NHSI 2008 Definitions File – JL DEFINITIONS FILE – JOSHUA LEE

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DEFINItions file – Joshua lee...........................................................................................................................1 Resolved...........................................................................................................................................................2 Colon (:)............................................................................................................................................................3 The....................................................................................................................................................................4 United States.....................................................................................................................................................5 Federal Government.........................................................................................................................................6 United States federal government.....................................................................................................................7 Should...............................................................................................................................................................8 Substantially.....................................................................................................................................................9 Increase...........................................................................................................................................................10 Alternative......................................................................................................................................................11 Energy.............................................................................................................................................................12 Incentives [1/2]...............................................................................................................................................13 Incentives [2/2]...............................................................................................................................................14 Alternative Energy [1/2].................................................................................................................................15 Alternative Energy [2/2].................................................................................................................................16 Energy Incentives...........................................................................................................................................17 Alternative Energy Incentives........................................................................................................................18 In.....................................................................................................................................................................19 Resolved: The United States federal government should substantially increase alternative energy incentives in the United States.

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NHSI 2008 Definitions File – JL RESOLVED Resolved means to reach a firm decision. Merriam Webster Online 08 http://www.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/dictionary? book=Dictionary&va=resolved

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va=resolved One entry found. resolve[1,verb] Main Entry: 1re·solve Pronunciation: \ri-ˈzälv, -ˈzȯlv also ˈzäv or -ˈzȯv\ Function: verb Inflected Form(s): re·solved; re·solv·ing Etymology: Middle English, from Latin resolvere to unloose, dissolve, from re- + solvere to loosen, release — more at solve Date: 14th century transitive verb 1obsolete : dissolve, melt 2 a: break up, separate <the prism resolved the light into a play of color>; also : to change by disintegration b: to reduce by analysis <resolve the problem into simple elements> c: to distinguish between or make independently visible adjacent parts of d: to separate (a racemic compound or mixture) into the two components 3: to cause resolution of (a pathological state) 4 a: to deal with successfully : clear up <resolve doubts> <resolve a dispute> b: to find an answer to c: to make clear or understandable d: to find a mathematical solution of e: to split up (as a vector) into two or more components especially in assigned directions 5: to reach a firm decision about <resolve to get more sleep> <resolve disputed points in a text> 6 a: to declare or decide by a formal resolution and vote b: to change by resolution or formal vote <the house resolved itself into a committee> 7: to make (as voice parts) progress from dissonance to consonance 8: to work out the resolution of (as a play) Resolved means determined and firm in intent. Random House Unabridged 06 http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=resolved&r=66 re·solved Audio Help /rɪˈzɒlvd/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[ri-zolvd] –adjective firm in purpose or intent; determined.

Resolved means having a fixed purpose. Webster 1913 http://machaut.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/WEBSTER.sh?WORD=resolved Resolved- Re*solved" (r?-z?lvd"), p. p. & a. Having a fixed purpose; determined; resolute; -- usually placed after its noun; as, a man resolved to be rich.

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NHSI 2008 Definitions File – JL COLON (:) Colon is a punctuation mark that precedes an explanation. Oxford English Dictionary 08 http://www.askoxford.com/concise_oed/colon_1?view=uk

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colon 1/koln/ • noun a punctuation mark (:) used to precede a list of items, a quotation, or an expansion or explanation.

Colon is the sign used to introduce a sentence or phrase. Cambridge Dictionary Online 08 http://dictionary.cambridge.org/define.asp? key=14990&dict=CALD colon (SIGN) Show phonetics noun [C] the sign (:) used in writing, especially to introduce a list of things or a sentence or phrase taken from somewhere else

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NHSI 2008 Definitions File – JL THE ‘The’ serves a function to indicate a generic following noun or phrase. Merriam Webster Online 08 http://www.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/dictionary? book=Dictionary&va=the

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Main Entry: 1 the Pronunciation: \before consonants usually thə, before vowels usually thē, sometime before vowels also thə; for emphasis before titles and names or to suggest uniqueness often ˈthē\ Function: definite article Etymology: Middle English, from Old English thē, masculine demonstrative pron. & definite article, alteration (influenced by oblique cases — as thæs, genitive — & neuter, thæt) of sē; akin to Greek ho, masculine demonstrative pron. & definite article — more at that Date: before 12th century 1 a— used as a function word to indicate that a following noun or noun equivalent is definite or has been previously specified by context or by circumstance <put the cat out> b—used as a function word to indicate that a following noun or noun equivalent is a unique or a particular member of its class <the President><the Lord> c—used as a function word before nouns that designate natural phenomena or points of the compass <the night is cold> d—used as a function word before a noun denoting time to indicate reference to what is present or immediate or is under consideration <in the future> e—used as a function word before names of some parts of the body or of the clothing as an equivalent of a possessive adjective <how's the arm today> f —used as a function word before the name of a branch of human endeavor or proficiency <the law> g— used as a function word in prepositional phrases to indicate that the noun in the phrase serves as a basis for computation <sold by the dozen> h—used as a function word before a proper name (as of a ship or a wellknown building) <the Mayflower> i—used as a function word before a proper name to indicate the distinctive characteristics of a person or thing <the John Doe that we know wouldn't lie> j—used as a function word before the plural form of a surname to indicate all the members of a family <the Johnsons> k —used as a functon word before the plural form of a numeral that is a multiple of ten to denote a particular decade of a century or of a person's life <life in the twenties> l—used as a function word before the name of a commodity or any familiar appurtenance of daily life to indicate reference to the individual thing, part, or supply thought of as at hand <talked on the telephone> meters—used as a function word to designate one of a class as the best, most typical, best known, or most worth singling out <this is the life><the pill> ; sometimes used before a personal name to denote the most prominent bearer of that name 2 a (1)—used as a function word with a noun modified by an adjective or by an attributive noun to limit the application of the modified noun to that specified by the adjective or by the attributive noun <the right answer><Peter the Great> (2)—used as a function word before an absolute adjective or an ordinal number <nothing but the best><due on the first> b (1)—used as a function word before a noun to limit its application to that specified by a succeeding element in the sentence <the poet Wordsworth><the days of our youth><didn't have the time to write> (2)—used as a function word after a person's name to indicate a characteristic trait or notorious activity specified by the succeeding noun <Jack the Ripper> 3 a—used as a function word before a singular noun to indicate that the noun is to be understood generically <the dog is a domestic animal> b—used as a function word before a singular substantivized adjective to indicate an abstract idea <an essay on the sublime> 4—used as a function word before a noun or a substantivized adjective to indicate reference to a group as a whole <the elite> The word “the” implies there is only one – as in the USFG. Cambridge Dictionaries Online, 2007. used to refer to things or people when only one exists at any one time:

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NHSI 2008 Definitions File – JL UNITED STATES The United States entail the 50 states and the territories legally held by the government. Trade Prism 01 https://www.tradeprism.com/library/help/glossary/u.shtm

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United States, when used in the geographical sense, includes the several states, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the insular possessions of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, any territory or possession of the United States, and any territory or possession over which the United States exercises any powers of administration, legislation, and jurisdiction; including offshore areas within their jurisdiction pursuant to section 3 of the Submerged Lands Act (43 U. S. C. 1311), and all territories, dependencies, and possessions of the United States, including foreign trade zones, and also including the outer continental shelf, as defined in section 2(a) of the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act. United States refers to the United States of America which entail the republic containing 50 states. Wordnet Princeton http://wordnet.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=united%20states S: (n) United States, United States of America, America, the States, US, U.S., USA, U.S.A. (North American republic containing 50 states - 48 conterminous states in North America plus Alaska in northwest North America and the Hawaiian Islands in the Pacific Ocean; achieved independence in 1776) S: (n) United States government, United States, U.S. government, US Government, U.S. (the executive and legislative and judicial branches of the federal government of the United States)

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NHSI 2008 Definitions File – JL FEDERAL GOVERNMENT Federal government is national government that expresses power Black’s Law Dictionary, 8th Edition, June 1, 2004, pg.716.

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Federal government. 1. A national government that exercises some degree of control over smaller political units that have surrendered some degree of power in exchange for the right to participate in national politics matters – Also termed (in federal states) central government. 2. the U.S. government – Also termed national government. [Cases: United States -1 C.J.S. United States - - 2-3] Federal refers to the government system especially in the US. Black’s Law Dictionary, 8th Edition, June 1, 2004, pg.642. federal, adj. Of or relating to a system of associated governments with a vertical division of governments into national and regional components having different responsibilities; esp., of or relating to the national government of the United States. – Abbr. Fed.

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NHSI 2008 Definitions File – JL UNITED STATES FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

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The United States federal government constitutes of the executive, legislative, and judicial branch. Wordnet Princeton 07 http://poets.notredame.ac.jp/cgi-bin/wn?cmd=wn&word=federal_government federal government -- (a government with strong central powers) United States government, United States, U.S. government, US Government, U.S. -- (the executive and legislative and judicial branches of the federal government of the United States) HAS INSTANCE=> Capital, Washington -- (the federal government of the United States)

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NHSI 2008 Definitions File – JL SHOULD Should refers to obligation. Merriam Webster 08 http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/should

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Main Entry: should Pronunciation:\shəd, ˈshu̇d\ Function:verbal auxiliary Etymology:Middle English sholde, from Old English sceolde owed, was obliged to, ought to Date:before 12th century past of shall 1— used in auxiliary function to express condition <if he should leave his father, his father would die — Genesis 44:22(Revised Standard Version)> 2—used in auxiliary function to express obligation, propriety, or expediency <'tis commanded I should do so — Shakespeare><this is as it should be — H. L. Savage><you should brush your teeth after each meal>

Should expresses what is probable and expected. Merriam Webster 08 http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/should Main Entry: should Pronunciation:\shəd, ˈshu̇d\ Function:verbal auxiliary Etymology:Middle English sholde, from Old English sceolde owed, was obliged to, ought to Date:before 12th century past of shall 1—used in auxiliary function to express condition <if he should leave his father, his father would die — Genesis 44:22(Revised Standard Version)> 2—used in auxiliary function to express obligation, propriety, or expediency <'tis commanded I should do so — Shakespeare><this is as it should be — H. L. Savage><you should brush your teeth after each meal> 3—used in auxiliary function to express futurity from a point of view in the past <realized that she should have to do most of her farm work before sunrise — Ellen Glasgow> 4—used in auxiliary function to express what is probable or expected <with an early start, they should be here by noon>

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NHSI 2008 Definitions File – JL SUBSTANTIALLY Substantially is quantitative Merriam-Webster, 2003 (www.m-w.com)

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Main Entry: sub·stan·tial b : considerable in quantity : significantly great <earned a substantial wage>

Substantially is without material qualification Black’s Law Dictionary 1991 [p. 1024] Substantially - means essentially; without material qualification.

Substantially means real and not imaginary Merriam Webster Online 08 http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/substantially substantial Main Entry: sub·stan·tial Pronunciation: \səb-ˈstan(t)-shəl\ Function: adjective Date: 14th century 1 a: consisting of or relating to substance b: not imaginary or illusory : real, true c: important, essential

Substantially means to a great extent WordNet 06, wordnet.princeton.edu S: (adv) well, considerably, substantially (to a great extent or degree) "I'm afraid the film was well over budget"; "painting the room white made it seem considerably (or substantially) larger"; "the house has fallen considerably in value"; "the price went up substantially"

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NHSI 2008 Definitions File – JL INCREASE

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Increase means to become progressively greater. Merriam Webster Online 08 http://www.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/dictionary? book=Dictionary&va=increase Main Entry: 1in·crease Pronunciation: \in-ˈkrēs, ˈin-ˌ\ Function: verb Inflected Form(s): in·creased; in·creas·ing Etymology: Middle English encresen, from Anglo-French encreistre, from Latin increscere, from in- + crescere to grow — more at crescent Date: 14th century intransitive verb 1: to become progressively greater (as in size, amount, number, or intensity)

Increase means to make things larger numerically Cambridge Dictionary Online, 2007. “Increase.” http://dictionary.cambridge.org/define.asp? key=40073&dict=CALD increase Show phonetics verb [I or T] to (make something) become larger in amount or size: Incidents of armed robbery have increased over the last few years. The cost of the project has increased dramatically/significantly since it began. Gradually increase the temperature to boiling point. Increased/Increasing efforts are being made to end the dispute. Compare decrease.

Increase must be a net increase Rogers, 05 (Judge, STATE OF NEW YORK, ET AL., PETITIONERS v. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, RESPONDENT, NSR MANUFACTURERS ROUNDTABLE, ET AL., INTERVENORS, 2005 U.S. App. LEXIS 12378, **; 60 ERC (BNA) 1791, 6/24, lexis) [**48] Statutory Interpretation. HN16While the CAA defines a "modification" as any physical or operational change that "increases" emissions, it is silent on how to calculate such "increases" in emissions. 42 U.S.C. § 7411(a)(4). According to government petitioners, the lack of a statutory definition does not render the term "increases" ambiguous, but merely compels the court to give the term its "ordinary meaning." See Engine Mfrs.Ass'nv.S.Coast AirQualityMgmt.Dist., 541 U.S. 246, 124 S. Ct. 1756, 1761, 158 L. Ed. 2d 529(2004); Bluewater Network, 370 F.3d at 13; Am. Fed'n of Gov't Employees v. Glickman, 342 U.S. App. D.C. 7, 215 F.3d 7, 10 [*23] (D.C. Cir. 2000). Relying on two "real world" analogies, government petitioners contend that the ordinary meaning of "increases" requires the baseline to be calculated from a period immediately preceding the change. They maintain, for example, that in determining whether a high-pressure weather system "increases" the local temperature, the relevant baseline is the temperature immediately preceding the arrival of the weather system, not the temperature five or ten years ago. Similarly, [**49] in determining whether a new engine "increases" the value of a car, the relevant baseline is the value of the car immediately preceding the replacement of the engine, not the value of the car five or ten years ago when the engine was in perfect condition.

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NHSI 2008 Definitions File – JL ALTERNATIVE Alternative means comprehensive and includes ‘no action.’ EPIC 08 Ethanol Promotion and Information Council http://www.drivingethanol.org/ethanol_facts/glossary.aspx

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Alternative: Under the National Environmental Policy Act, a comprehensive management strategy. When a federal agency is considering an action, the agency must develop and analyze a range of alternatives. The alternatives must show a reasonable range of actions, including a "no action" alternative.

Alternative means not conventional. Merriam Webster Online 08 http://www.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/dictionary?book=Dictionary&va=alternative Main Entry: 1al·ter·na·tive Pronunciation: \ȯl-ˈtər-nə-tiv, al-\ Function: adjective Date: 1540 1: alternate 1 2: offering or expressing a choice <several alternative plans> 3: different from the usual or conventional: as a: existing or functioning outside the established cultural, social, or economic system <an alternative newspaper> <alternative lifestyles> b: of, relating to, or being rock music that is regarded as an alternative to conventional rock and is typically influenced by punk rock, hard rock, hip-hop, or folk music c: of or relating to alternative medicine <alternative therapies>

Alternative means unusual but with enthusiastic support. Cambridge Online 08 http://dictionary.cambridge.org/define.asp?key=2357&dict=CALD alternative Show phonetics adjective 1 (US ALSO alternate) An alternative plan or method is one that you can use if you do not want to use another one: The opposition parties have so far failed to set out an alternative strategy. An alternative venue for the concert is being sought. 2 describes things that are considered to be unusual and which tend to have a small but enthusiastic group of people who support them: alternative comedy

Alternative means non-traditional values. American Heritage 2k http://www.bartleby.com/61/21/A0232100.html alternative SYLLABICATION: al·ter·na·tive PRONUNCIATION: ôl-tûrn-tv, l- NOUN: 1a. The choice between two mutually exclusive possibilities. b. A situation presenting such a choice. c. Either of these possibilities. See synonyms at choice. 2. Usage Problem One of a number of things from which one must be chosen. ADJECTIVE: 1. Allowing or necessitating a choice between two or more things. 2a. Existing outside traditional or established institutions or systems: an alternative lifestyle. b. Espousing or reflecting values that are different from those of the establishment or mainstream: an alternative newspaper; alternative greeting cards. 3. Usage Problem Substitute or different; other.

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NHSI 2008 Definitions File – JL ENERGY Energy is vitality for activity. Oxford English Dictionary 08 http://www.askoxford.com/concise_oed/energy?view=uk

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Energy • noun (pl. energies) 1 the strength and vitality required for sustained activity. 2 (energies) a person’s physical and mental powers as applied to a particular activity. 3 power derived from physical or chemical resources to provide light and heat or to work machines. 4 Physics the property of matter and radiation which is manifest as a capacity to perform work. Energy is the capacity to do work which is usable power. Merriam Webster Online 08 http://www.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/dictionary?book=Dictionary&va=energy Main Entry: energy Pronunciation: \ˈe-nər-jē\ Function: noun Inflected Form(s): plural en·er·gies Etymology: Late Latin energia, from Greek energeia activity, from energos active, from en in + ergon work — more at work Date: 1599 1 a: dynamic quality <narrative energy> b: the capacity of acting or being active <intellectual energy> c: a usually positive spiritual force <the energy flowing through all people> 2: vigorous exertion of power : effort <investing time and energy> 3: a fundamental entity of nature that is transferred between parts of a system in the production of physical change within the system and usually regarded as the capacity for doing work 4: usable power (as heat or electricity); also : the resources for producing such power Energy is a dynamic, vigorous quality. Merriam Webster Online 08 http://www.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/dictionary?book=Dictionary&va=energy Main Entry: energy Pronunciation: \ˈe-nər-jē\ Function: noun Inflected Form(s): plural en·er·gies Etymology: Late Latin energia, from Greek energeia activity, from energos active, from en in + ergon work — more at work Date: 1599 1 a: dynamic quality <narrative energy> b: the capacity of acting or being active <intellectual energy> c: a usually positive spiritual force <the energy flowing through all people> 2: vigorous exertion of power : effort <investing time and energy> Energy is capacity of physical work. American Heritage Dictionary 2k http://www.bartleby.com/61/19/E0141900.html energy SYLLABICATION: en·er·gy PRONUNCIATION: nr-j NOUN: Inflected forms: pl. en·er·gies 1. The capacity for work or vigorous activity; vigor; power. See synonyms at strength. 2a. Exertion of vigor or power: a project requiring a great deal of time and energy. b. Vitality and intensity of expression: a speech delivered with energy and emotion. 3a. Usable heat or power: Each year Americans consume a high percentage of the world's energy. b. A source of usable power, such as petroleum or coal. 4. Physics The capacity of a physical system to do work. Energy is vigor and intensity of expression. American Heritage Dictionary 2k http://www.bartleby.com/61/19/E0141900.html energy SYLLABICATION: en·er·gy PRONUNCIATION: nr-j NOUN: Inflected forms: pl. en·er·gies 1. The capacity for work or vigorous activity; vigor; power. See synonyms at strength. 2a. Exertion of vigor or power: a project requiring a great deal of time and energy. b. Vitality and intensity of expression: a speech delivered with energy and emotion. 3a. Usable heat or power: Each year Americans consume a high percentage of the world's energy. b. A source of usable power, such as petroleum or coal. 4. Physics The capacity of a physical system to do work. Northwestern University Debate Society National Debate Tournament Champions 2005 – 2003 – 2002 – 1999 – 1998 – 1995 – 1994 – 1980 – 1978 – 1973 – 1966 – 1959 – 1958

NHSI 2008 Definitions File – JL INCENTIVES [1/2] Incentive should motivate action or increased effort. Oxford English Dictionary 08 http://www.askoxford.com/concise_oed/incentive?view=uk incentive • noun a thing that motivates or encourages someone to action or increased effort.

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Incentives could be positive or negative. American Heritage Dictionary 2k http://www.bartleby.com/61/98/I0079800.html incentive SYLLABICATION: in·cen·tive PRONUNCIATION: n-sntv NOUN: Something, such as the fear of punishment or the expectation of reward, that induces action or motivates effort.

Incentives should only be positive. Word Net http://wordnet.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=incentive Noun S: (n) incentive, inducement, motivator (a positive motivational influence) S: (n) bonus, incentive (an additional payment (or other remuneration) to employees as a means of increasing output)

Incentives must require rewards to motivate a desired action. Business Dictionary.com 08 http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/incentive.html Incentive Definition Inducement or supplemental reward that serves as a motivational device for a desired action or behavior.

Incentives shouldn’t force a policy outcome, distinct from coercion.
David Cortwright

97 “The Price of Peace: Incentives and International Conflict Prevention” Carnegie Commission, p6

The definition of what constitutes an incentive is subject to varying interpretations. The authors in this volume generally agree that the inducement process involves the offer of a reward by a sender in exchange for a particular action or response by a recipient. An incentive is defined as the granting of a political or economic benefit in exchange for a specified policy adjustment by the recipient nation. Often the incentive offered is directly related to the desired policy outcome, as when the World Bank assisted demilitarization in Uganda and Mozambique by providing financial support for demobilized combatants. It is also possible and sometimes necessary to conceive of incentives in a more unconditional manner, without the requirement for strict reciprocity. This is what Alexander George has called the "pure" form of incentives where there is little or no explicit conditionality.4 A sender may offer benefits in the hope of developing or strengthening long-term cooperation, without insisting upon an immediate policy response. In some circumstances, such as the Council of Europe's negotiations with Estonia, the principal incentive may be the simple fact of membership itself, and the accompanying hope that a seat at the table may lead to other more concrete benefits in the future. At a minimum, incentives policies seek to make cooperation and conciliation more attractive than aggression and hostility. The goal is to achieve a degree of policy coordination in which, according to Robert Keohane, nations "adjust their behavior to the actual or anticipated preferences of others."5

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NHSI 2008 Definitions File – JL INCENTIVES [2/2] Incentives require monetary rewards. Queensland Legislation 04 “Freedom of Information Amendment Bill 2004”
http://www.legislation.qld.gov.au/Bills/51PDF/2004/FOIAmdB04Exp.pdf

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An incentive is defined to include: • monetary amounts, including any component that represents a refund or partial refund of a tax, fee or charge, whether as a lump sum or by installments; and • any other benefit, for example, installation or upgrade of infrastructure, release or compromise of a debt owing to the State or payments to someone else to provide training.

In the context of energy policy, incentives are: ____________________. DSIRE 07 Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency, NC State University, http://www.dsireusa.org/faq/faq.cfm?
&EE=1&RE=1&#federal

DSIRE contains information on state, federal, and utility financial incentives for energy efficiency upgrades, purchases of energy efficient products and systems, and construction of new energy efficient buildings. Incentives come in the form of tax credits and deductions, rebates, low-interest loans, grants, bond programs, sales and property tax exemptions, and green building incentives. Federal and state regulatory policies that promote or mandate energy efficiency are included as well. These policies include appliance & equipment efficiency standards, building energy codes, public benefits funds, and energy standards for public buildings.

Incentives in the context of energy policy does not include R&D or outreach programs. DSIRE 07 Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency, NC State University, http://www.dsireusa.org/faq/faq.cfm?
&EE=1&RE=1&#federal

Federal Incentives: DSIRE contains information on Federal financial incentives for end-users of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. It does not include research & development or outreach programs. Click on the Federal Incentives icon on the homepage to access program summaries. Individual program summaries contain the same level of information described above Incentives by State.

Incentives in context of congressional energy policy includes coal-based energy. Thompson Hine 05 “Energy Policy Act: Incentives for Developing Clean Coal” Thompson Hine lawyers serve as counselors, advisors
and advocates to a full spectrum of clients ranging from major public and private corporations to financial institutions, governments, nonprofit organizations, venture capitalists and individual entrepreneurs. We have the experience and resources to handle the most challenging legal issues our clients may face. http://www.thompsonhine.com/publications/publication129.html

The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (the "Act") contains numerous programs and incentives that create opportunities for the coal industry. Through the Department of Energy ("DOE"), the federal government will offer grants, loan guarantees, and tax incentives in order to promote the generation of coal-based energy and the development of high-efficiency and low-emission technologies.

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NHSI 2008 Definitions File – JL ALTERNATIVE ENERGY [1/2] Alternative energy excludes oil, natural gas, coal, or nuclear power. U.S. code 06 § 7701. Definitions, http://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/uscode26/usc_sec_26_00007701----000-.html
(D) Alternative energy facility For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term “alternative

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energy facility” means a facility for producing electrical or thermal energy if the primary energy source for the facility is not oil, natural gas, coal, or nuclear power.

Alternative energy should be renewable. OED 08 Oxford English Dictionary http://www.askoxford.com/results/?view=dict&freesearch=alternative+energy&textsearchtype=exact alternative energy • noun energy fuelled in ways that do not use up natural resources or harm the environment.

Alternative energy is renewable energy. Wordnet Princeton http://wordnet.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=alternative%20energy alternative energy (energy derived from sources that do not use up natural resources or harm the environment)
S: (n)

Alternative energy is energy that is non-traditionally used. RTCC 07 Responding to Climate Change, Glossary http://www.rtcc.org/2007/html/glossary.html Alternative energy - energy derived from nontraditional sources (e.g., compressed natural gas, solar, hydroelectric, wind).

Alternative energy should not be popularly used and environmentally friendly. NRDC Natural Resources Defense Council http://www.nrdc.org/reference/glossary/a.asp alternative energy - energy that is not popularly used and is usually environmentally sound, such as solar or wind
energy (as opposed to fossil fuels).

Alternative energy is not fossil fuels which is interchangeable with ‘renewable.’ MMS 08 July 16, Mineral Management Service http://www.mms.gov/offshore/AlternativeEnergy/Definitions.htm Alternative energy: Fuel sources that are other than those derived from fossil fuels. Typically used interchangeably for renewable energy. Examples include: wind, solar, biomass, wave and tidal energy.

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NHSI 2008 Definitions File – JL ALTERNATIVE ENERGY [2/2] Alternative energy is renewable energy from natural sources. Encarta 07 http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/features/dictionary/DictionaryResults.aspx? refid=1861685359

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alternative energy noun Definition: naturally generated energy source: any form of energy obtained from the Sun, wind, waves, or another natural renewable source, in contrast to energy generated from fossil fuels

Alternative energy includes solar, wind, or nuclear energy. Random House Unabridged 97 http://dictionary.infoplease.com/alternative+energy alternative energy- energy, as solar, wind, or nuclear energy, that can replace or supplement traditional fossil-fuel sources, as coal, oil, and natural gas.

Alternative energy should reduce dependence on petroleum, natural gas, nuclear, and hydroelectric energy.
Frank LaSalle

95, Akron Law Review, lexis.

Further, in § 6901 (d), the statute notes that: "(2) the need exists to develop alternative energy sources for public and private consumption in order to reduce our dependence on such sources as petroleum products, natural gas, nuclear and hydroelectric generation; and (3) technology exists to produce usable energy from solid waste". 42 U.S.C. § 6901 (d) (2), (3), (1988).

Alternative energy excludes nuclear power. Pearson Glossary 01 http://wps.pearsoned.co.uk/wps/media/objects/2768/2834452/glossary/glossary.html alternative energy Energy obtained from sources other than fossil fuels or nuclear power. The sources generally
have low pollution implications and use renewable resources; for example biogas, geothermal energy, hydroelectric power, solar energy, tidal power, and wind power. (Chapter 10)

Alternative energy doesn’t have to be renewable. Torridge District Council http://www.torridge.gov.uk/onlineplan/written/cpt28.htm Alternative Energy- Energy generated from alternatives to fossil fuel. Need not be renewable.

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NHSI 2008 Definitions File – JL ENERGY INCENTIVES Energy incentives must improve energy efficiency.
David Rezachek, Hawaii Renewable Energy Association, “ezachek & Associates' Energy & Environmental Resources” http://www.sustainablehawaii.com/eipgenp1.htm

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Energy Incentives: The State of Oregon offers a number of incentive programs for the efficient operation and use of energy by businesses within the state. These programs assist companies to finance energy improvements that will allow for long-term operating efficiencies and economic savings from reduced energy costs.

Energy incentives should be in the form of tax credits.
Michael W.

Grainey 1981, Deputy Director of the Oregon Department of Energy, Lewis and Clark Law School, lexis

The final version of the windfall profit tax differed significantly from the versions passed by each house. The Senate provided lower total tax, less than $ 200 billion, but dedicated more revenue to energy incentives in the form of large tax credits for development of renewable resources. In addition, the Senate definitions of measures eligible for the tax credits were very broad, including wood stoves, passive solar systems, and heat pumps. By contrast, the House provided a higher tax of nearly $ 300 billion, and simply dedicated revenues from the tax to the general fund with no specific requirements for how the money would be spent. The final version represents a compromise which significantly expands the tax credits and other incentives established by the National Energy Act. In most cases the tax credits apply to expenditures made after December 31, 1979. n216

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NHSI 2008 Definitions File – JL ALTERNATIVE ENERGY INCENTIVES Alternative energy incentives include ___________________.

SENIORS 18

Environmental Quality Council 04 “Hydrogen, Wind, Biodiesel, and Ethanol: Alternative Energy Sources to Fuel Montana's
Future?” http://www.aeromt.org/PDFs/2004energyreport.pdf

Figure 2-1. General Alternative Energy Incentive Policy Categories: Tax Incentives < Production Tax Credits < Investment Tax Credits < Sales Tax Reductions < Property Tax Reductions < Accelerated Depreciation Direct Cash Incentives < Production Incentives < Investment Incentives (Grants) Low-Cost Capital Programs < Government-Subsidized Loans < Project Loan Guarantees < Project Aggregation Distributed Resource Policies < Standard Contracts for Small Distributed Projects < Net Metering < Line Extension Policies Customer Choice Opportunities < Utility-Supplied Renewable Energy Pricing Options < Alternative Energy Marketing from Retail Electricity Sellers < Aggregated Consumer Purchases < Fuel Source Disclosure Requirement and Certification General Environmental Regulations < Externality Valuation in Resource Planning < Externality Valuation in Environmental Dispatch < Emission Taxes < Emission Caps/Marketable Permits Other Policies < Government Purchases < Site Prospecting, Review, and Permitting < Renewable Portfolio Standard < Auctioned Contracts < Performance-Based Rate-Making

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NHSI 2008 Definitions File – JL IN In’ means throughout. Words and Phrases ‘59 [Permanent Edition, Volume 20A, p. 16] In means “throughout”

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In indicates location within limits. Merriam Webster Online 08 http://www.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/dictionary? book=Dictionary&va=in Main Entry: 1in Pronunciation: \ˈin, ən, ən\ Function: preposition Etymology: Middle English, from Old English; akin to Old High German in in, Latin in, Greek en Date: before 12th century 1 a—used as a function word to indicate inclusion, location, or position within limits <in the lake><wounded in the leg><in the summer> b: into 1 <went in the house>

In means at a place. Cambridge Dictionary Online 08 http://dictionary.cambridge.org/define.asp?key=in*19+0&dict=A in (AT PLACE) [Show phonetics] adverb at a place, esp. at home or a place of work Why is it that whenever I call, you are never in? Danielle was out sick last week -- do you know if she'll be in today?

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