Warm-Up 12/13/11

• If a population has the following genotype frequencies – AA = 0.42, Aa = 0.46, and aa = 0.12 what are the allele frequencies?
– – – – – A = 0.42 a =0.12 A =0.6 a = 0.4 A = 0.65 a = 0.35 A = 0.76 a = 0.24 A = 0.88 a = 0.12

Chapter 21 – Genes Within Populations
21.1 – Genes vary in natural populations 21.2 – Why do allele frequencies change in populations? 21.3 – Selection can act on traits affected by many genes.

Natural Selection

Population -- all the members of a single species
Evolution that occurs within a population = microevolution

Population genetics – studies variations in gene pools

Gene pool – total of all the alleles in the population Alleles – chromosome sections that code for specific proteins traits Examples: Humans have alleles for blue eyes / brown eyes /green eyes curly/straight hair blood type A / B / O / AB .

• • • • The population size is very large Random mating is occurring No mutation takes place No genes are input from other sources (no immigration takes place) • No selection occurs .Hardy-Weinberg Principle • Why do allele frequencies change in populations? – They won’t as long as the following assumptions are met.

Hardy-Weinberg Equation • (p + q) 2 = p2 + 2pq + q2 • p2 = individuals homozygous for the dom allele • 2pq = individuals heterozygous • q2 = individuals homozygous for the rec allele .

Selection . Genetic drift (random change in allele frequencies) 5. Gene Flow (immigration into and emigration out of a population) 3. Non-random mating 4.5 Factors that alter proportions enough to deviate from Hardy-Weinburg 1. Mutation 2.

1.000 cells mutates • Ultimate source of genetic variation . Mutation • Generally so low that they DO NOT effect Hardy-Weinburg • 1 in 100.

by migration 2) Increases variation 3) Continued gene flow decreases diversity. Gene Flow 1) movement of alleles from one population to another. gene pools become more similar 4) Can prevent speciation from occurring .2.

Example of GENE FLOW • Each rat snake represents a separate population of snakes • These snake remain similar and can interbreed • This keeps their gene pools somewhat similar • They are considered subspecies .

3 .Figure 18.

. b. Inbreeding does not change the allele frequencies. a. Nonrandom Mating 1. Inbreeding is mating between relatives to a greater extent than by chance.3. However. inbreeding decreases the proportion of heterozygotes. Nonrandom mating – individuals of certain genotypes mate with one another more commonly than would be expected on a random basis 2.

Assortative mating occurs when individuals mate with those that have the same phenotype. 5. (guppies. lions) .3. Sexual selection occurs when males compete for the right to reproduce and the female selects males of a particular phenotype.

4. • Occurs when founders start a new population or after a bottleneck . GENETIC DRIFT • In a small population • particular alleles change drastically by chance alone.

reduces overall diversity.Bottleneck Effect – caused by a severe reduction in population. Ex Cheetah .

Dwarfism in Amish communities Polydactylism in Amish communities .FOUNDER EFFECT The founder effect is an example of genetic drift where rare alleles or combinations occur in higher frequency in a population isolated from the general population.

Selection • Artificial Selection – Traits are selected • Natural Selection – Environment determines which individuals will produce the most offspring .5.

Variation must exist among individuals in a population 2.3 Conditions for Natural Selection 1. Variation among individuals results in differences in the number of offspring surviving in the next generation 3. Variation must be genetically inherited .

Measuring Fitness • Fitness – The number of surviving offspring left in the next generation. • Most fit phenotype is assigned a fitness value of 1 • Relative fitness – compares the fitness of one phenotype to another .

Frequency-Dependent Selection • The fitness of a phenotype depends on its frequency within a population – Negative Frequency-Dependent • Rare phenotype is favored by selection – Promotes variation – Positive Frequency-Dependent • Common phenotype is favored by selection – Eliminates variation .

Heterozygous Advantage .

Forms of Selection 1. Directional Selection One phenotype is favored over another Causes a shift in the overall appearance of the species Ex: horses get larger .

2. . STABILIZING SELECTION occurs when extreme phenotypes are eliminated and the intermediate phenotype is favored.

Human babies have an average size Too big and they can't get through birth canal Too small and they have low survivability .

• CAN LEAD TO SPECIATION .occurs when extreme phenotypes are favored and can lead to more than one distinct form.DISRUPTIVE SELECTION -.

the most common Sleebo is 4 inches long. Sleebos come in many sizes..Imagine this scenario. What will happen to the Sleebo population? ... Large sleebos are too big for the predator to eat. A new predator is introduced to the Sleebo island. Small sleebos are able to hide under rocks and avoid being eaten. but some can be 10 inches and others can be as small as 1 inch.

Types of Selection .


MACROEVOLUTION • Evolutionary change above the species level • Speciation – the splitting of one species into two or more species speciation is the final result of changes in gene pool .

What is a Species? • A group of actually or potentially interbreeding populations (isolated from other groups) • Gene flow can occur between populations of the same species .

.Hybrids occur when members of different species produce offspring.. Lion + Tiger = Liger Tiger + Lion = Tigon .

.Biochemical genetics uses DNA hybridization techniques to determine relatedness of organisms. the phylogenetic species concept uses DNA/DNA comparisons Hyenas are now placed with the cat family due to DNA sequencing.

SPECIATION Flycatcher species • Empidonax minimus • Empidonax virescens • Empidonax tralli What stops these species from mating with each other? .

10a .Figure 18.

Figure 18.10b .

10c .Figure 18.

REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATING MECHANISMS PREZYGOTIC • Habitat Isolation • Temporal Isolation • Behavioral Isolation • Mechanical Isolation • Gamete isolation Damselfly penises .B.

B. REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATING MECHANISMS POSTZYGOTIC • Zygote mortality • Hybrid sterility • F2 fitness .


MODES OF SPECIATION Allopatric Speciation • Populations separated geographically • Variations accumulate • Reproductive isolation • separates the population .

Mate preference . Apple Maggot flies choosing a particular type of apple (Sympatric Speciation) Ex.SYMPATRIC SPECIATION Sympatric speciation would occur when members of a single population develop a difference without geographic isolation Ex.

Sympatric vs Allopatric .

ADAPTIVE RADIATION A single ancestral species become several different species .

Speciation .

Evolutionary Pace .

Disruptive / Directional / Stabilizing Selection 11. Mechanical Incompatibility 3. Sexual Selection / Nonrandom Mating / Assortive Mating 13. Fitness / Relative Fitness 8. Hybrid Inviability 5. Gamete Incompatibility 4. Polymorphism 12. *Allopatric / Sympatric Speciation 10. Adaptive Radiation 7. Founder Effect / Bottleneck Effect . Behavioral / Temporal / Habitat / Geographic Isolation 6. Microevolution / Macroevolution 15. Gene Pool / Gene Flow / Genetic Drift 14. Premating Isolation / Postmating Isolation 9.WORD ATTACK! 1. Phyletic Speciation / Divergent Speciation 2.

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