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ERIC MACK

1. Mathematical models of the musical scale-Part 1

The old naming system for musical notes is based an old tuning system in which the twelve notes of the

musical scale were unequally spaced. The result of this temperament (tuning scheme) was that some combi-

nations of notes sounded better than today’s notes would when played together in a melody/harmony and

other combinations sounded extremely out of tune when played together in a melody/harmony. Generally,

you may think of unaltered letters {c, d, e, f, g, a, b} (White notes on the keyboard called the Major scale)

as the good notes and the altered notes {c

, d

, f

, g

, a

**} (Black notes) as the out of tune set. In contrast,
**

our modern system (called Twelve Tone Equal Temperament or 12TET) spaces the twelve notes out evenly

(according to our ears) tempering the extremes of ”perfectly in tune” and ”badly out of tune” in favor of

something in the middle.

Of the many topics of interest in Musical Theory, we will survey three areas: classiﬁcation of chords, common

musical operations that are easier with the number correspondence, and the musical role of symmetry within

chords.

1.1. Z

12

and twelve tone equal temperament (12TET). We will begin by setting up the conversion

to mathematics notation. Our tuning assumption give us twelve aurally equally spaced pitches that cycle

back on themselves every twelve notes. The mathematical object with this same structure is the group

Z

12

= {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11} in which addition/subtraction and multiplication are carried out mod-

ulo 12 (clock face math) Under modulo 12 arithmetic if an operation yields a number larger than twelve,

then divide by twelve and retain the remainder as your answer. If an operation yields a negative number re-

peatedly add 12 to it until it becomes positive. Division is not deﬁned since fractions have no equivalent note.

equal temperament 12TET = {c, c

, d, d

, e, f, f

, g, g

, a, a

, b, }

Chromatic scale C = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11}

1.2. Working with musical sets. Within Music set theory there are two ways in which we may view a

subset of C: (1) vertically as a collection of notes to be played together at the same time (called a chord) or

(2) horizontally as a collection of notes to be played in succession (called a melodic fragment or a motive). to

draw a distinction between these two usages I will notate chords sets vertically and motive sets horizontally

as deﬁned below.

Deﬁnition 1.2.1. A Motive is a combination of notes (or lack-there-of) respecting order and note repetition

that are played successively.

S =

¸

n

1

, n

2

, · · · n

r

¸

Deﬁnition 1.2.2. A chord is any combination of note(s) (or lack-there-of) independent of order and ignoring

repetition that are played at the same time or in close succession and is denoted

S =

nr,

.

.

.

n

2

,

n

1

n

1

, . . . , n

j

∈ C j = 1, 2, 3, . . .

Remark 1.2.3. This deﬁnition is intensionally non-speciﬁc to allow our musical conception of chord to be

built up rigorously. It allows for chord consisting of only one note (hereafter referred to as degenerate chords)

and even the chord consisting of no notes at all (called the emptyset chord).

1

2 ERIC MACK

Deﬁnition 1.2.4. Let R, S be chords. we say that R is a subchord of S if R is subset of S and is denoted

R ⊆ S. Clearly all chords are subchords of C (including itself) and likewise the emptyset, ∅, a subchord of

all chords and is sometimes called the trivial chord. If we wish to say R is a subchord of S but is not equal

to S itself, we say R is a proper subchord and write R ⊂ S or R S.

Similar deﬁnition for Submotives may be assumed.

One major goal of music set theory is to ﬁnd a way to classify/organize the 2

12

= 4096 diﬀerent subchords

of C.

Remark 1.2.5. For those of you that know a bit more about music, you might be interested to note that

these 4096 chords ignore voice leading possibilities or even chord inversions. Taking these into consideration

raises the number of diﬀerent ways to write a chord to more than

12

¸

n=0

12

n

=

12

¸

n=0

12!

(12 −n)!

= 1, 302, 061, 345.

Don’t worry about understanding the preceding calculation.

Homework:

(1) A good place to start classifying these chords is by grouping them by cardinality.

Use Pascal’s triangle to ﬁnd the number of subchords (A ⊆ C) of each cardinality; n(A) =

0, 1, 2, . . . 12 (Refer to 2.2(60)). If to with to expand you understanding of Pascal’s Triangle and

may be do you Project on it, then look at 1.3(example 1, excursion, 11,12,26) as well. Remember

total number of subchords will need to add up to 4096.

(2) More practise with 2.3 concepts

For each of the following groups of chords or motives make a Venn Diagram.

(a) These are some common chords you ﬁnd in a song.

A =

g,

e,

c,

a

, D =

c,

a,

f,

d

, G =

f,

d,

b,

g

, C =

b,

g,

e,

c

.

(b) These are some Motives used to outline an improvisation over the previous chords.

¸

a, c, e, g

¸

,

¸

d, f, g, a

¸

,

¸

g, a, b, d

¸

,

¸

c, d, e, g

¸

.

(c) These are Blues chords.

C =

a

,

g,

e,

c,

, F =

d

,

c,

a,

f,

, G =

f,

d,

b,

g,

.

(3) Find the intersections of the following.

(a) These chords are commonly substituted for each other. Any ideas why?

G =

g

,

f,

d,

b,

g

, C

=

d,

b,

g

,

f,

c

.

(b) These are C and G major scales. They are called closely related scales. Any idea why?

C =

¸

c, d, e, f, g, a, b

¸

, G =

¸

g, a, b, c, d, e, f

¸

.

(c) These are C and C

**Major scales. Contrasting this problem with the previous one, would you
**

say these are closely related scales?

C =

¸

c, d, e, f, g, a, b

¸

, C

=

¸

c

, d

, f, f

, g

, a

, c

¸

.

(4) Let C be the universal set. Find the complement of A =

¸

a, b, c, d, e, f, g

¸

. A is called

a minor scale and A

is called a major pentatonic scale if we reorder it to {f

, g

, a

, c

, d

}.

A COURSE IN MATHEMATICAL MUSIC THEORY 3

1.3. Intro to modular arithmetic.

Deﬁnition 1.3.1. Let n, m be two notes. The distance between two notes is called an interval and shall

be denoted dist(n, m) = n − m mod 12 (read distance to n from m). the smallest nonzero interval is

called a halfstep. The second smallest interval also gets a name and is called a wholestep and is equal to two

halfsteps. If dist(n, m) = 12 then you would ﬁnd that n and m have the same note name. This special type

of interval, which has a central role in music as we know it, is called an octave.

Example 1.3.2. Find the interval between

(1) dist(a, a

)

(2) dist(a

, a)

(3) dist(b, g

).

Solution:

(1) dist(a, a

**) = dist(9, 10) = 9 −10 mod 12 = −1 mod 12 = 11 halfsteps
**

(2) dist(a

**, a) = dist(10, 9) = 10 −9 mod 12 = 1 mod 12 = 1 halfstep
**

(3) dist(b, g

**) = dist(11, 8) = 11 −8 mod 12 = 3 halfsteps.
**

Deﬁnition 1.3.3. Two intervals that add to an octave (12halfsteps) are called complimentary intervals.

i.e., example questions 1 and 2. In pure mathematics, these are called additive inverses in Z

12

because they

add to zero under mod 12 arithmetic.

A way to further break down our 4096 diﬀerent chords into separate classes is to group chords with the

same interval structure.

Example 1.3.4. Matching interval structures

(1) Show that the following chords have the same interval structure.

G =

d,

b,

g

and C

=

g

,

f,

c

.

First, convert to corresponding numbers

G =

2,

11,

7

and C

=

8,

5,

1

.

Next, compute each distance

Intervals from chord G Intervals from chord C

dist(7, 11) = 8 dist(1, 5) = 8

dist(7, 2) = 5 dist(1, 8) = 5

dist(11, 7) = 4 dist(5, 1) = 4

dist(11, 2) = 9 dist(8, 5) = 3

dist(2, 7) = 7 dist(8, 1) = 7

dist(2, 11) = 3 dist(5, 8) = 9

The intervals from the two chords match up (even though they are out of order) so the two chords

have the same interval structure. In traditional music theory this particular interval structure is

called a major chord.

(2) Without showing why, its worth noting that all major scales have the same interval structure.

In general for an n note chord there are n(n −1) intervals that must be compared. For large n’s you can

imagine how tedious this can get(i.e., For n = 8, n(n − 1) = 56. ouch!!). We’ll see later that there is a less

time consuming way to check this.

Homework:

(1) Compute the following intervals.

(a) dist(f, c

)

(b) dist(f, b)

(c) dist(b, f)

(2) Show the following have he same interval structure.

(a) L =

d,

b

and K =

c,

a

.

4 ERIC MACK

(b) These are called minor chords.

G =

g,

d

,

c

and C

=

e,

c,

a

.

Note that minor chord interval structure and major chord interval structures are the same. The

next section we will see why that this is the case.

2. Mathematical models of the musical scale - Part 2

equal temperament 12TET = {c, c

, d, d

, e, f, f

, g, g

, a, a

, b, }

Chromatic scale C

1

= {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11}

2.1. More Modular arithmetic and functions. Let us now consider how the operations of addition/subtraction

by a constant and multiplication by a constant act on the elements of our 12TET model.

Deﬁnition 2.1.1. Deﬁne the function

T

m

: C → C

n → n +m n ∈ C, m ∈ Z.

T

m

is the called transposing function; it transposes a note n up or down m halfsteps. T

m

can easily be

extended to chords or motives as well.

T

m

: C → C

S =

nr,

.

.

.

n

2

,

n

1

→ T

m

(S) =

nr + m

.

.

.

n

2

+ m

n

1

+ m

n

j

∈ C, m ∈ Z.

Example 2.1.2. Let L =

¸

1, 5, 8, 6, 3, 4, 10, 11, 0

¸

be a motive. To transpose it down a

M2 we simply compute

T

−2

(R) = {1 −2, 5 −2, 8 −2, 6 −2, 3 −2, 4 −2, 10 −2, 11 −2, 0 −2}

= {11, 3, 6, 4, 1, 2, 8, 9, 10}

Deﬁnition 2.1.3. Deﬁne the function

I

k+l

: C → C

n → (k +l) −n n ∈ C, k, l ∈ C.

I

l+k

is called the inverting function; it inverts a note n about the axis of rotation halfway between l and k.

Extending I

l+k

to chords yields the function

I

l+k

: C → C

S =

nr,

.

.

.

n

2

,

n

1

→ I

l+k

(S) =

(l + k) − n

1

(l + k) − n

2

.

.

.

(l + k) − nr

n

j

∈ C, m ∈ C.

In particular if l + k is even, then I

l+k

inverts a note n about the note of rotation m =

l+k

2

. Every even

inverting function can be written as I

m+m

(n) = I

2m

(n) = 2m−n where m is the note of rotation.

If l + k is odd, then I

l+k

inverts a note n about the space of rotation halfway between l and k. Every odd

inverting function can be written as I

m+m+1

(n) = I

2m+1

(n) = (2m+ 1) −n where the space of rotation is

immediately between m and m+ 1.

One factor that is common to all art forms is the principle of Theme and variation. In Music, this is done

by repeatedly playing motives/chords upsidedown (inverted), backwards, and/or starting on diﬀerent notes

(transposed).

A COURSE IN MATHEMATICAL MUSIC THEORY 5

Example 2.1.4. As we’ve seen before a lot of mathematics research boils down to ﬁnding invariant prop-

erties/objects (i.e., things that don’t change under a given transformation). Interval structure is one such

object. Use the transposing function to show that the following chords have the same interval structure.

G =

b,

d,

g

=

11,

2,

7

and C

=

g

,

f,

c

=

8,

5,

1

.

First, reorder elements so that the notes are as close together as possible to get:

G =

2,

11,

7

and C

=

8,

5,

1

.

Next, transpose both chord so that 0 is the lowest note.

T

−7

(G) =

2 −7,

11 −7,

7 −7

=

7,

4,

0

.

T

−1

(C

) =

8 −1,

5 −1,

1 −1

=

7,

4,

0

.

We see the transposed chord are the same so we are done.

Homework:

(1) Compute the following using L = {c, d, e, f, , g, a, b},

H =

g

,

f,

d,

b

, and K =

g

,

f,

c

,

b

(a) T

9

(L)

(b) T

−3

(H)

(c) I

11

(K) Draw the axis of rotation on the clock face diagram.

(d) T

4

(I

3

(K))

(2) Show that M has an invariant interval structure under the inverting function I

3+6

(i.e., show that

I

3+6

(M) = M). Draw the axis of rotation on the clock face diagram.

M =

a

,

f

,

d

,

b

(3) Show that the interval structures of G and G

**are the same by using the inverting function I
**

11+11

=

I

10

to show that I

10

(G) = G

.

G =

2,

11,

7

and G

=

3,

11,

8

.

Draw the axis of rotation on the clock face diagram. Note that G is a major chord and G

is a minor

chord.

(4) Show that the interval structures of Dmaj and Dmin are the same by using the inverting function

I

5+6

= I

11

.

Dmaj =

a,

f

,

d

and Dmin =

a,

f,

d

.

Draw the axis of rotation on the clock face diagram. Note that Dmaj is a major chord and Dmin is a

minor chord. What might you conclude at this point about the interval structure of major and minor

chords? Are you using inductive or deductive reasoning? If your using inductive reasoning what

might you do to come to a more solid conclusion using deductive reasoning? (These are semi-retorical

questions.)

6 ERIC MACK

2.2. symmetric substructures of the group and the dominant chord. Before we go on to investigate

what multiplication means to music set theory or clock math we must further study the concept of a group.

Earlier we informally introduced the concept of a group (with the speciﬁc case of Z

12

= C) as being a set

along with some mathematical operation (mod 12 arithmetic for us) that insures that the resulting value

of any arithmetic is still an elements of the set. Though the meaning is somewhat self-evident here we will

introduce and loosely deﬁne the concept of subgroup by using some particular examples from Z

12

. Consider

the set {0, 4, 8} ⊂ Z

12

. If we continue using mod 12 arithmetic, but restrict ourselves to the working with

the elements 0, 4, or 8, then with a bit of experimentation we could quickly realize that there is no way to

get an answer other than 0, 4, or 8. Hence {0, 4, 8} is a subgroup of Z

12

. The following diagram shows the

set relations of 6 subgroups of Z

12

.

C

{0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10}

{0, 3, 6, 9}

{0, 4, 8}

{0, 6}

{0}

Another way to think about groups is to use the clock face diagram. Each subgroup starts at zero and

is evenly distributed around the circle. Inductively, you might conclude that the cardinality of a subgroup

must divide evenly into the group. This conjecture is in fact true and its contrapositive is a useful test to

rule out many sets as potential subgroups. For example, since 5 doesn’t divide 12 there are no subgroups of

cardinality 5 within Z

12

.

In traditional music theory there are 3 basic types of chords: major, minor, and dominant. The major chord

comes from the nature of sound. The minor chord, as we’ve seen through the homework, is the inversion of

the major chord. It is my conjecture (and I’m fairly certain I’m not alone in this thought) that the dominant

chord comes from the mathematical symmetries in the Z

12

model of the chromatic scale. The reason for this

thought is twofold. (1) The dominant chord is supposed to be unstable and somewhat unpleasant to listen

to. It is the tension in the tension/release pattern of art. The dominant chord’s instability comes from the

fact that they be viewed or nearly viewed as two diﬀerent chords at the same time. This property is unique

to chords with perfect/near perfect symmetry. (2) visual inspection of the symmetric substructures of Z

12

show the tight correspondence. Below are two tables that show some of the properties the basic symmetries

of Z

12

.

This table shows the overlaps between the diminished chords and the augmented chords.

D

0

D

4

D

8

A

0

A

3

A

6

A

9

c ↔ 0

d

↔ 3

f

↔ 6

a ↔ 9

e ↔ 4

g ↔ 7

a

↔ 10

c

↔ 1

g

↔ 8

b ↔ 11

d ↔ 2

f ↔ 5

A COURSE IN MATHEMATICAL MUSIC THEORY 7

Music muso-mathematical Group theory Actual chord

name set name name (written horizontally for sake of space)

C

9

13

5

G

9

13

5

Wholetone chords

W

0

W

7

0 +Z

2

7 +Z

2

{2n + 0|n ∈ C} = {0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10}

{2n + 7|n ∈ C} = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11}

C

+

E

+

G

+

A

+

Augmented chords

A

0

A

3

A

6

A

9

0 +Z

3

3 +Z

3

6 +Z

3

9 +Z

3

{4n + 0|n ∈ C} = {4, 8, 0}

{4n + 3|n ∈ C} = {3, 7, 11}

{4n + 6|n ∈ C} = {2, 6, 10}

{4n + 9|n ∈ C} = {1, 5, 9}

C

◦7

E

◦7

G

◦7

Diminished chords

D

0

D

4

D

8

0 +Z

4

4 +Z

4

8 +Z

4

{3n + 0|n ∈ C} = {0, 3, 6, 9}

{3n + 4|n ∈ C} = {1, 4, 7, 10}

{3n + 8|n ∈ C} = {2, 5, 8, 11}

Tritones

∆

0

∆

1

∆

2

∆

3

∆

4

∆

5

0 +Z

6

1 +Z

6

2 +Z

6

3 +Z

6

4 +Z

6

5 +Z

6

{6n + 0|n ∈ C} = {0, 6}

{6n + 1|n ∈ C} = {1, 7}

{6n + 2|n ∈ C} = {2, 8}

{6n + 3|n ∈ C} = {3, 9}

{6n + 4|n ∈ C} = {4, 10}

{6n + 5|n ∈ C} = {5, 11}

Deﬁnition 2.2.1. Deﬁne the function

µ

m

: C → C

n → m· n n ∈ C, m ∈ Z

12

We shall call µ

m

the symmetry classing function; it is capable of some powerful yet elegantly beautiful feats

when applied to chords. The extension of this function to chords is as follows:

µ

m

: C → C

S =

nr,

.

.

.

n

2

,

n

1

→ µ

m

(S) =

m · nr

.

.

.

m · n

2

m · n

1

n

j

∈ C, m ∈ Z

12

.

When gcd(m, 12) = 1, µ acts as like a highlighter on a set capable of identifying speciﬁc symmetric sub-

structures associated with the value of m (See chart).

If, on the other hand gcd(m, 12) = 1 (i.e., m = 1, 5, 7, 11), then µ reorders the elements of C (See chart).

For example, µ

7

(C) = µ

−5

(C) maps the ascending chromatic scale C to the ascending circle of ﬁfths.

m injectivity µ

m

(S) = N by sending

1 1 : 1 µ

1

(C) = C

1

by sending n → 1n of halfsteps

2 2 : 1 µ

2

(C) = W

0

by sending ∆

n

→ n

3 3 : 1 µ

3

(C) = D

0

by sending A

n

→ n

4 4 : 1 µ

4

(C) = A

0

by sending D

n

→ n

5 1 : 1 µ

5

(C) = C

5

by sending n → 5n of fourths

6 6 : 1 µ

6

(C) = ∆

0

by sending W

n

→ n

7 1 : 1 µ

7

(C) = C

7

by sending n → −5n of ﬁfths

8 4 : 1 µ

8

(C) = A

0

by sending D

n

→ −n

9 3 : 1 µ

9

(C) = D

0

by sending A

n

→ −n

10 2 : 1 µ

10

(C) = W

0

by sending ∆

n

→ −n

11 1 : 1 µ

11

(C) = C

−1

by sending n → −1n of halfsteps

8 ERIC MACK

key: ≡ ascending circle, ≡ descending circle, and n ∈ C.

of halfsteps

C

+1

= {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11}

of halfsteps Rule: n ↔ −1n

C

−1

= {0, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1}

of fourths Rule: n ↔ 5n

C

+5

= {0, 5 10, 3, 8, 1, 6, 11, 4, 9, 2, 7}

of ﬁfths Rule: n ↔ 7n

C

+7

= {0, 7, 2, 9, 4, 11, 6, 1, 8, 3, 10, 5}

Remark 2.2.2. S is a subgroup of Z

12

= C if and only if µ

m

(S) = {0, 0, · · · , 0} for some m.

Example 2.2.3. Consider the jazz chord

C

13(9)

=

9,

5,

1,

10,

7,

4,

0

.

Now consider µ

4

(C

13(9)

) =

4 · 9,

4 · 5,

4 · 1,

4 · 10,

4 · 7,

4 · 4,

4 · 0

=

0,

8,

4,

4,

4,

4,

0

.

The zeros indicate 2 elements from D

0

, the fours indicate all 4 elements of D

4

are in the chord, and the eight

indicate only one element of D

8

is in the chord. Of course to real usefulness of this comes in when we are

faced with an unknown chord and want to quickly ID it by placing it into classiﬁcations.

Homework:

Let C

=

d,

b,

g

,

f,

c

, G =

a,

d

,

b,

g,

f

, D =

a,

c,

f

,

d

(1) Compute µ

4

(C

) to see if C

**contains any complete symmetric structures of C.
**

(2) Compute µ

3

(G) to see if G contains any complete symmetric structures of C. What about µ

6

(G)?

(3) Compute µ

4

(D) and µ

2

(D) to see if D contains any complete symmetric structures of C.

(4) Consider F

=

a,

c,

f

,

d

. µ

4

(F

) =

0,

0,

0,

0

**This is a subgroup. Subgroups have interval structure
**

that are invariant under many transformations. Find all the inverting and transposing function for

which the interval structure of F

**remains the same. The visual of the clock face diagram may help
**

you to ﬁnd the right functions.

A COURSE IN MATHEMATICAL MUSIC THEORY 9

2.3. Back to classifying chords. The following is for the sake of interest only. It will not be tested because

its is too complicated. Re-deriving this table or making a similar one for inversions would be good projects.

Lemma 2.3.1. The 4096 diﬀerent chords can be subdivided into 354 classes which are interval structure

invariant under transpositions (i.e., all major chords have are in the same class, but major chords and minors

chords are not in the same class).

Proof.

12

¸

n=0

12

n

n!

=

0. 1 = 1

1. 12 = 1 × 12

2. 66 =

5 × 12

+ 1 × 6

3. 220 =

18 × 12

+ 1 × 4

4. 495 =

40 × 12

2 × 6

+ 1 × 3

5. 792 = 66 × 12

6. 924 =

75 × 12

3 × 6

1 × 4

+ 1 × 2

7. 792 = 66 × 12

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

12. + 1 = + 1 × 1

4096 352 = 2

5

· 11

Department of Mathematics, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844, USA

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