery case. and this improves the overall energy picture. it has a high energy requirement (about four times that of the advanced Pb-acid battery). because Cd volatilizes at relatively low temperatures. replaced by lighter plastics in some designs.

small conventional vehicle (CV) getting 35 mpg on reformulated gasoline would consume about 320 million Btu of fuel. smelters operating with less stringent (or no) pollution-control regulations could have an economic advantage but cause severe local health effects. The U. is smelted from zinc sulfide ores. and Tennessee. and refining. SO2.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery MH batteries. production energy use would be less than 15% of the vehicle's lifetime fuel consumption. It is unclear how much of the emissions should be attributed to Cd. The primary effluent. If scrap is exported to Asia. even if the most energy-intensive battery design were used and not recycled. Control systems are required in the United States. Thus. The analysis also points to these materials as important targets for recycling research to reduce the energy required to supply the batteries and identifies those batteries for which replacement would mean a large energy penalty. Currently. a 0.500 Btu/kWh). so reuse or perhaps substitution of a lighter design or a less energy-intensive material is indicated. at great expense. Nickel is also smelted from a sulfide ore. >90% of the Pb and oxides from batteries are recycled or exported.000 mi. are released as particulates during both primary and secondary (recycling) Pb smelting operations and during battery manufacture and recycling. overseas. blast-furnace reduction. It also identifies places where recycling will not significantly reduce energy use. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . A similar. Note that SO2 emissions from primary Ni for electrodes occur where the material is smelted.S. Cadmium.25-kWh/mi EV would use electricity that required 260 million Btu to generate (assuming 10. energy use for battery production must be put into the perspective of the car's entire life cycle. produced in Colorado. Over a lifetime of 100. Finally. PROCESS EMISSIONS Pb is produced from sulfide ores by sintering. Lead compounds. is recovered and used to produce sulfuric acid. Secondary smelting and battery recycling. Inco has attained compliance with emissions regulations. Bureau of Mines estimates 8 tons of sulfur produced for each ton of Ni (3). more geographically spread out than primary production. Oklahoma. Illinois. Missouri accounts for 75% of primary Pb production in the United States. Dept. In Canada. may occur near population centers. such as oxides.

in some operations. Primary production is concentrated in a band from Pennsylvania to Illinois. The utility analysis examined several different scenarios for charging. sulfur oxides. The most touted environmental advantage of EVs is supposed to be their air pollution benefit. and plant dispatch. Both low and high EV market penetration scenarios were evaluated. rather than only providing for the additional capacity required by EVs. with mini-mills around the country. Gulf Coast. when capacity is added. Sulfur recovery has a positive impact on air quality. new units may displace "dirtier" and more expensive units Dept. the power plant is the most economical size. the rest is mined or imported.g. including iron oxides. near several major population centers. In the utility analysis. concentrated on the U. or in terms of population exposure because the power plants operate outside major population centers. as a result. The areas varied by utility fuel mix as well as other variables (e. since the material would otherwise contribute to emissions.S. suppressed.. Utility emissions replace CV gasoline emissions. and chlorides. carbonaceous compounds. are emitted at several stages of primary and secondary iron and steel production. The effect on power plant emissions of the use of EVs in four metropolitan areas was analyzed. EV market penetration. emissions from fuel combustion during battery production are much less important than those from electricity generation. Use of EVs might be expected always to lead to increases in air pollutants from utilities over a base with no EVs. COMBUSTION EMISSIONS IN PERSPECTIVE Although the fuel mix for material production differs from the utility mix. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . This result deserves some explanation. but the effect of adding capacity because of EV demand may in some cases reduce utility emissions relative to the no-EV base. Particulates.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery About 63% of the elemental sulfur consumed domestically is recovered as a by-product from processing crude oil or natural gas. Secondary production is more widely distributed. These materials can be captured in hoods or other systems and sent to a bughouse or. climate). The utility emissions can be lower in terms of grand totals than those of gasoline vehicles. Added units are cheaper and cleaner than some existing units.

in some cases. so total emissions decrease relative to the base.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery in the dispatch order. REFERENCES Dept. marginal emissions are negative. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . Thus.

. "Life Cycle Energy Analysis for Automobiles. presented at the Total Life Cycle Conference. Dept." SAE Paper 951829. Gaines. L. 3. and M. Singh. Oct. Nickel 1992. U.. "Energy and Environmental Impacts of Electric Vehicle Battery Production and Recycling. 1995. 1995. Kuck. P. Austria. Annual Report. 16-19. Vienna.L. Austria. Bureau of Mines.Seminar Report 2011-12 Study Of Paper Battery 1. J. of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering . 16-19.S. 1993. Hu. presented at the Total Life Cycle Conference. Sullivan. Oct. 2. Vienna. Department of the Interior." SAE Paper 951865.. and J.

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