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This chapter is designed aiming to conceptualize the research methodologies undertaken for conducting this research (Eriksson and

Wiedersheim- Paul, 1997). The key issues here are addressed with respect to the benefits of research, the various types of research, and the objectives that include the hypothesis test. Furthermore, the target population for the study is analysed to estimate the sample size. (Morgan, 1997) This chapter also attempts to throw considerable light on the types of sampling, sampling method undertaken, the various types of collection methods of the data that are possible and the method of collecting data used in this study. Moreover the design of the questionnaire is explained along with the pilot study. Finally, with regards to this specific study attempt to point out any limitations that are generated from the negative aspects of the underlying methods are considered.

3.1 Benefits of Research


According to Clifford Woody Research comprises of defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis.

The basic aim of research is that to inform others about the action (Kumar, 1996). Thus, the study

should aim to make fit of its drawn conclusions within the existent encyclopaedia of the existing
research. Researches are done so as to produce a knowledge base which should even be applicable external to the research setting and seek possibilities so that the drawn conclusions from the research can go beyond the findings of the particular research group who took part in the research. Moreover, the results obtained from the study must have some implications towards project implementation and formulation of policies. As a researcher, it is therefore encouraged to uptake evidence-based interventions. To pursue a research project always carries with it an experience that is challenging as well as rewarding, and to avail this opportunity the researcher tries pursuing an in-depth analysis of the original study after thorough understanding about the subject matter of the study (Kumar, 1996). A research

that has been conducted well is essential for the success in global endeavours as well. Good research
forms the base of program development and formulation of policies globally as well as it can also be converted into effective programs. According to Langer (2002) Research draws its power from the fact that it is empirical: rather than merely theorizing about what might be effective or what could work, researchers go out into the field and design studies that give policymakers hard data on which they can base their decisions. In addition to that, good research yield results that can be referred by peers, the

methodologies used can be replicated, and its conclusions can be applied to situations in the actual
world. Lastly, research is the systematic process undertaking which the researcher reaches the

objectives of the study and draws conclusions.

3.2 Types of Research


According to Denscombe (2000) there can be several classifications of research. It depends on a number of factors as identified by Denscombe, the objective of the study, the various factors influencing the research subject, the time frame, the availability of material that together determines the type of research that has to be undertaken in the study.

The basic types of research are:

Descriptive vs. Analytical: according to Bryman (1997) Descriptive research, which includes enquiries of fact finding as well as surveys of different kinds, and primarily aims to describe the state of affairs as it exists at present. The key characteristic of this method is that the variables cannot be controlled by the researcher; it can only be observed and reported as what has happened or that what is happening. Descriptive research may also include the attempts of the researcher to discover the causes even though the variables are not in control by the researcher. The methods of descriptive research includes survey methods of all kinds that are either comparative and/or co-relational methods. In analytical research, however, the researcher generally uses information or facts, which is already existent, and analyze them to make an evaluation, quite critically of objective under study (Eriksson & Wiederheim-Paul, 1997).

Applied vs. Fundamental: Research can also be classified as either applied research or fundamental research. Applied research is aimed to find a remedy for a problem that needs immediate action in organization, while fundamental research is more concerned to evolve a generalization of the concept under study and thereby theory formulation. Therefore, the major concern of applied research is to discover a solution for some immediate practical problems, however, basic research is aimed towards finding information that has a wide base of applications thereby adding to the organized body of knowledge that in most cases already exists. (Gummesson, 2003)

Quantitative vs. Qualitative: Yin (2003) recommends Quantitative research deals with the measurement of the quantity more specifically the amount. It becomes applicable to research objectives that is capable of being expressed in quantity-terms whereas qualitative research is deals with qualitative aspect, which means, the characteristic which relates to quality of the subject under study. Qualitative research, therefore attempts to discover the desires that are underlying and motives through use of in depth interviews.

Conceptual vs. Empirical: Conceptual research is the research that has relation to some idea that is abstract in nature or theory. It is generally used by thinkers and philosophers for the development of new concepts or at times to re-interpret the ones that already exists while empirical research relies on an experience or observation alone, without due regard for system and theory. (Gummesson, 2000) It is mostly research that is based on data, which comes up with verifiable conclusions. On the other hand, empirical research is to be used when authencity is sought that certain variables affect other variables in some way. Evidences are collected by means of experiments or empirical studies. Researchers according to the purpose of the research uses a combination of the above discussed methods to frame a method that he utilizes in his research study. This totally depends on the nature of his research study.

3.3 Objectives (Hypothesis Test)

A statistical hypothesis test is the method of making decisions using data, whether from a controlled experiment or an observational study (not controlled). In any research statistics, a result is known to be statistically significant if it is unlikely to have occurred by chance alone. A result that is found to be statistically significant is known as called a positive result; conversely, the result that is not unlikely under the null hypothesis is called a negative result or a null result. (Yin, 2003) Hypothesis is therefore defined as an informed proposition, or speculation, that is expressed in a way which can be tested. It focuses on the possible relationship between two or more variables. The overall inquiry purpose is aimed to confirm or refute the hypotheses. Research is done on the basis of the hypothesis drawn from the theory (Prentice,2000)

3.4 Target Population


The target population includes the total set under consideration specific to the study (Palmerino, 1999). Since considering the total target population in most of the cases is not possible due to several factors such as cost, time frame, unavailability, a representative of samples are drawn from populations for convenience in the study. The target population with reference to this study is all the employees employed in the IT industry of India.

3.5 Sample Size


A sample is a finite part of a statistical population whose properties are studied to gain information about the whole. Zikmund (2000). When the study is people oriented, it may be defined as a set of respondents (people) who are selected from a larger target population for the purpose of conducting a survey. Due to the constraints faced in considering the target population in the research study, attempts are made to select a sample population which is a representative of groups of respondents to whom the results are either generalized or transferred. (Krueger, 1994) Determination of sample

size is a critical issue - generally the larger the number of respondents in the sample, the higher is the likelihood of a representative distribution of the population. With regards to this study, the sample size is approximately 150 respondents of which 30 are HR managers in IT industry and the rest 120 are employees of IT industry in India.

3.6 Types of Sampling


According to Zikmund (2000), Sampling is the act, process, or technique of selecting a suitable sample, or a representative part of a population for the purpose of determining parameters or characteristics of the whole population. Primarily there are three kinds of samples: the convenience sample, the judgement sample, and the random sample. They are different in the manner in which the elementary units are chosen in accordance with the purpose of study. (Krueger, 1994) The convenient sample is the sample which chooses elementary units that are more convenient from a target population for the purpose of observation. The judgement sample is obtained in accordance with the need of the researcher who is expected to be familiar with the nature of the population.(yin,2003) The random sample also called probability sampling ensures a probability that each elementary unit has an equal chance to be chosen. It has several types as under: In a simple random sample choice of an elementary unit is made such that each unit in the population has an equal chance of being selected. It is therefore free from the bias of sampling. A systematic random sample is the method of obtaining the sample by selecting one unit on a random basis and choosing additional elementary units that are at evenly spaced intervals. This is continued until the desired number of units is obtained. (Kothari, 2005) A stratified sample is obtained by independently selecting a separate simple random sample from each population stratum.

To obtain a cluster sample , clusters are selected from the target population done by depending on simple random sampling. The sample comprises a census of each random cluster selected. Purposeful sampling is the method of sampling that utilizes cases that are rich in information and inculcates an in-depth study of the same. Convenience sampling is the one which considers respondents who volunteer for taking part in the research. It is useful to obtain the general idea about the topic of interest. In this method a large amount of data can be collected.

3.7 Sampling Method


There can be several ways of obtaining the required sample for conducting a research. It is in accordance to the subject of the research, the cost associated with it, the time frame, the external environment, on which, the sampling method is chosen by the researcher.(prentice,2004) The study uses the non-probability convenience sampling to collect the required data. It aims to cover 30 respondents from the stratum of HR managers in the IT industry and 120 respondents from the category of employees of IT industry.

3.8 Types of Data Collection


Data collection methods refers to the process by which both primary and secondary data are collected that are required for the successful completion of the study. In addition to the decision of choosing the correct method, the factors that needs to be considered varies with the type of study being conducted, on the data that needs to be collected given the time and financial limitations the researcher might encounter as claimed by (Palemerino, 1999) Although, Morgan (1997) points out that there are four main types of data collection methods: by using existing material, through observation, oral interviews, or written questionnaires. To collect information from existing articles is simply to conduct a review of literature on the articles that are available to collect the information regarding the subject of the study. According to Miles and Huberman (1994, p. 10) secondary data are useful not only to find information to solve our research problem, but also to better understand and explain our research problem. (Gummesson, 2005)

defends that secondary data collection possesses time and cost benefits as well as being a good source of improvement and ideas for the research.

One of the most commonly used method of data collecting is by conducting interviews and as defined by (Gummesson, 2005) it is a method which involves presentation of oral-verbal stimuli and reply in terms of oral-verb responses. This concept says that there are a number of ways through which interviews can be conducted by a researcher. Moreover, the authors classify questionnaires as a type of interview (standardised interviews) since this method also aims to gather information based on people answering a set of questions, which is similar to the structured interview approach. The prime distinction between the two methods mentioned here is that, in accordance to Denscombe (2002) in an interview schedule, it is the interviewer who asks the questions (and if necessary, explains them) and records the respondents replies on an interview schedule.

In accordance to Denscombe (2002), questionnaires are widely used in almost all researches as they are easy to frame as well as quite popular. However, several authors criticises that to develop questionnaires involves consideration regarding many issues that are most of the times complex. (Gummesson, 2000) demonstrates that it is easy to construct a questionnaire, however developing a questionnaire that will yield worthwhile data is difficult. In addition to that, (Yin, 2003) defends that, when questionnaires are used, you need to ensure that it will collect the precise data that you require to answer your research question (s) and achieve your objectives.

3.9Methods of Data Collection


This study has specifically utilised survey research by interventions through use of interviews and questionnaires as the methods of collecting data. A structured interview process, which is administered on one-to-one as well as face-to-face interviews to HR managers in IT industry and employees of IT industry. Data collection was also done by the use of questionnaires that are self administered which included a set of close ended questions. (Granziano & Raulin, 2000)

The study has also included insights as secondary data that is collected from the reports of various companys literature, journals and magazines, websites etc.

3.10 Questionnaire Design


In this research study, the questionnaire framed is in the form of a structured questionnaire where the faming of questions were done much before it is administered to the respondents. It includes closed ended questions but the freedom to choose more than one option to each respondent is provided. The questionnaire for the research has a clear conception and follows a logical sequence which allows the respondents to understand them easily and answer accordingly. The questions are kept short and simple, which do not take much, time from the professionals of the ever busy IT industry. (Eriksson and Wiedersheim- Paul, 1997)

The questionnaires contains questions that are related to identification of the causes for the high rate of employee turnover, the kind of recruitment procedures followed by the companies, effective training programmes, motivational tools used for employee retention, most effective method of controlling the employee turnover etc.,

3.11 Pilot Survey


A pilot survey may be defined as a preliminary survey carried out to check if the total survey would be worthwhile to conduct. It is always advised to conduct a pilot survey to check the reliability of the questionnaire. This study also conducted a pilot survey on 5 HR managers and 10 employees of the IT industry, which amount to a total of 15 respondents that is 10% of the sample. (Eriksson and Wiedersheim- Paul, 1997)

3.12 Limitations

Every research or a study has a certain set of advantages as well as a number of disadvantages as well. The several weaknesses of methodology specific to this research is related to the reliability and validity issues of the drawn conclusions. They refer to, in accordance with, Ridenour, (Kumar, 1996), the truth value of research outcomes while the issue of reliability refers to, as per, (Eriksson and Wiedersheim-Paul, 1997) the degree to which an assessment or instrument consistently measures an attribute. According to (Kumar, 1996) another weakness can be the limited time frame allowed to conduct the research. The last consideration is, that of convenience sampling approach used which increases the chances of not including relevant data that can be collected from other sources. To summarise it can be highlighted that the research has quite a number of limitations that includes, 1. The findings of the study are subjected to the prejudices and biases of respondents. 2. Sample size is constricted to only a few IT companies as all the companies belonging to the IT industry could not be contacted. 3. The time factor counts to be a major limitation. 4. The findings of the study are based solely on the responses of the sample that is targeted. 5. The accuracy of the study is limited to accuracy of the statistical tools used for this purpose.

Despite the limitations, this study has been conducted taking in consideration a major concern for IT industry which is in boom and aims to draw conclusions for the reason and possible remedies for high turnover in IT industry in India. Thus, it can be aptly pointed out that this study will be of much relevance in exposing the employee turnover in IT industry in India. (Palmerino, 1999)