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Misc. Updates Pages 1-end --- Aff + Neg Cards


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AT Gibson-Graham
Gibson-Graham is part of a capitalist agenda of expansion, they are a part of the capitalist politics paid to impose capitalism globally; don’t evaluate these biased arguments.
Wendland 06 (Joel, managing editor of Political Affairs, Book Review: A Postcapitalist Politics, by J.K. GibsonGraham, http://www.politicalaffairs.net/article/articleview/4602/ While their excavation of important cooperative projects provides worthwhile lessons for people interested in socialist alternatives to capitalism and imperialism that look beyond no longer existing models for a broader socialist concept, there is a disturbing element to this book as evidenced by the location of this book within the framework of those very relationships that Gibson-Graham ignore. For example, in the preface to this book, Gibson-Graham acknowledge the receipt of a grant from the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) for the research on Jagna. While Gibson-Graham are likely to regard their relationship to AusAID as an innocent one – something like, we used their money for our own subversive purposes – the relationship is fraught with negative implications. According to Australian economist Tim Anderson, under the right-wing Howard government, AusAID’s explicit mission has been transformed from promoting general international "poverty reduction" projects to providing resources to such projects linked to Australia’s "national interest." Anderson notes that prior to Howard AusAID served as a mechanism (within the international jurisdiction of the IMF and World Bank) to impose neoliberal imperatives on regional countries. In other words, aid from AusAid came with "good governance" conditions that have come to typify neoliberal projects funded by wealthy countries. Under Howard, however, this role has shifted from merely forcing aided countries to adhere the general principles of the globalizing project (austerity, shrinking public sectors, etc.) to also promoting specific Australian interests such as Australian based corporate enterprises. To be blunt, the role of AusAid, according to Anderson, has become one of promoting Australian imperialism among its neighbors in the Asian Pacific islands. Reading GibsonGraham and their affiliation with Australian imperialism in the light of Said’s project mentioned at the opening of this review is revealing. Thus we may see why Gibson-Graham’s relationship to AusAID is not innocent. Indeed, read with the linkage Said sought to expose in mind, it is possible to understand why Gibson-Graham have rejected socialist alternatives to capitalism and national liberationist alternatives to imperialism. Specifically, by mapping non-capitalist and underdeveloped sectors in Jagna and discouraging socialist, broad class, international and national alternatives, Gibson-Graham’s work aids in opening the Philippines to Australia’s imperialist agenda.


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Turn: Excessive Oil subsides cause social unrest
Khavand 2007 (Dr. Fereydoun Khavand. April 19 2007. “Iran Must Reform Its Economy or Face Social Explosion”. Iran Press Service. Khavand is a professor of economics at Paris Universities. http://www.iran-pressservice.com/ips/articles-2007/april-2007/khavand_19407~email.shtml?author701) In one word, the injection of such a large amount of money into the shaky economy produced the staggering rate of inflation the country is facing now. One has to stress that even the 23 to 24 per cent rate of the inflation suggested by the Parliament is artificial, for the simple reason that governments of the Islamic Republic of Iran, by providing huge subsidies, keep down artificially the prices of many items, from bread to sugar, medicine and fuel, specially this one, which cost 80 Touman (Euro 8 centim) per lire, the cheapest in the world. In order to keep the rate of inflation artificially low, not only Ahmadi Nezhad can not touch to subsides, but also he has wide open the gates of importation. More over, thanks to the same oil revenues, he keep the value of the local money artificially low, resulting in the increase of imports and difficulties for non oil exports. Iran is the only country in the world giving subsidies to imports. The burden of this important rate of inflation is felt by the poor classes of the society, the very those that Ahmadi Nezhad had promised to help. Now let’s take one example: An employee of the government may get five per cent pay rise, but at the same time he looses 24 per cent of his purchasing power. Another result of this inflation is that goods made in Iran become more and more expensive, incapable of competing with foreign made goods, loosing their markets to competitors. Hence the extraordinary number of factories closing their doors, going bankrupt, not able to even pay their workers.

Bush wins UPI, 08

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(“Bush claims credit on energy, economy”, 7/18/08, http://www.upi.com/Top_News/2008/07/19/Bush_claims_credit_on_energy_economy/UPI87061216476600/)

U.S. President George W. Bush Saturday trumpeted steps his administration took this week on rising energy costs and sagging home values. In his weekly radio address, the president chided Congress for refusing to lift its ban on drilling for oil in key areas of the Outer Continental Shelf. "Experts believe that these areas of the OCS could eventually produce nearly 10 years' worth of America's current annual oil production," Bush said. "So on Monday I lifted an executive branch prohibition on exploration in these areas. "Unfortunately, a full month has passed since I called on Congress to lift a similar legislative ban, and Congress has done nothing." Bush said long-term energy policy will require wider use of energy sources other than oil. "So my administration has worked to expand the use of alternative fuels and raise fuel efficiency standards," he said. "We're investing in new advanced batteries, plug-in hybrids and hydrogen fuel cells. We're working to expand the use of clean, safe nuclear power, solar and wind power and clean coal technology." ANWR bad Athans, 01
(Marego, Staff Writer for Sun National Staff, “Judging the impact of oil rigs' footprints”, Baltimore Sun, 5/8/01, http://www.mcall.com/topic/balte.alaska08may08,0,3467588.story?page=1)

To the east in ANWR, though, are hundreds of species, including birds from four continents, black, brown and polar bears, freshwater fish and Dall sheep. But one species, the huge Porcupine caribou herd, has emerged as the symbol of the stakes involved in creating an oil-industrial complex in one of the world's last untouched ecosystems, a place likened to the wild, animal-rich savannas of Africa. "America's Serengeti," environmentalists call it. The refuge is seen by many scientists and native Alaskans as an important incubator for the future of the herd, because the females go there each spring to give birth, drawn by the rich forage that bursts open on the tundra as it thaws in nearly around-the-clock sunlight. They are highly sensitive to humans and moving things, naturalists say, especially calving females, because the calves are vulnerable to predators. And tied directly to this herd are the lives and culture of about 7,000 Gwich'in Indians who live in villages along the animals' migratory path from the Porcupine River Valley in the Canadian Yukon into ANWR. They have relied on the herd for centuries for food, clothing and shelter, as well as spiritual nourishment. Proponents of drilling in ANWR point out that the Central Arctic caribou, the herd that migrates through Prudhoe Bay, has flourished since the oil fields began operations 24 years ago. The herd's population, 27,000, is at the highest level in more than two decades. All the northern herds experienced similar booms, however, and naturalists think the increase is most likely linked to the relatively mild climate of recent years. Evidence shows that human activity at Prudhoe Bay has displaced the calving females from their previous summer habitat. Soon after the discovery of oil and the expansion of infrastructure over the region, the calving females moved several miles away from the roads and pipes, Mauer said. Critics of drilling in ANWR point out that the Porcupine caribou herd is more than five times the size of the Prudhoe Bay herd and that its calving area, in the coastal plain where oil drilling is expected to be concentrated, is smaller. Human activity in ANWR would likely push the caribou toward the mountains, where vegetation is poor and predators such as wolves and bears are abundant, some naturalists fear. "There's no place to displace them without having more serious consequences," Mauer said. "There would be no place to put the herd. The effects on the population may be drastically different from what we've seen at Prudhoe Bay so far." The effects could extend beyond the caribou, said David Klein, an ecologist at the Institute of Arctic Biology at the University of Alaska at Fairbanks. "Caribou are a keystone species, and a lot of other species are dependent on them the fox, the bear, the wolverine," he said. "It's a complex ecosystem relationship." He said the oft-touted ice roads that the oil companies plan to build could deplete bodies of water "critical for overwintering fish."


Monday Night - Seniors Species loss bad ISEB, 06

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(International Society of Environmental Botanasts, “Keystone Species: The Concept, their Ecological Significance and Determining their Keystone Status”, Vol. 12 No. 3 - July 2006, < http://isebindia.com/05_08/06-07-2.html>)

The keystone species play a central and critical role in maintenance of community structure and ecosystem functioning. If an ecosystem can be returned to a state in which the keystone species flourish, then all the other species, which depend on them, will also flourish. The importance of biodiversity in environmental management beside socioeconomic development and well being of human society, has led to the development of various techniques for conservation of floristic and ecological diversity. Some simple ways of managing the natural systems should be evolved so as to retain and conserve the identity of a landscape or region for a better tomorrow. One of the simplest ways of doing so is by identifying species, which play the key role of holding together the entire biological community or ecosystem. These species are known as 'keystone species' in ecological term. The central core of keystone concept is that only a few species have uniquely important effect on the community or ecosystem by virtue of their uniquely important traits and attributes. Only those species can be considered as keystone species that had a significant effect on 'time window' of other species. For example, changes in climate may differentially affect the growth rate of emergent species in a forest, which in turn could affect other species. In most of the cases, it is indeed groups of species rather than individual species that assume importance and these species groups could be referred to as the 'keystone groups' or 'functional groups'. Keystone species or 'keystone species groups' play a vital role in maintaining ecosystem and regulating the biodiversity. Loss of vital function, and changes within the ecosystem or community would follow if such species groups are removed from the system. These species are 'responsible' for the existence of an ecosystem of certain type and create possibilities for the development of other types of communities. Biodiversity within an area can be characterized by measures of species richness, species diversity, taxic diversity, and functional diversity, each highlighting different perspectives. Functional diversity refers to the varieties of functions carried out by different species and groups of species known as functional groups. According to Smirnova (1998), there is a correlation between structural and taxonomic diversity. The maximum taxonomic diversity could be expected in a climax landscape, which develops due to the structural diversity of population mosaic produced by all key species of the biota and the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of these mosaics. The population dynamics of keystone species define the pattern of succession of vegetation. Turnover cycles of matter and energy flows in an ecosystem are dominated by the life activity of keystone species, and these activities determine the major shifts in ecosystem structure at the spatial and temporal scales. Population mosaics of keystone species have largest spatial-temporal dimensions, and population mosaics of subordinate species are thereby determined by the keystone species. Keystone species are responsible for the existence of the ecosystem and maintenance of its species diversity. So the biodiversity in any ecosystem can be manipulated by perturbations in such uniquely important species. In recent years the overly expansive usage of the 'keystone species' concept has led to redefinition of the term. According to current interpretation, keystone species are only those species, which have a large disproportionate effect due to their greater biomass and/or abundance in the communities in which they occur. Moreover, those species, which drive ecosystem processes or energy flows, are generally referred to as 'key species', but only a few of them are 'keystone species'. It needs to be emphasized that the term 'keystone species' should be applied to those species whose role in nature includes the potential to affect the abundance of other competitively dominant species. A major research challenge for ecologists is to predict which species in the community would become keystone species.


Monday Night - Seniors Dems don’t want drilling AFP, August 4th

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(World's oldest established news agency, founded in 1835 by Charles-Louis Havas, the father of global journalism, “Republicans take to shuttered House to demand oil drilling”, 8/4/08, < http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5irnG1Qw4-yo1cgjVreVzAlO88yNA>) But Democrats have dismissed the Republican calls for expanded drilling, and in an Alaskan wildlife reserve, as a sop to big oil firms and a measure that will do nothing to immediately increase supply and lower prices. Pelosi told ABC on Sunday that the Republican protests amounted to the "war dance of the hand maidens of the oil companies." She argued that demands for a vote on offshore drilling were a political ploy to scupper Democratic plans for a comprehensive energy bill, designed to reduce US reliance on foreign oil.


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McCain is ahead on alternative energy– Obama is perceived as weak on stable energy policy Los Angeles Times 8/4
“BarackObama shifts on tapping national oil reserves” http://www.latimes.com/news/politics/la-nacampaign5-2008aug05,0,5827194,full.story

LANSING, MICH. ­­ Democrat BarackObama called today for tapping the nation's strategic oil  reserves to help drive down gasoline prices, a shift from his previous position on the issue.  T he  reversal is the second refinement in Obama's energy policy. Last week, he said that he would  reluctantly consider accepting some offshore oil drilling. Obama had previously said he opposed  such drilling, which is strongly backed by rival John McCain, who has urged that states be  allowed to decide whether to drill. Obama is scheduled to campaign this week on energy and  economic issues in the battleground Midwest. McCain campaigned in Pennsylvania, where he  called on Congress to return from vacation to deal with energy issues. Later, McCain travels to  South Dakota.  As part of the Obama campaign's focus on energy, it released a new advertisement criticizing 
McCain's energy policies.  In his speech in Lansing, Obama, who celebrates his 47th birthday today, tipped his hat to  McCain, quoting the Arizona Republican: "Our dangerous dependence on foreign oil has been 30 years in the  making and was caused by the failure of politicians in Washington to think long­term about the future of the  country," Obama said.  "What Sen. McCain neglected to mention was that during those 30 years, he was in  Washington for 26 of them," Obama said.  Obama's plan would release light oil from the emergency oil stockpile and  replace it later with heavier crude. Light crude oil is easier to refine into gasoline than heavier oil. In 2000, President  Clinton used a similar tactic to make oil available at a time of rising oil prices.  The Obama plan is similar to efforts  by congressional Democrats and is opposed by Republicans and President Bush.  House Speaker Nancy Pelosi (D­ Ca.) for weeks has called on Bush to withdraw oil from the government reserve, and Sen. Jeff Bingaman (D­N.M.),  chairman of the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee, has tried to get agreement on legislation that  would require the release of 70 million barrels of oil from the government stockpile. The McCain campaign 

lost no time in criticizing Obama.  "Tapping the strategic oil reserve is not a substitute for a real  plan to increase supply through additional drilling and nuclear power," said campaign spokesman  Tucker Bounds in a statement e­mailed to reporters.  "The strategic oil reserve exists for  America's national security strategy ­­ not BarackObama's election strategy. The last release of  oil from the strategic reserve came in response to Hurricane Katrina, but the only crisis that has  developed since BarackObama last rejected this idea two months ago is a slide in his poll  numbers," Bounds said.  Recent polls show that McCain has gained some traction on the energy  issue. For example, the latest Quinnipiac University poll for the Wall Street Journal and  washingtonpost.com shows that Obama tops McCain 46% to 42% compared with a previous lead  of 48% to 42%. Energy issues are the leading concern ­­ more important in most polls than the  war in Iraq ­­ and voters say they support offshore oil drilling. Other polls show similar results in  the West and Southwest, also key electoral battlegrounds.


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We should affirm the resolution as a site for transgression. Stoekl 07 (Allan, professor of French and comparative literature at Penn State University, Bataille’s Peak: Energy,
Religion and Postsustainability, pg 23 – 24) JXu This notion of a revolutionary expenditure (or, in the terms of the Sade essay, defecation), linked to an abject class, stayed with Bataille throughout his life. I would stress here the extent to which Bataille has appropriated Sade's "politics," quite literally. Revolution, as it is presented in "The Use Value," is nothing other than the Sadean republic we recall from La Philosophie dans le boudoir: a republic of "soft" (nonexistent) laws that will encourage crime. Whether Bataille wants to go all the way, so to speak, and celebrate murder, along with Sade, is not clear; what is clear is that, like Sade, Bataille's postrevolutionary phase will entail the fundamental repudiation of "harsh" law - i.e., law in general, and the affirmation of a general transgression of law. It will be the societal equivalent of intellectual scatology: the point at which law is affirmed only to be blasphemed. Bataille says this of revolutionary activity: But the post-revolutionary phase implies the necessity of a break [scission] between the political and economic organization on the one hand and on the other an anti-religious and asocial organization having as its goal orgiastic participation in various forms of destruction, in other words the collective satisfaction of needs that correspond to the need of provoking the violent excitation that results from the expulsion of heterogeneous elements (OC, 2:68, VE, 101)


Monday Night - Seniors SPS unpopular—politicians don’t want to allocate funding Space Review 2004 (“Whatever Happened to Solar Power Satallites?” David Boswell)

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There were over 60 launches in 2003, so last year there was enough money spent to put something into orbit about every week on average. Funding was found to launch science satellites to study gravity waves and to explore other planets. There are also dozens of GPS satellites in orbit that help people find out where they are on the ground. Is there enough money available for these purposes, but not enough to launch even one solar power satellite that would help the world develop a new source of energy? In the 2004 budget the Department of Energy has over $260 million allocated for fusion research. Obviously the government has some interest in funding renewable energy research and they realize that private companies would not be able to fund the development of a sustainable fusion industry on their own. From this perspective, the barrier holding back solar power satellites is not purely financial, but rather the problem is that there is not enough political will to make the money available for further development.


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SPS is a drop in the bucket-it only costs 10 Billion PM 08
(Erik Sofge, “Space-Based Solar Power Beams Become Next Energy Frontier” http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/air_space/4230315.html)

The idea of using satellites to beam solar power down from space is nothing new—the Department of Energy first studied it in the 1970s, and NASA took another look in the ’90s. The stumbling block has been less the engineering challenge than the cost. A Pentagon report released in October could mean the stars are finally aligning for space-based solar power, or SBSP. According to the report, SBSP is becoming more feasible, and eventually could help head off crises such as climate change and wars over diminishing energy supplies. “The challenge is one of perception,” says John Mankins, president of the Space Power
Association and the leader of NASA’s mid-1990s SBSP study. “There are people in senior leadership positions who believe everything in space has to cost trillions.” The new report imagines a market-based approach. Eventually, SBSP may become enormously profitable—and the Pentagon hopes it will lure the growing private space industry. The government would fund launches to place initial arrays in orbit by 2016, with private firms taking over operations from there. This plan could limit government costs to about $10 billion. As envisioned, massive orbiting solar arrays, situated to remain in sunlight nearly continuously, will beam multiple megawatts of energy to Earth via microwave beams. The energy will be transmitted to mesh receivers placed over open farmland and in strategic remote locations, then fed into the nation’s electrical grid. The goal: To provide 10 percent of the United States’ base-load power supply by 2050. Ultimately, the report estimates, a single kilometer-wide array could collect enough power in one year to rival the energy locked in the world’s oil reserves. While most of the technology required for SBSP already exists, questions such as potential environmental impacts will take years to work out. “For some time, solar panels on Earth are going to be much cheaper,” says Robert McConnell, a senior project leader at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Colorado. “This is a very long-range activity.”

The discussion of humanity’s expansion into space relies on an interconnectedness of philosophy and science - any philosophical questioning regarding human relation with the universe requires an accompanying goal oriented policy approach, anything else is irresponsible Frodeman 08
- chair of the Department of Philosophy at the University of North Texas. He specializes in environmental philosophy and philosophy and science policy [“Separated at Birth, Signs of Rapprochement Environmental Ethics and Space Exploration,” Ethics & the Environment, Volume 13, Number 1, Spring 2008, pp. 135-151, project muse]

Revolutions in philosophic understanding and cultural worldviews inevitably accompany revolutions in science. As we expand our exploration of the heavens, we will also reflect on the broader human implications of advances in space. Moreover, our appreciation of human [End Page 147] impact on Earth systems will expand as we come to see the Earth within the context of the solar system. Most fundamentally, we need to anticipate and wrestle with the epistemological, metaphysical, and theological dimensions of space exploration, including the possibility of extraterrestrial life and the development of the space environment, as it pertains to our common understanding of the universe and of ourselves. Such reflection should be performed by philosophers, metaphysicians, and theologians in regular conversation with the scientists who investigate space and the policy makers that direct the space program. The exploration of the universe is no experimental science, contained and controlled in a laboratory, but takes place in a vast and dynamic network of interconnected, interdependent realities. If (environmental) philosophy is to be a significant source of insight, philosophers will need to have a much broader range of effective strategies for interdisciplinary collaborations, framing their reflections with the goal of achieving policy-relevant results. If it is necessary for science and policy-makers to heed the advice of philosophers, it is equally necessary for philosophers to speak in concrete terms about real-world problems. A philosophic questioning about the relatedness of humans and the universe, in collaboration with a pragmatic, interdisciplinary
Conclusion: Toward a Humanities Policy of Space Exploration


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approach to environmental problems, is the most responsible means of developing both the science and policy for the exploration of the final frontier.

We solve the economy and telecommunications NSSO 07
[October 10, National Security Space Office, Report to the Director, Space-Based Solar Power As an Opportunity for Strategic Security; Phase 0 Architecture Feasibility Study, http://www.nss.org/settlement/ssp/library/final-sbsp-interim-assessment-release-01.pdf]

SBSP appears to have significant growth potential in the long run, and a national investment in SBSP may return many times its value. Most of America’s spending in space does not provide any direct monetary revenue. SBSP, however, may create new markets and the need for new products that will provide many new, high‐paying technical jobs and net significant tax revenues. Great powers have historically succeeded by finding or inventing products and services not just to sell to themselves, but to others. Today, investments in space are measured in billions of dollars. The energy market is trillions of dollars, and there are many billions of people in the developing world that have yet to connect to the various global markets. Such a large export market could generate substantial new wealth for our nation and our world. Investments to mature SBSP are similarly likely to have significant economic spin‐offs, each with their own independent revenue stream, and open up or enable other new industries such as space industrial processes, space tourism, enhanced telecommunications, and use of off‐world resources.
The SBSP Study Group found that

Anwr doesn’t effect natives or species, drilling would occur in a small region and the pipeline solves their arguments Washington Times 8/1/08
[“SHAMP: The truth about ANWR,” http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2008/aug/01/the-truthabout-anwr/]

During the Clinton years the liberals in Congress — in league with the environmental lobbyists — blocked drilling in the Alaska National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), which probably contains the most accessible of our known oil reserves. Today, as we all know, the shortage of known domestic oil reserves has sent the price of gasoline sky-high.

The liberals claim that drilling in ANWR would disturb the lifecycle of caribou and other wildlife. This has proven completely in error. Since the installation of the Alaska Pipeline, which takes oil from the Prudhoe Bay area south to Valdez, the caribou numbers have increased at least 600 perhaps. They actually loiter near the pipeline in the winter because of the heat that it gives off. Further, the environmentalists have depicted the ANWR area as idyllic wonderland that would be destroyed by the drilling. In fact, the drilling will utilize only 1/10th of 1 percent of the ANWR acreage to produce the entire area. This drilling will usually be done in the winter, when the muskeg is frozen. In the summertime the service equipment could sink out of sight. Furthermore, in the summertime the area is inhabited by clouds of mosquitoes


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No chance of ANWR – controversial and McCain supports so republicans will back down Anchorage Daily News 7/20/08
ml http://www.istockanalyst.com/article/viewiStockNews+articleid_2413893&title=Politics_Still_Keep_ANWR.ht

McCain, the Republican presidential candidate, opposes drilling in ANWR, as does Sen. Barack Obama, the Democratic candidate. For Senate Republicans, that means ANWR simply wouldn't be part of their energy proposal between now and the election. "We took ANWR off the table because we know it's controversial," Sen. George Voinovich, R-Ohio, told reporters last week during a Republican news conference on energy. "It's a hot button," acknowledged Sen. Ted Stevens, R-Alaska. "From a political point of view, we were told categorically that since Obama has taken the stance he's taken, and McCain agrees with him, there's no chance we can get a vote on ANWR." That doesn't mean that environmentalists who have successfully deflected previous attempts to open
ENVIRONMENTALISTS ALERT That entrenchment comes from the top. Sen. John ANWR have let down their guard. The recent discussions about offshore drilling and ANWR are enough to put environmentalists in what Athan Manuel of the Sierra Club called "code red, stratospheric code red." "We're doing the most old-fashioned thing you can do: We're pushing right back with the facts," Manuel said. "Drilling is not the solution to high gas prices."


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They both support space, the link goes both ways SP 7/23/08
http://www.spacepolitics.com/2008/07/23/editorial-trifecta/ Who’s right? There’s something to be said for pulling the plug on Constellation,” the editorial continues, suggesting that NASA rely on commercial services or international partners for human spaceflight, allowing it to spend more money on robotic missions. But then the editors worry that, since many robotic missions could be perceived “as the necessary prep work for human exploration”, this could boomerang against those missions—and the paper’s

the Bush-McCain approach “nicely balances realism and ambition”, but that Obama “is sounding like the more realistic, marketoriented candidate” because he wants to enhance NASA’s role in earth sciences research in addition to promoting more international and private-sector cooperation.
parochial interests at JPL. The editorial concludes that

They both support space, the link goes both ways SP 7/23/08

Who’s right? There’s something to be said for pulling the plug on Constellation,” the editorial continues, suggesting that NASA rely on commercial services or international partners for human spaceflight, allowing it to spend more money on robotic missions. But then the editors worry that, since many robotic missions could be perceived “as the necessary prep work for human exploration”, this could boomerang against those missions—and the paper’s parochial interests at JPL. The editorial concludes that the Bush-McCain approach “nicely balances

realism and ambition”, but that Obama “is sounding like the more realistic, marketoriented candidate” because he wants to enhance NASA’s role in earth sciences research in addition to promoting more international and private-sector cooperation. Non-unique, recent bill on Iraq and space research was 162 billion NYT 7/2/08
[Good News — or Less Bad News — for American Science, http://tierneylab.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/07/02/good-news-or-less-bad-news-for-american-science/?hp]

Almost all of the $162 billion in the supplemental spending bill signed by President Bush on Monday will go to the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, but it did contain $150 million for the National Institutes of Health, and $62.5 million each for NASA, the National Science Foundation and the Department of

Energy’s Office of Science. (The American Institute of Physics provides a good summary of what the $337.5 million buys.) Much of the D.O.E. money will go to Fermilab, which was particularly hard hit by the December cuts. Its budget was reduced to $320 million from the expected $372 million. “It’s all together very good news, and it comes at a critical time for the laboratory,” said Pier Oddone, the director. Even with the supplemental money, Fermilab will still be less than it was eight months ago. About 60 people have left since the beginning of the year, and another 60 will leave at the end of the week as part of voluntary buyouts, which will not be reversed. Financing for basic science research has been relatively flat for several years. President Bush has proposed large increases for basic research in the physical sciences (the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy), but has wanted to reduce the amount of money going to the National Institutes of Health. Congress, which writes the budgets, has given more money to N.I.H. and reduced the proposed increases for N.S.F. and D.O.E. In almost all fields, many scientists say that inadequate funding imperils the future of American science (and

the science part of the federal budget has done better than many other government agencies in an era when tax increases are taboo and the overriding goal appears to be to keep a cap on domestic spending.
the technology that comes out of basic science). Still,

Control over SPS boosts the economy through energy trading O’Neill 08 - Solar Physics Doctor involved with Mars Homestead project
[June 1, “Harvesting Solar Power from Space,” http://www.universetoday.com/2008/06/01/harvesting-solarpower-from-space/]

the nation who leads the way in solar power satellites will bolster their economy for decades through energy trading. The energy collected by highly efficient solar panels could be beamed down to Earth (although it is not clear from the source what technology will go into "beaming" energy to Earth) where it is fed into the national grid of the country maintaining the system.
So how could this plan work? Construction will clearly be the biggest expense, but


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Ground based receivers would distribute gigawatts of energy from the uninterrupted orbital supply. This will have obvious implications for the future high demand for electricity in the huge nations in Asia and will wean the international community off carbon-rich non-renewable resources such as oil and coal. There is also the benefit of the flexible nature of this system being able to supply emergency energy to disaster (and war-) zones. Recession now; banks and the subprime mortgage crisis prove ABC News 7/16/08
[No end in sight for US economic woes, http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2008/07/16/2305780.htm]

There have been more dire warnings today about the outlook for the US economy with predictions of a prolonged recession that could spread globally. In a change of
language after an earlier optimistic assessment, the powerful head of America's central bank, Ben Bernanke, says the economic difficulties facing the US show no sign of easing. While President George W Bush continues to talk up the world's biggest economy, his assurances are being contradicted by a falling US dollar and the proposed government bailout of the mortgage giants Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac.

Many economists maintain the US is already in a recession, as fears about the weakened banking sector intensify. Throughout the escalating financial meltdown in the United States, President Bush has been
urging Americans and the rest of the world not to panic. Back in March, in the days after the near collapse of the Wall Street investment bank Bear Stearns, Mr Bush told reporters: "We are going to be just fine." Now the Bear Stearns crisis is a blip on the radar compared with the technical insolvency of the two American mortgage giants Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, which together account for around $6 trillion of outstanding home loans. Optimism Today the US President's language had a different tone when he was pressed on the state of the world's biggest economy. "I am not an economist. I'm an optimist," he told reporters in Washington. Facing what many economists regard as the biggest shock since the Great Depression, President Bush insisted the US would emerge stronger than ever despite the sobering outlook. "I think the system basically is sound, I truly do," he said. "I understand there's a lot of nervousness and the economy is growing, productivity is high, trade is up." Today the pessimism was coming from another man in the hot seat - Ben Bernanke. The powerful chairman of the US Federal Reserve was also using slightly different language after declaring last month that the downside risk to the US economy had diminished. "The economy continues to face numerous difficulties including ongoing strains in financial markets, declining house prices, a softening labour market and rising prices of oil, food and some other commodities," Mr Bernanke told a congressional committee on Capitol Hill. Recession? But Mr Bernanke refused to acknowledge signs of a recession in the United States, leaving that verdict to the statisticians. "I don't know whether they will determine we've been in a recession or not according to these technical definitions," he told the hearing. But other economists are already making the call. Nouriel Roubini of New York University's

School of Business says the shockwaves from Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac are contributing to a turning point with serious global consequences. "This is going to be the worst US recession in decades and this is also the worst US financial crisis since the great depression. This is a really severe all over systemic, financial and banking crisis," Mr Roubini said.
"In my view things are going to get worse in financial markets where Fannie and Freddie they're insolvent; where hundreds of smaller banks are insolvent; where major regional banks are bankrupt. Even some of the national major banks are insolvent. "A year out from now, or two years from now, maybe there is not going to be any major independent broker dealer. This is a systemic financial crisis, there is no end to it." The anxiety has already led to the US Government takeover of California's IndyMac Bank after a run last Friday. Now there are worries about runs on other banks and mortgage providers across America, with some very big names in banking exposed to even greater losses in the coming weeks, including Bank of America, JP Morgan, Merrill Lynch and Citigroup. To date, the subprime mortgage crisis has cost global banks around $250

billion in write-downs. The deficit is devastated now and credit crunch BBC News 7/28/08

The global credit crunch shows no signs of abating, according to the International Monetary Fund
(IMF). In its latest global financial stability report, the IMF says that falling house prices and slowing economic growth are hitting credit. It warns that

banks are under renewed stress, and further cutbacks in bank lending could deepen the slowdown. The IMF also says that emerging markets like


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China may also suffer more pain in the future from the credit crunch. There were further signs of the problems facing many economies with news that the White House is expected to raise its forecast for the US budget deficit in 2009 to a record $490bn (£246bn). The US government is spending
large amounts on stimulus packages to limit the severity of the economic downturn, but that extra spending will have to be largely funded by borrowing. The deficit is also likely to increase as companies hit

by the credit crunch and cash-strapped individuals pay less in taxes.


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SPS is key to the world economy Nansen 2000 - President Solar Space Industries
[Ralph, Statement to the United States Congress Subcommittee on Space Science “The Technical Feasibility of Space Solar Power” Before the Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics, United States House of Representatives Committee on Science September 7, http://www.spaceref.com/news/viewpr.html?pid=2571]

Solar power satellite development would reduce and eventually eliminate United States dependence on foreign oil imports. They would help reduce the international trade imbalance. Electric energy from solar power satellites can be delivered to any nation on the earth. The United States could become a major energy exporter. The market for electric energy will be enormous. Most important of all is the fact that whatever nation develops and controls the next major energy source will dominate the economy of the world. [ ] Inflation is ridiculously high

Courier Journal 8/3/08

NEW YORK -- Federal rescue plans are all the rage in Washington right now, for what seems to be everything but the

The U.S. currency isn't likely to get a bailout, even though its steep decline is feeding inflation and straining the economy. Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke and other

officials have assured us that the government is on the case of the plunging dollar. Talk is cheap -- but they probably won't do anything about it. That's because the Bush administration, since taking office nearly eight years ago, has not supported any U.S.-led intervention in foreign-exchange markets despite the greenback's steep decline. "It would take a rare set of circumstances to get the U.S. right now to intervene," said David Gilmore, a managing partner in Foreign Exchange Analytics in Essex, Conn. With that in mind, we have to look at what Bernanke told Congress on July 16 with some skepticism. "Market intervention is a policy that's been undertaken a few times ... but there may be conditions where markets are disorderly, where some temporary action might be justified," he said during a hearing before the House Financial Services Committee. That kind of rhetoric has been the only tool that Bernanke and Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson have used to bolster the dollar in recent months. In early June, they also floated the idea that intervention was a possibility, giving the dollar a brief run higher. While

the dollar has been falling for some five years, grim U.S. financial news has spurred a considerable slide in recent months. Not only has the U.S. economy taken a beating in the last year, but conditions seem to be getting worse as the housing market remains in a slump, credit conditions are tight and inflation is soaring. [ ] The economy is deteriorating and fed policies will fail at fixing it
[“It’s worse than we feared and there’s more pain to come, but it will pass,” http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/comment/columnists/gerard_baker/article4340443.ece]

The Times 7/16/08

The whole US banking sector posted their largest one-day decline in share prices since 1989. Yesterday investors around the world joined in the panic, pummelling the US dollar, which dropped to yet another record low against the euro. The dollar’s latest losses also pushed the pound back above the $2 mark. The mood among policymakers in Washington is one of growing dismay; some might call it alarm. Despite their best efforts to keep the world’s largest economy afloat, despite a succession of unprecedented measures to restore calm to financial markets, the situation continues to deteriorate . Yesterday,
even as Ben Bernanke, the chairman of the Federal Reserve, the US central bank, Henry Paulson, the Treasury Secretary, and even President Bush sought once again to reassure markets, there was a deepening sense that


worst of the financial turmoil may be yet to come. One senior central banker likened the role of policymakers to that of the hero in a science-fiction movie. Faced with a mortal threat, he tries everything to avert disaster but nothing seems to work. He frantically pushes buttons and pulls levers, but it is no good. Nemesis, in the form of an alien, a giant beast or a headlong, bone-crunching rendezvous with eternity, is inevitable. A year


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ago the term “sub-prime mortgage” migrated from the lexicon of obscure financial terminology to the daily conversations of worried consumers and investors around the world. Banks that had invested too heavily in this always high-risk mortgage business suddenly found themselves with huge losses as US house prices fell and interest rates rose. In the past 12 months the Federal Reserve and the Treasury – along with other

have moved with astonishing speed and creativity to try to save the system. They have extended special lines of credit to banks in trouble and dramatically increased the number of financial institutions permitted access to central bank funds. The Fed has cut interest rates seven times, by a cumulative 3.25 percentage points, to a level well below the inflation rate. It has orchestrated the rescue of Bear Stearns, one of the nation’s most famous investment banks, and now it has backstopped the losses of the nation’s largest mortgage companies. And still, like the villain in the movie, the threat seems to be getting larger and closer.
authorities in other countries –


] Exports are key to the US and Global economies
[“US slowdown to impede global economic growth” http://www.newratings.com/analyst_news/article_1304298.html]

News Ratings 06 Analysts at Dresdner Kleinwort Wasserstein say that the US economic slowdown is likely to have a significant impact on the global economy. In a research note published this morning, the analysts mention that exports continue to be the key growth driver in major economies, such as Japan and the Eurozone. Any deceleration in the US economy would impact exports and adversely affect domestic demand, the analysts say. Moreover, the reversal of interest rate expectations, triggered by a US slowdown, is likely to weaken the US dollar, maybe very substantially, Dresdner Kleinwort Wasserstein adds. A slowdown in demand from the US, combined with a weaker dollar, has historically exerted pressure on global economic growth, the analysts point out.
NEW YORK, June 23 (newratings.com) –

[ ] Inflation is key to solving debt via exports an foreign investment attraction, this stimulates foreign economies Feldstein 7/28/08 – prof of economics at Harvard, chairman of former president Reagan’s Council of
Economic Advisers and president of the NBER [Martin, A US$700 billion question: What is the dollar’s sustainable value?, http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/editorials/archives/2008/07/28/2003418703]

The weaker dollar also reduces the risk of future dollar decline, because it means that the dollar has to fall less in the future to shift the trade balance to a sustainable level. But what is that sustainable level of the trade balance and of the dollar? While experts try to work this out
in terms of portfolio balances, a more fundamental starting point is the fact that a US trade deficit means that Americans receive more goods and services from the rest of the world than they send back —US$700 billion more last year. The difference was financed by transferring stocks and bonds worth US$700 billion. The interest and dividends on those securities will be paid by sending more “pieces of paper.” And when those securities mature, they will be refinanced with new stocks and bonds. It is unthinkable that the global economic system will continue indefinitely to allow the US to import more goods and services than it exports. At some point,

the US will need to start repaying the enormous amount that it has received from the rest of the world. To do so, the US will need a trade surplus. So the key determinant of the dollar’s long-term value is that it must decline enough to shift the US trade balance from today’s deficit to a surplus. That won’t happen anytime soon, but it is the direction in which the trade balance must continue to move. And that means further depreciation of the dollar. An important factor in this process will be the future price of oil and the extent

of US dependence on oil imports. In each of the past four years, the US imported 3.6 billion barrels of oil. At the current price of more than US$140 a barrel, that implies an import cost of more than US$500 billion. The higher the cost of oil, the lower the dollar has to be to achieve any given reduction in the size of the trade deficit. So a rising oil price as measured in euros or yen implies a greater dollar fall, and therefore an even higher oil price when stated in dollars. There is one further important consideration in thinking about the future value of the dollar: relative inflation rates in the US and abroad.

The US trade deficit depends on the real value of the


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dollar — that is, the value of the dollar adjusted for differences in price levels in the US and abroad. If the US experiences higher inflation than our trading partners, the dollar’s nominal value must fall even further just to maintain the same real value.
The inflation differential between the dollar and the euro is now relatively small — only about 1 percentage point a year — but is greater relative to the yen and lower relative to the yuan and other high-inflation currencies. Over the longer run, however, inflation differentials could be a more significant force in

determining the dollar’s path.


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The laws of supply and demand dictate that oil collapse cannot be curbed Lachman 5/30/08 - Resident fellow at the American Enterprise Institute
[Desmond, “Will Oil Really Hit $200 a Barrel?” The American, http://www.american.com/archive/2008/may05-08/will-oil-really-hit-200-a-barrel.] Yet by focusing exclusively on supply limitations and on the emergence of China and India, the market is

oil price increases are qualitatively different from other commodity price increases. Unlike other commodities, oil is an essential industrial input and it forms a vital part of every household’s consumption basket. As such, large increases in oil prices can and do have highly deleterious effects on the global economy. The degree to which oil can affect the global economy is brought home when one considers that the
overlooking a key point, namely, that United States, Europe, and Japan each have to import approximately 15 million barrels of oil a day. This means that oil price increases should be seen as the equivalent of a consumption tax levied by foreign governments on the major industrialized economies at a most inopportune time. The market is also ignoring the fact that

the recent increase in oil prices is not occurring in isolation. Rather, it is occurring at a time when the U.S. economy is suffering from the biggest housing market bust of the past 70 years. The
housing crisis has contributed to a sharp decline in U.S. consumer sentiment, which has plunged to its lowest level since the early 1980s. Worse still, the recent oil price spike is experiencing “the mother of all crises” (in the colorful words of former Federal Reserve chairman Paul Volcker).

Past experience suggests that if the recent run-up in oil prices is sustained, it alone will subtract more than a full percentage point from U.S. GDP growth in 2008. That experience also suggests that, over the longer haul, the recent doubling in oil prices will subtract another full percentage point from U.S. GDP growth beyond 2008. Since these oil price increases have occurred in the context of a housing bust and a credit crunch, one must assume that the U.S. economy is facing the real risk of a recession that is both deeper and more protracted than the postwar average. And if
the recent spike in oil prices threatens to tip the U.S. economy into recession, just imagine what a further run-up in prices—say, to the $150 to $200 a barrel range—would do. But

here’s the catch: if soaring oil prices were to push the United States and other industrialized nations into recession, is it plausible to think that the export-oriented Chinese economy could continue to grow at its present pace and make up for the lower oil demand in the West? No. In other words, oil prices cannot keep increasing without ultimately triggering a significant reduction in demand, which, in turn, would bring prices back down. High prices destroy the global economy, but transition can fix it Chidambaram 6/23/08 - Leader of the Indian Delegation to the International Monetary and Financial
Committee [Shri. P. “Oil Prices threaten to wipe out the economic gains made by developing countries: Finance Minister,” PIB PR, http://pib.nic.in/release/release.asp?relid=39707]

Oil prices threaten to wipe out the economic gains made by developing countries in recent years. The irrational escalation in oil prices is the cause of diversion of scarce resources from education, health and other social sector schemes. Three weeks ago, India
passed on barely 9 per cent of the required price increase to consumers: the result is that inflation measured by wholesale prices has crossed 11 per cent. We are sorry to note that even oil producing

countries such as Indonesia, Russia, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela face double-digit inflation rates ranging from 10.5 per cent to 29.3 per cent. How did this situation come about? And how may we
overcome what appear to be formidable challenges? Let me focus on some key areas and imperatives from the perspective of developing economies like India. a. Questions have been raised about the fundamentals of the oil industry. There is a need for the oil industry to re-assert its leadership in price formation and not remain passive spectator of speculation and paper trading in oil. The global hydrocarbon community must address this situation through appropriate supply-side responses and calm the oil markets. b. Today, the vulnerability of the supply chain to temporary supply disruptions stands exposed. Global oil consumption grew by 1.1% or 1,000,000 barrels per day in 2007 whereas the global oil production fell by 130,000 barrels per day. Spare capacity, across the supply chain, has dwindled considerably. This has added to risks and uncertainty. Hence, the need to fast-track development of oil resources. c. As per the estimates of the International Energy Agency (IEA), our future oil and gas needs call for massive investments of the order of US$ 10 trillion by the year 2030. Such fund mobilization can be achieved. Fresh investments are not materializing perhaps because of anticipated fall in demand. This is plainly wrong. The cyclical behaviour of oil markets is amply established and we know that oil production provides attractive returns in the long run. High oil prices have improved the balance sheets of oil-producing nations and companies. It would be reasonable, therefore, to expect oil producers to fund capacity expansion. d. Respectfully, we reject the suggestion that rising demand is the cause of spiraling oil prices. Surely, demand and supply dynamics can not explain what has happened over the last 12 months. How is it that oil prices were US$70 a barrel in August 2007 and how is it that they have doubled when there has been no dramatic change in demand? The causes for the current pandemonium in oil prices lie elsewhere: in unregulated over-the-counter markets and futures trading in oil. e. There is ample evidence that large financial institutions, pension funds, hedge funds etc. have channelized billions of dollars – nay, trillions of dollars - into commodity investments and commodity derivatives. It is common knowledge that these financial transactions are unregulated and highly opaque. The demand for oil generated by these funds is purely speculative demand. In our view, the time has come for producers - especially OPEC - and consumers to wrest control over oil trading from the hands of the speculators. f. The only way forward is for the both producers and consumers to find common ground. We have a proposal that will instill mutual confidence. We propose that we adopt a Price Band Mechanism. Consuming countries must guarantee that oil prices will not fall below an agreed level and producing countries must guarantee that oil prices will not rise above a guaranteed level. In the band between these two levels, let prices be determined by market forces. This is the only way to shelter the world from volatility and unpredictability in oil


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the current level of international oil prices is in the interest of neither the oil-producing countries nor the consuming countries. If the global economy slows down or slips into a recession due to high oil prices, that will eventually hurt all of us. Therefore, in our enlightened self-interest, we must take concerted action to address the present situation. We welcome this energy dialogue and promise to remain engaged always.
I appeal to you in the name of development; I appeal to you on behalf of all developing countries to seize the moment. Let us put our heads together and find the way forward to normalize the oil markets and to move

towards a future in which energy is available, accessible and affordable for all on a sustained basis”.


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Countries abandoning price controls The Telegraph 5/29/2008
[“Asian countries begin to burst the oil bubble,” http://www.telegraph.co.uk/money/main.jhtml?xml=/money/2008/05/29/ccoil229.xml]

One by one, countries across Asia and the Middle East are being forced to abandon price controls on fuel and energy, bringing hundreds of millions of consumers face to face with the true market cost of oil. The effect has already begun to chip away at world demand and may ultimately trigger a slide in crude prices. Egypt - the most populous Arab state - has raised petrol prices by 40pc, despite protests in Cairo. Sri Lanka lifted diesel and petrol prices by 25pc over the weekend. India may have to follow soon to prevent its trade and budget deficits While China has so far resisted calls for price freedom, the policy is becoming unsustainable. Analysts predict a change in tack after the finish of the Beijing Olympics at the end of August.
GDP). Taiwan has mooted a 20pc rise, and Malaysia is to peel back controls.

climbing to dangerous levels. "The situation is alarming. We need to stem the rot," said India's energy secretary, MS Srinivasan. Indonesia has raised petrol prices by 33pc in order to restore fiscal discipline (subsidies are 3pc of

And the US doesn’t matter for prices – our evidence postdates by four years The Guardian 1/4/08
[“Leading article: Oil price: Crude lessons from the $100 barrel,” Lexis]

The alternative, of course, would be for oil producers in the Opec cartel to increase supplies. They probably will, but not by much: think drips rather than gushers. Opec countries worry that if they pump too much oil just as the world economy goes into sharp slowdown the price of crude will plummet and so will their revenues. Other countries have reserves of oil, of course, but the places where it is easiest to get it out at short notice are largely within the cartel. This simply underlines the second big thing that $100 oil tells us: that western influence on

the world economy is on the wane. America is still the global hub, but it no longer has quite the sway over Opec that it did. Nor is the US as important a customer as it used to be. It remains far and away the biggest consumer of oil, but American demand for crude is falling (in 2006, it slipped 1.3% on the year before). In the developing world, on the other hand, it is rocketing; not just China (where crude consumption rose nearly 7% in 2006) but across Asia and Latin America. That matters because the US is staring down the barrel of a recession and could do with lower commodity prices - even while China continues to boom and pushes those prices up. This will be a first for the world economy.


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The federal government is inextricably linked to the development of the aerospace, its key to facilitating policies that promote the growth of the industry Walker et al 02
- Chair of the Commission on the Future of the United States Aerospace Industry Commissioners (Robert, Final Report of the Commission on the Future of the United States Aerospace Industry Commissioners, November, http://www.trade.gov/td/aerospace/aerospacecommission/AeroCommissionFinalReport.pdf)

The federal government plays a key role in promoting the health of the U.S. aerospace industry. Maintaining global aerospace leadership to ensure America’s military preeminence,
means of travel and security.

guarantee homeland security, and assure economic growth and a superior quality of life for our citizens in the 21st century requires government activism. Aerospace provides the fastest, safest, most flexible and often the only

A coherent and inte- grated national aerospace consensus is critical to move the country forward, drive government action, and preserve U.S. global aerospace leadership. The federal government has called on the aerospace indus- try in time of crisis in the past. The aerospace industry has always responded when called. Today, the U.S. aerospace industry is in jeopardy and is looking to the federal govern-ment to respond. The

Commission is not asking for the federal government to create industrial policy, to pick winners and losers, or to subsidize the develop- ment of commercial aerospace products and services. But, the federal government must recognize that its interactions with industry are key to its strength and long-term survival and, ultimately, to the security and economic prosperity of America. Objective: Government—Flexible, Responsive and Oriented Towards

The health of the aerospace industry, today and in the future, is inextricably linked to the leadership of the federal government. Its interaction with the U.S. aerospace indusDecision Making try is vast, complex, and multi-dimensional. In the rapidly changing global econ-omy, government leadership must be increasingly flexible, responsive and oriented toward decisionmaking at macro-levels.

It must prioritize and promote aero- space both within the government and in its interac- tion’s with the industry in order to realize the fullest potential of aerospace to the nation. As a leader, the government must provide the national policies and investments needed for the industry to be competitive, to be innovative and to serve the public good both in the short and long term. As a customer and operator, the government must buy, use and provide the finest aerospace products and services for the public good,
such as for national defense, homeland security, air trans- portation and science.


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A unified body is the most crucial factor in aerospace development; states couldn’t develop a national consensus for aerospace, which is vital AIAA 05


Aerospace Industries Association of America, Inc, “The future of aerospace standardization”

There is currently no unified aerospace leadership on standardization to function in an integrator/advocacy capacity. Aerospace standardization efforts are currently the work of multiple individual standards development organizations (SDOs). An aerospace standardization integrator/advocacy body is needed to 1) address industry standardization issues, opportunities, and challenges, and work with all stakeholders to prioritize and respond to standards issues critical to aerospace; 2) advocate standards as supporting open and fair international trade and work to ensure a level playing field for development of globally relevant standards (mitigating the efforts of countries to use domestic or regional standards to promote or gain competitive trade advantage); 3) represent a U.S. aerospace position in international forums; 4) promote aerospace standardization in appropriate venues; and 5) provide
education, awareness and advocacy for aerospace standards with industry, government, consumers, and trade bodies. The position of leadership is vacant. Leadership for Standardization -

The need for leadership is apparent. The importance of leadership is obvious. The aerospace industry needs a forum where all the stakeholders can come together to address standardization issues. That doesn’t mean that this forum will work or solve all issues, nor would it be a standards developing
body. This would be a place where the industry could come together, articulate an issue, and determine the best plan for addressing the issue along with the best venues in which to undertake any standardization work. This would also be

a place where industry could prioritize those standards issues critical to aerospace to ensure the proper focus and attention by senior leaders. This would be the
international standards strategies. Leadership for Global Standards -

body to facilitate the creation of a US Aerospace Standardization Strategy and to ensure that this strategy supports the National Standards Strategy developed by the ANSI federation and integrates with other national and

There is currently no single aerospace organization actively promoting the development of globally relevant standards in a manner that recognizes first and foremost the technical suitability and market relevance of a standard. The aerospace industry needs a body to be the lead advocate for standards as tools supporting open and fair international trade and which works to ensure a level playing field for the development of globally relevant standards (mitigating the efforts of countries to use domestic or regional standards to promote or gain competitive trade
advantage). This leadership body would support and advocate the World Trade Organization’s definition of the criteria for developers of international (global) standards and ensure that aerospace standards developed by US domiciled international standards developers (e.g., SAE International, ASTM International, IEEE), and global aerospace organizations such as the International Aerospace Quality Group (IAQG) and the International Civil Aviations Organization (ICAO), are not disadvantaged by any claims that only ISO, IEC, and ITU standards are “international” standards. Leadership for the US – The aerospace industry needs a single body which can involve all stakeholders to pull together a US position and take that position into international fora.

This body would provide a unified voice for the US industry when dealing with standards
issues involving regional bodies such as the EU.

Private industries work with the DOD to create industry standards, lack of DOD representation threatens technology viability AIAA 05
Aerospace Industries Association of America, Inc [“the future of aerospace standardization”]


The DoD is committed to increased defense contractor productivity and improved acquisition efficiency. Standardization documents play an important role in this context, and must be selected and properly applied with
this objective in mind. They provide the framework by which requirements are defined.” 22 These words regarding the importance of standards and contained within the DoD’s documentation for the use of standards, commits the government to the use of standards for acquisition. But

if the DoD is committed to the use of industry standards to support the acquisition of new platforms and programs, then they need to ensure that DoD requirements are contained in and met by these standards. The move to use industry standards does not mean that
the DoD no longer has to concern itself with the management and maintenance of these documents. This couldn’t

Key to DoD acquisition policy is the use of commercial best practices and industry standards. The National Technology Transfer and
be farther from the truth.


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Advancement Act, Public Law 104-113, requires federal agencies and departments to use technical standards that are developed or adopted by voluntary consensus standards bodies as long as those standards meet the government’s needs. Government
agencies and the Department of Defense recognize the huge cost and time savings through the dual use of technology – technology defined by standards. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-119, “Federal Participation in the Development and Use of Voluntary Standards” has resulted in reducing government costs. DoD efforts to replace military specifications with commercial item specifications have saved procurement funds and reduced the need for suppliers to maintain separate military and

For aerospace, industry working closely with DoD is key to the creation of standards which will be value-added for both military and commercial use and will allow each to take advantage of best practices developed by the other. And to ensure that DoD requirements are contained in industry standards, DoD subject matter experts need to participate fully in the development and maintenance of industry standards. One of the greatest threats today to the lack of suitable standards for logistics support is the under funding and underrepresentation of DoD interests in industry standardization activities.
commercial production capabilities.23

Federal loan guarantees are granted through the DOE, states can’t DOE 6/30/08
[DOE Announces Solicitations for $30.5 Billion in Loan Guarantees, Second Round of Solicitations includes renewable energy, nuclear, and ‘front-end’ nuclear power facility projects]

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced three solicitations for a total of up to $30.5 billion in federal loan guarantees for projects that employ advanced energy technologies that avoid, reduce or sequester air pollutants or greenhouse gas emissions. The
fuel cycle. This marks

three solicitations are in the areas of energy efficiency, renewable energy and advanced transmission and distribution technologies; nuclear power facilities; and advanced nuclear facilities for the ‘front-end’ of the nuclear

the second round of solicitations for DOE’s Loan Guarantee Program, which encourages the commercial use of new or significantly improved energy technologies, and is an important step in paving the way for clean energy projects.

In a Fiscal Year (FY) 2008 loan guarantee implementation plan sent to Congress in April, DOE outlined plans to issue its second round of solicitations concurrently no later than June 2008 for energy efficiency, renewable energy and advanced transmission and distribution projects (up to $10 billion); nuclear power facilities (up to $18.5 billion); and advanced nuclear facilities for the “front-end” of the nuclear fuel cycle (up to $2 billion). Later this summer, DOE intends to issue a solicitation for loan guarantee applications for advanced fossil energy projects (up to $8 billion).

The authority to issue loan guarantees in the amounts specified in these solicitations was provided to DOE in the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2008 and is consistent with the Department’s FY 2009 Congressional Budget Request. “Loan guarantees from the Department will enable project developers to bridge the financing gap between pilot and demonstration projects to full commercially viable projects that employ new or significantly improved energy technologies,” Jeffrey F. Kupfer, the Acting

Deputy Secretary of Energy, said. “Projects supported by loan guarantees will help meet President Bush’s goal of diversifying our nation's energy mix with energy projects that will improve the environment while increasing energy efficiency.”The Department issued a Request for Information on April 11, 2008 and held subsequent public meetings in Washington, D.C. and Palo Alto, California to receive input on the development of the solicitation for projects in the energy efficiency, renewable energy and advanced transmission and distribution areas. The loan guarantee process is organized into four phases: application, project evaluation, conditional commitment, and final approval and closing of a Loan Guarantee Agreement. Selection criteria for the clean energy projects under these solicitations will focus on a project’s ability to avoid, reduce or sequester air pollutants or greenhouse gas emissions; the speed with which the technologies can be commercialized; the prospect of repayment of the guaranteed debt; and the potential for long-lasting success of these technologies in the marketplace. Today’s round of solicitations builds off of the previous solicitation issued by DOE which supported energy efficiency, renewable energy and fossil energy projects. DOE is currently reviewing the applications received to date as a result of the

Loan guarantees issued by DOE will be backed by the full faith and credit of the United States, and will facilitate the early commercial use of new or significantly improved technologies that will help fulfill President Bush’s goals of reducing our reliance
first solicitation.

on imported sources of energy by increasing energy efficiency, diversifying our nation’s energy mix, and improving the environment.


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And the simulation of the aff reverses structures of exploitation and unquestioned power GIROUX, CHAIR PROFESSORSHIP – EDUCATION AND CULTURAL STUDIES – PENN STATE, 6
[HENRY, ‘DIRTY DEMOCRACY AND STATE OF TERRORISM”, Comparative Studies of South Asia,163-177]

the new authoritarianism represents a political and form of militarism that loosen the connections among substantive democracy, critical agency, and critical education. In opposition to the rising tide of authoritarianism, educators across the globe must make a case for linking learning to progressive social change while struggling to pluralize and critically engage the diverse sites where public
Abstracted from the ideal of public commitment, economic practice and pedagogy takes place. In part, this suggests forming alliances that can make sure every sphere of social life is recognized
as an important site of the political, social, and cultural struggle that is so crucial to any attempt to forge the knowledge, identifications, effective investments, and social relations that constitute political subjects and social agents capable of energizing and spreading the basis for a substantive global democracy.

Such circumstances require that pedagogy be embraced as a moral and political practice, one that is directive and not dogmatic, an outgrowth of struggles designed to resist the increasing depoliticization of political culture that is the hallmark of the current Bush revolution. Education is the terrain where consciousness is shaped, needs are constructed, and the capacity for individual selfreflection and broad social change is nurtured and produced. Education has assumed an unparalleled

significance in shaping the language, values, and ideologies that legitimize the structures and organizations that support the imperatives of global capitalism. Efforts to reduce it to a technique or methodology set aside, education remains a crucial site for the production and struggle over those pedagogical and political conditions that provide the possibilities for people to develop forms of agency that enable them individually and collectively to intervene in the processes through which the material relations of power shape the meaning and practices of their everyday lives. Within the current historical context, struggles over power take on a symbolic and discursive as well as a material and institutional form. The struggle over education is about more than the struggle over meaning and identity; it is also about how meaning, knowledge, and values are produced, authorized, and made operational within economic and structural relations of power. Education is not at odds with politics; it is an important and crucial element in any definition of the political and offers not only the theoretical tools for a systematic critique of authoritarianism but also a language of possibility for creating actual movements for democratic social change and a new biopolitics that affirms life rather than death, shared responsibility

At stake here is combining symbolic forms and processes conducive to democratization with broader social contexts and the institutional formations of power itself. The key point here is to understand and engage educational and pedagogical practices from the point of view of how they are bound up with larger relations of power. Educators, students, and parents need to be clearer about how power works through and in texts, representations, and discourses, while at the same time recognizing that power cannot be limited to the study of representations and discourses, even at the level of public policy. Changing consciousness is not the same as altering the institutional basis of oppression; at the same time, institutional reform cannot take place without a change in consciousness capable of recognizing not only injustice but also the very possibility for reform, the capacity to reinvent the conditions [End Page 176] and practices that make a more just future possible. In addition, it is crucial to raise questions about the relationship between pedagogy and civic
rather than shared fears, and engaged citizenship rather than the stripped-down values of consumerism.

culture, on the one hand, and what it takes for individuals and social groups to believe that they have any responsibility whatsoever even to address the realities of class, race, gender, and other specific forms of domination, on the other hand. For too long, the progressives have ignored that the strategic dimension

of politics is inextricably connected to questions of critical education and pedagogy, to what it means
to acknowledge that education is always tangled up with power, ideologies, values, and the acquisition of both particular forms of agency and specific visions of the future. The primacy of critical pedagogy to politics, social change, and the radical imagination in such dark times is dramatically captured by the internationally renowned sociologist Zygmunt Bauman. He writes, Adverse odds may be overwhelming, and yet a democratic (or, as Cornelius Castoriadis would say, an autonomous) society knows of no substitute for education and self-education as a means to influence the turn of events that can be squared with its own nature, while that nature cannot be preserved for long without "critical pedagogy"—an education sharpening its critical edge, "making society feel guilty" and "stirring things up" through stirring human consciences. The fates of freedom, of democracy that makes it possible while being made possible by it, and of education that breeds dissatisfaction with the level of both freedom and democracy achieved thus far, are inextricably connected and not to be detached from one another.


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One may view that intimate connection as another specimen of a vicious circle—but it is within that circle that human hopes and the chances of humanity are inscribed, and can be nowhere else.59


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Friend/Enemy dichotomies are necessary for a stable political and intervention at the periphery to limit the effects of violence – The alternative collapses into even greater violence because it pushes these distinctions underground, intensifying them Rasch 05
2005] [William, “Lines in the Sand: Enmity as a Structuring Principle” The South Atlantic Quarterly 104:2, Spring

Accepting Cohen’s invitation means deciding on a fundamental distinction that runs through all political philosophy and that has risen once again to the surface in the radical responses to the emerging global order that some want to call Pax Americana and others simply Empire. It is a distinction that Carl Schmitt was keenly aware of; indeed, an unambiguous decision for one
alternative over the other structures his entire thought.1 That distinction is between good and evil, or, in the world of ‘‘those’’ about whom Cohen sings, between the presupposition of primordial peace and the presupposition of a war of all against all. In The Concept of the Political, Schmitt concludes that ‘‘all genuine political theories presuppose man to be evil, i.e., by no means an unproblematic but a dangerous and dynamic being.’’2 This anthropological fiction—and Schmitt is aware of the claim’s fictional status—serves as the logical premise that secures Schmitt’s definition of the political as the friend/enemy distinction. We live in a world, he says, in which associations with

likeminded others are our only means of security and happiness. Indiscriminate concourse of all with all cannot be the foundation for necessary political discriminations. Thus, the anthropological presupposition of evil, guilt,
and violence is designed to expose what Schmitt sees as the duplicity of liberal theory, which consists in using the promise of formal equality to camouflage political power by displacing it in the realms of economics and morality. Liberal theory denies original enmity by assuming the innate goodness of the human being.Those—communitarians and liberals alike— who say there is no war presuppose a counterfactual ‘‘ontological priority of non-violence,’’ a ‘‘state of total peace’’ 3 that invites universal inclusion based on the ‘‘essential homogeneity and natural virtue of mankind.’’ 4 If, in such a benign state of nature, violence were to break out, such violence would be

considered a perversion and, if all else were to fail, would have to be extirpated by an even greater violence. To cite
John Locke, this ‘‘State of perfect Freedom’’ and universal ‘‘Equality,’’ governed solely by reason and natural law, can be disturbed only by an ‘‘Offender’’ who ‘‘declares himself to live by another Rule, than that of reason and common Equity.’’ Such a ‘‘Criminal’’ has ‘‘declaredWar against allMankind, and therefore may be destroyed as a Lyon or a Tyger, one of those wild Savage Beasts, with whomMen can have no Society nor Security.’’ 5 The political, on this view, emerges only as the result of the Fall—that is, emerges only to fight the war against war, a war always initiated by a sinful or bestial other. It seeks to make itself superfluous by restoring or, more progressively, establishing for the first time this natural order of peace. Should one demur and find the perfect state to be less than advertised, then one’s demurral would most assuredly be recognized not as legitimate political opposition, but rather as evidence of greed, moral perversity, or some other pathological behavior. With its pacific presuppositions, liberalism, according to Schmitt, dissolves the specificity of the political and hides the necessarily asymmetric power relations that mark all political maneuverings. By way of an anthropological sleight of hand, liberalism represents itself as an ethos, a moral and economic emancipation, and not as what it really is, namely, a powerpolitical regime with traditional power-political aims. For Schmitt, distinctions, rather than the effacement of distinctions, structure the space within which we live, including the space of the political. Only within structured space, space literally marked by human activities, by human groupings and the boundaries they draw, do terms achieve their meanings. Norms, he repeatedly stated, are derived from situations, normal situations; they are not derived logically from underived first principles. Categories like ‘‘liberty’’ and ‘‘equality’’ can have political significance only when defined and delineated within the sphere of the political. They are neither natural nor innately human qualities; they are not self-evident truths. Consequently, Schmitt’s suspicion of liberalism, pacifism, or any other -ism that denies an initial and therefore ever-present potential war of all against all is a suspicion of those who wish to make their operative distinctions invisible, and thus incontestable, by claiming the immorality or illegality of all distinction. Schmitt’s insistence, then, on our ‘‘evil’’ nature is evidence neither of his existential misanthropy nor even, necessarily, of his conservative authoritarianism, but rather of his desire to secure the autonomy and necessity of that human mechanism called ‘‘the political.’’ To the question of whether there is a war, Schmitt emphatically answers ‘‘yes’’—by which he means to affirm not armed conflict or bloodshed as a virtue in and of itself, but rather the necessity of the view that the proverbial state of nature is, as Hobbes knew, a state marked by imperfection, and that this imperfection manifests itself as violence and the guilt associated with it. Schmitt, then, starts fromthe premise of imperfection and acknowledges an ontological priority of violence. If, he reasons, one starts with the rather biblical notions of sin and guilt, not natural innocence, then homogeneity, being contingent, historical, and not the least natural, must be predicated on heterogeneity. That is, citizenship or

participation or community must be constructed, not assumed, and can only be local, circumscribed, not global. One recognizes one’s own in the face of the other and knows the comfort of inclusion only as the necessary result of exclusion—though in modern, functionally differentiated society, those inclusions and exclusions may be multiple, contradictory, and not necessarily tied to place. ‘‘An absolute human equality,’’ Schmitt writes in his Crisis of Parliamentary Democracy, ‘‘would be an equality without the necessary correlate of inequality and as a result conceptually and practically meaningless, an indifferent equality. . . . Substantive inequalities would in no way disappear from the world and the state; they would shift into another sphere, perhaps separated from the political and concentrated in the economic, leaving this area to take on a new, disproportionately decisive importance.’’ 6 This, Schmitt’s, is not a popular sentiment, even if it echoes somewhat the Marxist distinction between a political and a

if one acknowledges that at least within modernity all inclusion requires exclusion, that inclusions and exclusions in addition to being unavoidable are also contingent and malleable, then rather than react with dismay, one might see in this ‘‘logical fact,’’ if fact it is, both the condition for the possibility of dissent and the condition for the possibility of recognizing in the one who resists and disagrees a fellow human being and thus legitimate political opponent, not a Lyon or Tyger or other Savage Beast. For it is not that exclusions are miraculously made absent once distinctions are not formally drawn. On the contrary, unacknowledged distinctions, and those who are distinguished by them, simply go underground, become invisible, and grow stronger, more absolute, in their violent and explosive force. When the
social democracy, between a formal and substantial equality. But

retrograde and condemned distinction between the ‘‘Greek’’ and the ‘‘barbarian’’ becomes a simple, sanguine affirmation of humanity, this ideal affirmation actually turns out to be nothing other than a distinction drawn between all those who, by their right behavior, show themselves to be truly ‘‘human’’ and those who, alas, by their perverse dissent, have revealed themselves to be evildoers, to be ‘‘inhuman.’’ Deliberate, visible, ‘‘external’’ distinctions that demarcate a

space in which a ‘‘we’’ can recognize its difference from a ‘‘they,’’ preferably without marking that difference in a necessarily asymmetrical manner, are to be preferred, in Schmitt’s world, to the invisible and unacknowledged distinctions that mark those who are exemplary humans from those who, by their political dissent, show themselves to be gratuitously perverse. For reasons, then, of making difference visible, Schmitt favors lines drawn in the sand, or, in the
‘‘mythical language’’ used in The Nomos of the Earth, ‘‘firm lines’’ in the ‘‘soil,’’ ‘‘whereby definite divisions become apparent,’’ and, above them, on the ‘‘solid ground of the earth,’’ ‘‘fences, enclosures, boundaries, walls, houses, and other constructs,’’ so that the ‘‘orders and orientations of human social life become apparent’’ and the ‘‘forms of power and domination become visible.’’7 In Nomos, Schmitt describes the now much maligned and seldom mourned European nation-state systemas ‘‘the highest form of orderwithin the scope of human power’’ (187). Historically, the territorial state developed as a response to the religious civil wars of the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. Once thought of as a unity called Christendom, Europe became fractured by the events of the Reformation and Counter-


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Reformation. The old asymmetrical distinction between believers and nonbelievers that governed the relationship not only between Christians and non-Christians, but also between Christian orthodoxy and heresy, now threatened to regulate the distinction between Catholics and Protestants. Yet, miraculously (one might be tempted to say), with the conclusion of religious warfare in 1648, a symmetrical relationship among the European nation-states prevailed—in theory, if not always in fact. It is this symmetrical ordering of internally differentiated Europe that Schmitt highlights. In effect—and Hobbes had already described it in these terms—the war of all individuals against all individuals in the state of nature, which perennially threatens to resurface within the state as civil discord, is elevated into a war of all states against all states in a second-order state of nature. In theory and practice, then, the individual is protected from arbitrary and irrational, because incalculable, violence by states acting as moral persons living in an unregulated but serendipitously achieved balance of power. We might best update Schmitt’s description of this order as an ideally anarchic, self-regulating coexistence of antagonistic powers, an emergent, horizontal self-organization of sovereign systems with no one system serving as sovereign over all the others—a plurality of states that refused to coalesce into one single state but rather achieved relative security without relinquishing autonomy. The ‘‘medium’’ of this self-organization was violence (war); yet, by virtue of mechanisms of reciprocity, by virtue, that is, of a similarly emergent self-regulation of violence called international law (the jus publicum Europaeum of which Schmitt sings his praises), the conduct of warfare among European states was restrained and controlled. Thus, the nation-state way of organizing earlymodern Europe served as the katechon, the political as restrainer, establishing relative stability and peace to stave off chaos and civil war. How is this possible? Despite its internal self-differentiation, Europe still saw itself as a unity because of a second major distinction, the one between Europe and the New World, where New World denotes the entire non-European world, but especially the newly ‘‘discovered’’ regions of the globe following Columbus’s three voyages. This distinction was asymmetrical; on the one side we find Christianity and culture, on the other only pagan ‘‘barbarians.’’ How did Europeans mark this difference between a selfdifferentiated ‘‘us’’ and a homogenous ‘‘them’’? Through violence. Only now, violence was regulated hierarchically by the traditional ‘‘just war’’ doctrine. Schmitt clearly marks the difference between symmetrical and asymmetrical modes of warfare (thus the difference between warfare ‘‘this side’’ versus the ‘‘other side’’ of socalled amity lines that separated Old Europe from the New World) as the difference between wars fought against ‘‘just enemies’’ and those fought for a ‘‘just cause.’’ The former recognize a commonality among combatants that allows for reciprocity; the latter does not. Wars fought against enemies one respects as occupiers of the same cultural ‘‘space,’’ no matter how subdivided, allows for the desirable constraints on the conduct of war. Wars

fought against infidels, pagans, and barbarians, whether these barbarians deny the one God, the laws of nature, the truth of reason, or the higher morality of liberalism, are wars fought against those who are not to be respected or accorded the rights granted equals.8 To be in possession of truth, no matter how much that truth is debated internally, allows one to stand over against the other as a conglomerated unity. This self-differentiated unity can assume the restrained and restraining order of civilization because it has inoculated itself against outbreaks of ‘‘natural’’ and lawless violence by displacing them in the New World. America, as Hobbes and others imagined it, was the preeminent site of the feared state of nature; thus Europe was spared any recurrence of the civil wars that had previously ravaged it. What Schmitt describes as an enviable achievement—that is, the balanced order of restrained violence within Europe—presupposed the consignment of unrestrained violence to the rest of the world. That is, desired restraint was founded upon sanctioned lack of restraint. If Schmitt, by concentrating on the
development of European international law after the religious civil wars, highlights an admirable local result of a disagreeable global process, this can be attributed to his explicit Eurocentrism. But even non- Eurocentrics may be dismayed by the twentieth-century reintroduction of unrestricted violence within Europe itself.The epitome of this return of the repressed may be the midcentury death camp, as Giorgio Agamben maintains, 9 but its initial breakthrough is the Great War of the century’s second decade. For how else can one explain that a traditional European power struggle that started in 1914 as a war fought for state interest should end in 1918–19 as a war fought by ‘‘civilization’’ against its ‘‘barbarian’’ other? And how else can one explain that we have been so eager to replicate this distinction in every war we have fought ever since? If, in other words, we are rightly horrified by the distinction between civilized and uncivilized when it is used to describe the relationship of Old Europe and its colonial subjects, and if we are rightly horrified by the distinction between the human and the in- or subhuman when it is used to discriminate against blacks, Jews, Gypsies, and other so-called undesirables, then why do we persist today in using these very distinctions when combating our latest enemies? Is it merely ironic or in fact profoundly symptomatic that those who most vehemently affirm universal symmetry (equality, democracy) are also more often than not the ones who opt for themost asymmetrical means of locating enemies and conducting war—that is, just wars fought for a just cause? But how are we to respond? For those who say there is no war and who yet find themselves witnessing daily bloodshed, Adornoian asceticism (refraining from participating in the nihilism of the political) or Benjaminian weak, quasi, or other messianism (waiting for the next incarnation of the historical subject [the multitudes?] or the next proletarian general strike [the event?]) would seem to be the answer. To this, however, those who say there is a war can respond only with bewilderment. Waiting for a ‘‘completely new politics’’ 10 and completely new political agents, waiting for the event and the rightmoment to name it, or waiting for universal ontological redemption feelsmuch like waiting for the Second Coming, or,more accurately, for Godot. And have we not all grown weary of waiting? The war we call ‘‘the political,’’ whether nihilist or not, happily goes on while we watch Rome burn. As Schmitt wrote of the relationship of early Christianity to the Roman Empire, ‘‘The belief that a restrainer holds back the end of the world provides the only bridge between the notion of an eschatological paralysis of all human events and a tremendous historical monolith like that of the Christian empire of the Germanic kings’’ (60).One does not need to believe in the virtues of that particular ‘‘historicalmonolith’’ to understand the dangers of eschatological paralysis. But as Max Weber observed firsthand, ascetic quietude leads so often, so quickly, and so effortlessly to the chiliastic violence that knows no bounds;11 and as we have lately observed anew, the millennial messianism of imperial rulers and nomadic partisans alike dominates the contemporary political landscape. The true goal of those who say there is no war is to eliminate the war that actually exists by eliminating those Lyons and Tygers and other Savage Beasts who say there is a war. This war is the truly savage war. It is the war we witness today. No amount of democratization, pacification, or Americanization will mollify its effects, because democratization, pacification, and Americanization are among the weapons used by those who say there is no war to wage their war to end all war. What is to be done? If

you are one who says there is a war, and if you say it not because you glory in it but because you fear it and hate it, then your goal is to limit it and its effects, not eliminate it, which merely intensifies it, but limit it by drawing clear lines within which it can be fought, and clear lines between those who fight it and those who don’t, lines between friends, enemies, and neutrals, lines between combatants and noncombatants. There are, of course, legitimate doubts about whether
those ideal lines could ever be drawn again; nevertheless, the question that we should ask is not how can we establish perpetual peace, but rather a more modest one: Can symmetrical relationships be guaranteed only by asymmetrical ones? According to Schmitt, historically this has been the case. ‘‘The traditional Eurocentric order of international law is foundering today, as is the old nomos of the earth. This order arose from a legendary and unforeseen discovery of a new world, from an unrepeatable historical event. Only in fantastic parallels can one imagine a modern recurrence, such as men on their way to themoon discovering a new and hitherto unknown planet that could be exploited freely and utilized effectively to relieve their struggles on earth’’ (39). We have since gone to the moon and have found nothing on the way there to exploit. We may soon go to Mars, if current leaders have their way, but the likelihood of finding exploitable populations seems equally slim. Salvation through spatially delimited asymmetry, even were it to be desired, is just not on the horizon. And salvation through globalization, that is, through global unity and equality, is equally impossible, because today’s asymmetry is not so much a localization of the exception as it is an invisible generation of the exception from within that formal ideal of unity, a generation of the exception as the difference between the human and the inhuman outlaw, the ‘‘Savage Beast, with whom Men can have no Society nor Security.’’ We are, therefore, thrown back upon ourselves, which is to say, upon those artificial ‘‘moral persons’’ who act as our collective political identities.They used to be called states.What theywill be called in the future remains to be seen. But, if we think to establish a differentiated unity of discrete political entities that once represented for Schmitt ‘‘the highest form of order within the scope of human power,’’ then we must symmetrically manage the necessary pairing of inclusion and exclusion without denying the ‘‘forms of power and domination’’ that inescapably accompany human ordering.We must think the possibility of roughly equivalent power relations rather than fantasize the elimination of power from the political universe. This, conceivably, was also Schmitt’s solution.Whether his idea of the plurality of Großräume could ever be carried out under contemporary circumstances is, to be sure,more than a little doubtful, given that the United States enjoys a monopoly on guns, goods, and the Good, in the form of a supremely effective ideology of universal ‘‘democratization.’’ Still, we would do well to devise vocabularies that do not just emphatically repeat philosophically more sophisticated versions of the liberal ideology of painless, effortless, universal equality.The space of the political will never be created by a bloodless, Benjaminian divine


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violence. Nor is it to be confused with the space of the simply human. To dream the dreams of universal inclusion may satisfy an irrepressible human desire, but it may also always produce recurring, asphyxiating political nightmares of absolute exclusion.

Calculation of the unknown is critical to prevent more perverse calculations Campbell 99 - Professor of International Politics at the University of Newcastle
p. 45-7] [David, “The Deterritorialization of Responsibility,” Moral Spaces, Eds. Michael J. Shapiro & David Campbell,

That undecidability resides within the decision,

Derrida argues, "that justice exceeds law and calculation, that the unpresentable exceeds the determinable cannot and should not serve as alibi for staying out of juridico-political battles, within an institution or a state, or between institutions or states and others."91 Indeed, "incalculable justice requires us to calculate." From where does this insistence come? What is behind, what is animating, these imperatives? It is both the character of infinite justice as a heteronomic relationship to the other, a relationship that because of its undecidability multiplies responsibility, and the fact that "left to itself, the incalculable and giving (donatrice) idea of justice is always very close to the bad, even to the worst, for it can always be reap-propriated by the most perverse calculation."92 The necessity of calculating the incalculable thus responds to a duty, a duty that inhabits the instant of madness and compels the decision to avoid "the bad," the "perverse calculation," even "the worst." This is the duty that also dwells with deconstruction and makes it the starting point, the "at least necessary condition," for the organization of resistance to totalitarianism in all its forms. And it
is a duty that responds to practical political concerns when we recognize that Derrida names the bad, the perverse, and the worst as those violences "we

recognize all too well without yet having thought them through, the crimes of xenophobia, racism, anti-Semitism, religious or nationalist fanaticism."93
could certainly begin with those strategies. Instead,

Furthermore, the duty within the decision, the obligation that recognizes the necessity of negotiating the possibilities provided by the impossibilities of justice, is not content with simply avoiding, containing, combating, or negating the worst violence — though it

this responsibility, which is the responsibility of responsibility, commissions a "utopian" strategy. Not a strategy that is beyond all bounds of possibility so as to be considered "unrealistic," but one which in respecting the necessity of calculation, takes the possibility summoned by the calculation as far as possible, "must take it as far as possible, beyond the place we find ourselves and beyond the already identifiable zones of morality or politics or law, beyond the distinction between national and international, public and private, and so on."94 As Derrida declares, "The condition of possibility of this thing called responsibility is a certain experience and experiment of the possibility of the impossible: the testing of the aporia from which one may invent the only possible invention, the impossible invention."


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Capitalism is good Fernando 03 – Teaches political economy and regional development at the University of Arizona
[Jude l, “rethinking sustainable development,” The Annals of The American Academy of Political and Social Science, Lexis]

development has shown a remarkable capacity to reinvent itself in response to challenges. These reinventions have led to significant shifts in the theory and practice of development, of which sustainable development is an important example. Although
Historically, concern for sustainability entered the discourse of development in the early 1970s, the idea's official origins stem from Agenda 21, following the 1992 United Nations Conferences on Environment and Development in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil. Since then, the meaning of the term sustainable development has become broader and

is concerned not only with environmental protection but also extends to social objectives such as equity, human rights, and social justice (Drummond and Marsden 1999, 19; Middleton and O'Keefe 2001; Haughton 1999). If one were to provide a generic definition, sustainable development can be said to be meeting the necessity of ensuring "a better quality of life for all, now, and into the future, in a just and equitable manner, while living within the limits of supporting ecosystems" (Agyeman, Bullard, and Evans 2002a, 2). For many, sustainable development indicates a radical paradigm shift in development discourse and practice. Despite its failures, sustainable development is not a concept one can easily dismiss. At least, one cannot ignore its claims or the theoretical and methodological challenges it presents. To reject the concept is to tacitly accept unsustainability and is an admission of our failure to "address the key conceptual and methodological challenges which [sustainable development] presents" (Drummond and Marsden 1999, 2). It is crucial to understand the conditions and processes that
more integrative (see http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev.agenda21text.htm). It produce unsustainable development--particularly how efforts toward sustainable development result in unsustainable outcomes. Today's challenge is to rethink current theory and practice in sustainable

to claim a powerful political space for sustainable development so that it will be a realizable goal. Sustainable development has great potential as a "positive myth which [can] bring together diverse and often competing causes" (Murphy and Bendell 1997, 2) capable of guiding the way to a sustainable relationship between humanity and the environment. To claim a new and more powerful political space for sustainable development, it is necessary to provide a unified explanation for its current impasse both in practice and in theory. One strong unifying element may be found in terms of analyzing the practice of sustainable development within the context of capitalist development worldwide. This is not a random choice. More than ever, the social, political, [*8] and economic spheres of modern society are interconnected and interdependent through the mediation of capitalist forces and relations of production--no matter what claims are made to the contrary. Put somewhat differently, capitalism, as a unifying force, does not mean a disregard for diversity in social organization but "universal efforts" in configuring and disciplining diversity according to capital's own self-centered imperatives. On one
development, hand, as Timothy O'Riordan (1987) has noted, sustainable development will prove to be an "inoperable concept" because the contemporary world [is] dominated by the influence of capitalist forms on the alienation of humanity from the natural world. . . . It draws more from the environment than it returns yet does not pay for the loss of that environmental capital. (P. 13; Drummond and Marsden 1999, 18) Consequently, "natural resources are systematically depleted in the accumulation drive by both private and multinational capital and the state. Ecological degradation in the South assumes emergency proportions through the mindless commitment to the economic growth strategy endemic to developed capitalism" (Redclift 1987, as quoted in Drummond and Marsden 1999, 18). On the other hand, currently, there exists no politically powerful alternative

to capitalism. While capitalism may underpin the problems of sustainable development, as Dickens (1992, 7) noted, "the idea that the solution to these problems lie in the overthrow of capitalism, is outmoded" (see also Drummond and Marsden 1999, 18). The examples of sustainable development
practices that directly contradict the interests of capitalism are rare, and the existing radical approaches "have hardly gained any political credibility, real scientific development, or for that matter widespread public support" (Drummond and Marsden 1999, 19).

The hegemony of capitalism has indeed provided many fruitful opportunities to rethink sustainable development. This is because the irreconcilable tension between the sustainability
of capitalism and sustainable development has become far more visible than at any other time in its history. Hence,


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the need to engage directly with the capitalist forces and relations of production has become unavoidable as a fundamental prerequisite for the realization of sustainable development. Moreover, we also have a wealth of knowledge about the unsustainable development results
from the former centrally planned socialist economies.


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Technologies set forth by capitalist societies are key to environmental protection Scorse 06 – Doctoral Student at UC Berkeley
[Jason, http://gristmill.grist.org/story/2006/8/2/9553/58445 “Confusing Capitalism with Industrialization” Aug 2 2006]

within capitalist and market-based societies that we have the greatest ability to change trajectories in production, bring new technologies on line, and respond to shifts in consumer demand. These are keys to a future where the environment is better protected. It is not guaranteed within capitalist societies, but the potential is always there if the political will exists to ensure that the negative environmental effects of industrialization are taken into account by producers so that incentives exist to shift towards cleaner technologies.
It is

Free market capitalism is vital to preventing extinction and ensuring equality and value to life Rockwell 2002
[Llewellyn H., President of the Mises Institute, The Free Market, “Why They Attack Capitalism”, Volume 20, Number 10, October, http://www.mises.org/freemarket_detail.asp?control=418&sortorder-articledate]

The market economy has created unfathomable prosperity and, decade by decade, for centuries and centuries, miraculous feats of innovation, production, distribution, and social coordination. To the free market, we owe all material prosperity, all our leisure time, our health and longevity, our huge and growing population, nearly everything we call life itself. Capitalism and capitalism alone has rescued the human race from degrading poverty, rampant sickness, and early death. In the absence of the capitalist economy, and all its underlying institutions, the world’s population would, over time, shrink to a fraction of its current size, in a holocaust of unimaginable scale, and whatever remained of the human race would be systematically reduced to subsistence, eating only what can be hunted or gathered. And this is only to mention its economic benefits. Capitalism is also an expression of freedom. It is not so much a social system but the de facto result in a society where individual rights are respected, where businesses, families, and every form of association are permitted to flourish in the absence of coercion, theft, war, and aggression. Capitalism protects the weak against the strong, granting choice and opportunity to the masses who once had no choice but to live in a state of dependency on the politically connected and their enforcers. The high value placed on women, children, the disabled, and the aged— unknown in the ancient world—owes so much to capitalism’s productivity and distribution of power. Must we compare the record of capitalism with that of the state, which, looking at the sweep of this past century alone, has killed hundreds of millions of people in wars, famines, camps, and deliberate starvation campaigns? And the record of central planning of the type now being urged
If you think about it, this hysteria is astonishing, even terrifying. on American enterprise is perfectly abysmal.


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The exploration of space and everything requires an assessment of risk and an assessment of all related values, considering impacts before we act is crucial to avoiding our self destruction Frodeman 08
- chair of the Department of Philosophy at the University of North Texas. He specializes in environmental philosophy and philosophy and science policy [“Separated at Birth, Signs of Rapprochement Environmental Ethics and Space Exploration,” Ethics & the Environment, Volume 13, Number 1, Spring 2008, pp. 135-151, project muse]

The development of environmental philosophy (a new traditionalism, in that it looked back to the pre 19th century categories of natural philosophy and cosmology) is increasingly giving epistemological, aesthetic, religious, and metaphysical concerns about nature equal status with ethics.3 The wider range of environmental philosophy is better situated to describe our interests and experiences at places such as the Grand Canyon. People go to the
Grand Canyon for reasons of aesthetics (its beauty), theology (the awe it inspires), or metaphysics (it gives us a new sense of one's place in the universe), not ethics. Moreover,

the wider concerns of environmental philosophy are more consistent with our responses to and concerns with the extraterrestrial realm. While issues such as the possible biological contamination of other planets and space debris have clear ethical dimensions, the expansion of our understanding of the cosmos through instruments such as the Hubble Space Telescope is much more a matter of aesthetics (e.g., Hubble's
stunning pictures) and metaphysics (our growing appreciation of the long view of cosmic history) than ethics.

Humans tend to acknowledge ethical responsibilities to what is close at hand. The thought of environmental ethics in outer space, where few will go in our lifetimes and nothing is known to live, is quite simply unfathomable to most. But despite all this, the cosmic environment continues to awe, delight, and inspire generation after generation. [End Page 138] In what follows we seek to spur the rapprochement and cross-fertilization of

philosophy and space policy by highlighting the philosophic dimensions of space exploration, pulling together issues and authors that have had insufficient contact with one another. We do so by offering an account of three topics: planetary exploration, planetary protection and the search for extraterrestrial life, and terraforming. The resulting synthesis seeks to change our thinking about earthbound environmental ethics as it considers the philosophical dimensions of space exploration, and introduces the possible benefits of a humanities-oriented approach to space

Lessons learned about our impact on the Earth's surface and atmosphere have relevance as we travel beyond our home planet. The unintended and often destructive effects of humankind on the Earth environment highlight the need for caution and restraint as we travel beyond our home planet. Several authors,
policy. Planetary Exploration.

acknowledging the probability that humans will one day be active and constant presences in space, have suggested the need to identify and preserve wilderness areas on celestial and planetary bodies.4 Using the United States National Parks System as an analogue, scientists Charles Cockell and Gerda Horneck (2004) suggest that an extraterrestrial park system with strict regulations and enforcement measures would go a long way to ensure that

policy would acknowledge the competing interests and priorities of many parties: national space agencies, the international community, the community of space scientists, private enterprises who have fixed their sights on space tourism, commercial, and/or industrial enterprises in space, environmental ethicists, and the general public. The issues involved are complex. National Parks in the United States were established after centuries of thinking through the relationships between human and nonhuman, nature and culture, beauty, truth, and the sublime, and humans' obligations toward the Earth. Scientists and political decision-makers will have to confront these issues, whether explicitly or implicitly, as they consider the future of the space program. But this thinking will now take place in a context where humans are aliens. Earth-bound environmental philosophy occurs in a context where we are a [End Page 139] natural part of the environment. On other planets we face a new first question: what are the ethical and philosophical dimensions of visiting or settling other planets? In short, should we go there at all? To date, the discussion of natural places has turned on questions concerning intrinsic and instrumental values. Intrinsic values theorists claim that things have value for their own sake, in contrast to theories of
portions of Mars remain pristine for science, native biota (if any exist), and human appreciation. Such a


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instrumental value where things are good because they can be used to obtain something else of value (economic or otherwise). This debates tends tend to get caught up in attempts at extending the sphere of intrinsically valuable entities. Ethical extensionism depends on human definitions of moral considerability, which typically stem from some degree of identification with things outside us. This anthropocentric and geocentric environmental perspective shows cracks when we try to extend it to the cosmic environment. The few national or international policies currently in
place that mention the environment of outer space (e.g. NASA's planetary protection policy, United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space) consider the preservation of planetary bodies for science, human exploration, and possible future habitation, but there is not yet any policy that considers whether

these anthropocentric priorities should supersede the preservation of possible indigenous extraterrestrial life, or the environmental or geological integrity of the extraterrestrial environment. Anticipating the need for policy decisions regarding space exploration, Mark Lupisella and John Logsdon suggest the possibility of a cosmocentric ethic, "one which (1) places the universe at the center, or establishes the universe as the priority in a value system, (2) appeals to something characteristic of the universe (physical and/or metaphysical) which might then (3) provide a justification of value, presumably intrinsic value, and (4) allow for reasonably objective measurement of value" (Lupisella & Logsdon 1997, 1). The
authors discuss the need to establish policies for pre-detection and post-detection of life on Mars, and suggest that

a cosmocentric ethic would provide a justification for a conservative approach to space exploration and science—conservative in the sense of considering possible impacts before we act.5 A Copernican shift in consciousness, from regarding the Earth as the center of the universe to one of it being the home of participants in a cosmic story, is necessary in order to achieve the proper environmental perspective as we venture beyond our home planet. [End Page 140] Of

course, given current and prospective space technology, our range is quite limited. The current Pluto New Horizons probe, launched by NASA in January 2006, travels at 50,000 mph, the limit of chemical propulsion. At such speeds Pluto is nine years distant, Alpha Centauri 55,000. On the other hand, there are perhaps 1000 near

Earth asteroids greater than 100 meters—not counting those in the Asteroid Belt beyond Mars—with a frequency of impact of perhaps one in a hundred years that would cause a regional scale disaster. Planetary Protection and the Search For Extraterrestrial Life.
Since the beginning of the U.S. space program, NASA has taken care with the question of possible contamination— whether so-called forward contamination of space from Earth, or back contamination of Earth from hitchhiker organisms (NASA 1999). In 1958 the International Council of Science (ICSU) established the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), an international body charged with the coordination of worldwide space research including the prevention of interplanetary contamination. In 1964 COSPAR established a quantitative, probabilistic framework based on microbial risk, for the development of planetary protection standards (COSPAR 1964). The UN Space Treaty of 1967 asserts: States party to the Treaty shall pursue studies of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, and conduct exploration of them so as to avoid their harmful contamination and also adverse changes in the environment of the Earth resulting from the introduction of extraterrestrial matter, and where necessary, shall adopt appropriate measures for this purpose. (United Nations 1967, Article IX). By 1982—that is, after a large number of landings on the Moon, Mars, and Venus—COSPAR determined that the quantitative measure of risk it had been using (an assessment of the probability that life will replicate on a given planet or celestial body) was based on highly subjective speculation. In response, COSPAR adopted qualitative standards of spacecraft cleanliness based on the different life-detection priorities for planetary bodies. Different types of missions require increasing levels of cleanliness: a fly-by mission has less contamination risk than a lander or sample-return mission, and a mission to Mars or Europa would be held to higher standards than one to a planet deemed unlikely to harbor life [End Page 141] (for example, Venus). This shift in perspective highlights the nature of speculative science: outside the controlled environment of the lab, science progresses through what is essentially refined guesswork. The science of space travel makes assumptions about acceptable levels of risk, but risk

(from localized effects to planetary destruction due to human error, technical malfunction, or unanticipated factors) is ubiquitous. How much risk is too much? Rather than being solely addressed through disciplinary science, risk evaluation involves a consideration of our values, including our notion of progress and the relationship between humans, the environment, and technology. Policy makers have long sought scientific certainty to guide legislation, but it has become increasingly obvious that


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policy also depends on a complex and ambiguous network of human values, political capital, and public opinion—issues that cannot be disaggregated from each other.


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a. It’s impossible to determine an answer to being – ontological questioning results in policy paralysis

Levinas, professor of philosophy, and Philippe Nemo, professor of new philosophy, Ethics and

Infinity, 1985, pg. 6-7

Are we not in need of still more precautions? Must we not step back from this question to raise another, to recognize the obvious circularity of asking what is the “What is . .?“ question? It seems to beg the question. Is our new suspicion, then, that Heidegger begs the question of metaphysics when he asks “What is poetry?” or “What is thinking?”? Yet his thought is insistently anti-metaphysical. Why, then, does he retain the metaphysical question par excellence? Aware of just such an objection, he proposes, against the vicious circle of the petitio principi, an alternative, productive circularity: hermeneutic questioning. To ask “What is. . .?“ does not partake of onto-theo-logy if one acknowledges (1) that the answer can never be fixed absolutely, but calls essentially, endlessly, for additional “What is . . .?“ questions. Dialectical refinement here replaces vicious circularity. Further, beyond the openmindedness called for by dialectical refinement, hermeneutic questioning (2) insists on avoiding subjective impositions, on avoiding reading into rather than harkening to things. One must harken to the things themselves, ultimately to being, in a careful attunement to what is. But do the refinement and care of the hermeneutic question — which succeed in avoiding ontotheo-logy succeed in avoiding all viciousness? Certainly they convert a simple fallacy into a productive inquiry, they open a path for thought. But is it not the case that however much

refinement and care one brings to bear, to ask what something is leads to asking what something else is, and so on and so forth, ad infinitum? What is disturbing in this is not
so much the infinity of interpretive depth, which has the virtue of escaping onto-theo-logy and remaining true to the way things are, to the phenomena, the coming to be and passing away of being. Rather, the

problem lies in the influence the endlessly open horizon of such thinking exerts on the way of such thought. That is, the problem lies in what seems to be the very virtue of hermeneutic thought, namely, the doggedness of the “What is . . .?“ question, in its inability to escape itself, to escape being and essence.
To be sure, Fox sees the need for our undergoing “certain fundamental changes” in our “thinking, beliefs, attitudes, values” and Zimmerman Earth. But it

calls for a “paradigm shift” in our thinking

about ourselves, other, and the

is not

clear that what either offers as suggestions for what we can, must, or should do in the face of

sufficient to “wind down” the arms race before it leads to omnicide. In spite of the importance of Fox’s analysis and reminders it is not clear that “admitting our (nuclear)
a runaway arms race are

fear and anxiety” to ourselves and “identifying the mechanisms that dull or mask our emotional and other responses” represent much more than examples of basic, often. stated principles of psychotherapy. Being aware of the psychological maneuvers that keep us numb to nuclear reality may well be the road to transcending them but it must only be a “first step” (as Fox acknowledges), during which we Simultaneously act to eliminate nuclear threats, break our complicity with the ams race, get rid of arsenals of genocidal weaponry, and create conditions for international goodwill, mutual trust, and creative interdependence. Similarly, in respect to Zimmerman: in spite of the challenging Heideggerian insights he brings out regarding what motivates the arms race, many questions may

Given our need for a paradigm shift in our (distorted) understanding of ourselves and the rest of being, are we merely left “to prepare for a possible shift in our self-understanding? (italics mine)? Is this all we can do? Is it necessarily the case that
be raised about his prescribed “solutions.” such a shift “cannot come as a result of our own will?” – and work – but only from “a destiny outside our control?” Does this mean we leave to God the matter of bringing about a paradigm shift? Granted our fears and the importance of not being controlled by fears, as well as our “anthropocentric leanings,” should we be as cautious as Zimmerman suggests about out disposition “to want to do something” or “to act decisively in the face of the

In spite of the importance of our taking on the anxiety of our finitude and our present limitation, does it follow that “we should be willing for the worst (i.e. an all-out nuclear war) to occur”? Zimmerman wrongly, I contend, equates “resistance” with “denial” when he says that “as long as we resist and deny the possibility of nuclear war, that possibility will persist and grow stronger.” He also wrongly perceives “resistance” as presupposing a clinging to the “order of things that now prevails.” Resistance connotes opposing, and striving to defeat a prevailing state of affairs that would allow or encourage the “worst to occur.” I submit, against Zimmerman, that we should not, in any
current threat?”


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sense, be willing for nuclear war or omnicide to occur. (This is not to suggest that we should be numb to the possibility of its occurrence.) Despite Zimmerman’s elaborations and refinements his Heideggerian notion of “letting beings be” continues to be too permissive in this regard. In my judgment, an individual’s decision not to act against and resist his or her government’s preparations for nuclear holocaust is, as I have argued elsewhere, to be an early accomplice to the most horrendous crime against life imaginable – its annihilation.


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Ontological investigations requires Ontic Blindness because it does not allow any political engagement that is necessary to challenge Nazi Fascism Zizek 99 - Senior Researcher at the Institute for Social Sciences in Ljubljana
[Slavoj, The Ticklish Subject, p. 13-15]

Heideggerians are thus eternally in search of a positive, ontic political system that would come closest to the epochal ontological truth, a strategy which inevitably leads to error (which, of course, is always acknowledged only retroactively, post factum,
after the disastrous outcome of one's engagement). As Heidegger himself put it, those who carne closest to the Ontological Truth are condemned to err at the ontic level ... err about what? Precisely about the line of separation between ontic and ontological. The paradox not to be underestimated is that the very philosopher who focused his interest on the enigma of ontological difference - who warned again and again against the metaphysical mistake of conferring ontological dignity on some ontic content (God as the highest Entity, for example) - fell into the trap of conferring on Nazism the ontological dignity of suiting the essence of modern man. The standard defence of Heidegger against the reproach of his Nazi past consists of two points: not only was his Nazi engagement a simple personal error (a ‘stupidity [Dummheit]', as Heidegger himself put it) in no way inherently related to his philosophical project; the main counter-argument is that it is Heidegger's own philosophy that enables us to discern the true epochal roots of modern totalitarianism. However, what remains unthought here is the hidden complicity between the

ontological indifference towards concrete social systems (capitalism, Fascism. Communism), in so far as they all belong to the same horizon of modern technology, and the secret privileging of a concrete sociopolitical model (Nazism with Heidegger, Communism with some 'Heideggerian Marxists') as closer to the ontological truth of our epoch. Here one should avoid the trap that caught Heidegger's
defenders, who dismissed Heidegger’s Nazi engagement as simple an anomaly, a fall into the ontic level, in blatant contradiction to his thought, which teaches us not to confuse ontological
horizon with ontic choices (as we have already seen, Heidegger is at his strongest when he demonstrates how, on a deeper structural level, ecological, conservative, and so on, oppositions to the modern universe of technology are

already embedded in the horizon of what they purport to reject: the ecological critique of the technological exploitation of nature ultimately leads to a more 'environmentally sound' technology. etc.). Heidegger did not engage in the Nazi political project 'in spite of' his ontological philosophical approach, but because of it; this engagement was not 'beneath' his philosophical level - on the contrary if one is to understand Heidegger, the key point is to grasp the complicity (in Hegelese: 'speculative identity') between the elevation above ontic concerns and the passionate 'ontic' Nazi political engagement. One can now see the ideological trap that caught Heidegger: when he criticizes Nazi racism on behalf of

the true 'inner greatness' of the Nazi movement, he repeats the elementary ideological gesture of maintaining an inner distance towards the ideological text - of claiming that there is something more beneath it, a non-ideological kernel: ideology exerts its hold over us by means of this very insistence that the Cause we adhere to is not 'merely' ideological. So where is the trap? When the disappointed Heidegger turns away from active engagement in the Nazi movement, he does so because the Nazi movement did not maintain the level of its 'inner greatness', but legitimized itself with inadequate (racial) ideology. In other words, what he expected from it was that it should legitimize itself through direct awareness of its 'inner greatness'. And the problemlies in this very expectation that a political movement that will directly refer to its historico-ontological foundation is possible. This expectation, however, is in itself profoundly metaphysical, in so far as it fails to recognize that the gap separating the direct ideological legitimization of a movement from its 'inner


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greatness' (its historico-ontological essence) is constitutive, a positive condition of its 'functioning'. To use the terms of the later Heidegger, ontological insight necessarily entails ontic blindness and error, and vice versa - that is to say, in order to be 'effective' at the ontic level, one must disregard the ontological horizon of one's activity. (In this sense, Heidegger emphasizes that 'science doesn't think' and that, far from being its limitation, this inability is the very motor of scientific progress.) In other words, what Heidegger seems unable to endorse is a concrete political engagement that would accept its necessary, constitutive blindness - as if the moment we acknowledge the gap separating the awareness of the ontological horizon from ontic engagement, any ontic engagement is depreciated, loses its authentic dignity.


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Coast Guard is receiving a 225 million increase in FY 08 DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, 2008 [http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/fy2008/homeland.html] The President’s 2008 Budget increases non-defense homeland security spending by 9.5 percent Government-wide
compared to 2007, excluding 2007 emergency funding and borrowing authority for interoperability grants; Provides $13 billion to strengthen border security and immigration enforcement, including $1 billion to construct fences and secure the Southwest border, building upon the $1.5 billion appropriated for 2006 and 2007—an unprecedented investment on the Nation's borders; Funds 3,000 new Border Patrol agents, which will lead to the doubling of the force by the end of 2008, provides for 950 new detention beds, and continues funding for an automated, userfriendly eligibility verification system; Provides $2 billion in grants for first responder preparedness—on top of $1 billion in interoperable communications grants previously authorized—and over $5 billion in funds that State, local, and tribal governments are currently spending; Enhances the ability to detect, identify, and track down the origins of nuclear and radiological materials; Strengthens FEMA by improving partnerships with States and professionalizing the national emergency management system; and Improves the ability to identify visitors and to assist with law enforcement and terrorism investigations by collecting 10 fingerprints (instead of the two that are currently collected and screened) at the Nation’s ports of entry. 120 million in 2007 and $225 million in 2008 is proposed to be transferred from the Department of Defense to the United States Coast Guard.


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Transgression is the only way to give meaning to a line such as the resolution. Nigro 05 (Roberto, Experiences of the self between limit, transgression, and the explosion of the dialectical
system: Foucault as reader of Bataille and Blanchot, Philosophy Social Criticism 2005; 31; 649) The words above clearly suggest the importance of this experience of thought as opposed to dialectical forms of reflection. Transgression is an action that involves the limit. Transgression incessantly crosses and recrosses a line that closes up behind it in a wave of extremely short duration, and thus it is made to return once more to the horizon of the uncrossable. The limit and transgression depend on one another for whatever density of being they possess. A limit could not exist if it were absolutely uncrossable and, reciprocally, transgression would be pointless if it merely crossed a limit composed of illusions and shadows. But can the limit have a life of its own outside of that which gloriously passes through it and negates it? What becomes of it after this act and what might it have been before? Does transgression not exhaust its nature when it violates the limit, being nothing beyond this point in time? Transgression carries the limit right to the limit of its being. Transgression forces the limit to face the fact of its imminent disappearance, to find itself in what it excludes. Transgression is related to the limit. Transgression contains nothing negative. Foucault affirms that this experience of transgression must be detached from its questionable association to ethics. It must be liberated from the scandalous or subversive, that is, from anything aroused by negative associations. Transgression does not seek to oppose one thing to another; it does not transform the other side of the mirror, beyond an invisible and uncrossable line, into a glittering expanse. Transgression is neither violence in a divided world (in an ethical world) nor a victory over limits (in a dialectical or revolutionary world). Transgression affirms limited being. We have already said that transgression contains nothing negative; correspondingly, this affirmation contains nothing positive: no content can bind it. It is the existence of difference, the affirmation of division, but only in so far as division is not understood to mean a cutting gesture, or the establishment of a separation or the measuring of a distance. This philosophy of non-positive affirmation is what Blanchot defined by way of his principle of ‘contestation’: contestation does not imply a generalized negation, but an affirmation that affirms nothing. Contestation is not a process of thought for denying existences or values; contestation is the act that carries them all to their limits. No form of dialectical movement can serve as support for thinking about such an experience.


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Oil Bad
Turn- long term oil shortrages cause extinction
Beardon, Fellow of the Alpha Foundation’s Institute for Advanced Study & Director of the Association of Distinguished American Scientists, 6-12-2K (T.E., “The Unnecessary Energy Crisis: How to Solve It Quickly,” ADAS Position Paper: Solution to the Energy Crisis, www.cheniere.org/techpapers/Unnecessary%20Energy%20Crisis.doc) Prior to the final economic collapse, the stress on nations will have increased the intensity and number of their conflicts, to the point where the arsenals of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) now possessed by some 25 nations, are almost certain to be released. As an example, suppose a starving North Korea { }
History bears out that desperate nations take desperate actions.

launches nuclear weapons upon Japan and South Korea, including U.S. forces there, in a spasmodic suicidal response. Or suppose a desperate China — whose long range

mutual treaties involved in such scenarios will quickly draw other nations into the conflict, escalating it significantly . Strategic nuclear studies have shown for decades that, under such extreme stress conditions, once a few nukes are launched, adversaries and potential adversaries are then compelled to launch on perception of preparations by one's adversary. The real
nuclear missiles can reach the United States — attacks Taiwan. In addition to immediate responses, the legacy of the MAD concept is this side of the MAD coin that is almost never discussed. Without effective defense, the only chance a nation has to survive at all, is to launch

rapid escalation to full WMD exchange occurs, with a great percent of the WMD arsenals being unleashed . The resulting great Armageddon will destroy civilization as we know it, and perhaps most of the biosphere, at least for many decades. My personal estimate is that, beginning about 2007, on our present energy course we will have reached an 80% probability of this "final destruction of civilization itself" scenario occurring at any time, with the probability slowly increasing as time passes. One may argue about the timing, slide the dates a year or two, etc., but the basic premise and general time frame holds. We face not only a world economic crisis, but also a world destruction crisis. So unless we dramatically and quickly solve the energy crisis — rapidly replacing a substantial part of the "electrical power derived from oil" by "electrical power freely derived from the vacuum" — we are going to incur the final "Great Armageddon" the nations of the world have been fearing for so long . I personally regard this as the greatest strategic threat of all times — to the United States, the Western World, all the rest of the nations of the world, and civilization itself { } { }. What Is Required to Solve the Problem To avoid the impending collapse of the world economy and/or the destruction of civilization and the biosphere, we must quickly replace much of the "electrical energy from oil" heart of the crisis at great speed, and
immediate full-bore pre-emptive strikes and try to take out its perceived foes as rapidly and massively as possible. As the studies showed,
i ii

simultaneously replace a significant part of the "transportation using oil products" factor also.



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RENEWABLES NOW An RPS is imminent Fershee, 8 – Assistant Professor of Law at the University of North Dakota School of Law (Joshua P., Energy Law Journal, “Changing Resources, Changing Market: The Impact of a National Renewable Portfolio Standard on the U.S. Energy Industry,” 29 Energy L. J. 49, Lexis-Nexis Academic)

Such legislation has been proposed several times in the past , n12 but the increased profile of climate change issues and the increasing number of state RPS programs make a national RPS appear more likely, if not imminent. Since the earliest RPS proposals, n13 there has been much debate about
the potential merits and hazards of a national RPS, and more is sure to follow. Rather than joining this part of the policy debate, this Article considers the effects implementing a national RPS would have on the operation of the energy industry. More specifically, the Article considers what a national RPS would mean for electric utilities, regulators (state and federal), and consumers.

And, Global investment in renewables is inevitable Fox Business, 8 (“Global Investment in Renewable Energy Reaches $100 Billion According to UN Report,” 5-5-2008

High oil prices and an array of government incentives are leading to soaring rates of investment in renewable energy, according to the United Nations' annual "Global Trends in Sustainable Energy Investment" report. The UN report calculates global investment capital flows into renewable energy companies reached $100 billion for the first time in history last year. More than $30 billion of the total was the result of mergers and acquisitions led by investment banks such as JP Morgan and Goldman Sachs. "The finance community has been investing at levels that imply disruptive change is now inevitable in the energy sector," says Eric Usher, Head of the Energy Finance Unit at the UN. Usher said the UN's "report puts full stop to the idea of renewable energy being a fringe interest of environmentalists. It is now a mainstream commercial interest to investors and bankers alike." The huge investment flows mean that IPO's, largely dormant since the heady days of the technology boom nearly
WASHINGTON, May 5, 2008 /PRNewswire via COMTEX News Network/ ---a decade ago, are now re-emerging. A trio of solar companies went public with impressive returns in 2007, including JA Solar (Nasdaq: JASO), Trina Solar (NYSE: TSL: 49.95, -0.15, -0.29%) and Solarfun Power Holdings (Nasdaq: SOLF). In the wind power sector, regular CNBC guest analyst and IPO expert Francis Gaskins was the first to cover Nacel Energy (OTC Bulletin Board: NCEN) which has seen its stock soar more than 250% since IPO. Last month, Nacel Energy unveiled a major 80-megawatt wind energy expansion, including two new projects in Texas. Gaskins currently has $4 target on the company (Nacel Energy closed Friday at $2.79).

Loan Gaurentees for renewable now DOE, 6/30/2K8 [DOE Announces Solicitations for $30.5 Billion in Loan Guarantees, page @
http://www.doe.gov/news/6377.htm, ] The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced three solicitations for a total of up to $30.5 billion in federal loan guarantees for projects that employ advanced energy technologies that avoid , reduce or sequester air pollutants or greenhouse gas emissions. The three solicitations are in the areas of energy efficiency, renewable energy and advanced transmission and distribution technologies; nuclear power facilities; and advanced nuclear facilities for the ‘front-end’ of the nuclear fuel cycle. This marks the second round of solicitations for DOE’s Loan Guarantee Program, which encourages the commercial use of new or significantly improved energy technologies, and is an important step in paving the way for clean energy projects. In a Fiscal Year (FY) 2008
loan guarantee implementation plan sent to Congress in April, DOE outlined plans to issue its second round of solicitations concurrently no later than June 2008 for energy efficiency, renewable energy and advanced transmission and distribution projects (up to $10 billion); nuclear power facilities (up to $18.5 billion); and advanced nuclear

DOE intends to issue a solicitation for loan guarantee applications for advanced fossil energy projects (up to $8 billion). The authority to issue loan guarantees in the amounts
facilities for the “front-end” of the nuclear fuel cycle (up to $2 billion). Later this summer, specified in these solicitations was provided to DOE in the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2008 and is consistent with the Department’s FY 2009 Congressional Budget

Loan guarantees from the Department will enable project developers to bridge the financing gap between to full commercially viable projects that employ new or significantly improved energy technologies,” Jeffrey F. Kupfer, the Acting Deputy Secretary of Energy, said. “Projects supported by loan guarantees will help meet President Bush’s goal of
Request. “ pilot and demonstration projects diversifying our nation's energy mix with energy projects that will improve the environment while increasing energy efficiency.”


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Non-Unique: Thousands of Satellites Oberright, B.M.E., Advanced Missions Study Manager, National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center, 2K4 [John E., "Satellite, Artificial." World Book Online
Reference Center, World Book, Inc. http://www.worldbookonline.com/wb/Article?id=ar492220]
In August 1960, the United States launched the first communications satellite, Echo I. This satellite reflected radio signals back to Earth. In April 1960, the first weather satellite, Tiros I, sent pictures of clouds to Earth. The U.S. Navy developed the first navigation satellites. The Transit 1B navigation satellite first orbited in April 1960. By 1965, more than 100 satellites were being placed in orbit each year. Since the 1970's, scientists have created new and more effective satellite instruments and have made use of computers and miniature electronic technology in satellite design and construction. In addition, more nations and some private

By the early 2000's, more than 40 countries owned satellites, and nearly 3,000 satellites were operating in orbit.
businesses have begun to purchase and operate satellites.

Non-Unique: New GEO satellites now Science Letter, 7/29/2K8 [SEA LAUNCH COMPANY; Sea Launch Successfully Delivers EchoStar
XI to Orbit, Nexis] Sea Launch Company has successfully launched the EchoStar XI broadcast satellite from its ocean-based platform on the Equator, marking its fourth successful mission of 2008 and its third mission for DISH Network Enhanced Coverage
LinkingDISH Network - A Zenit-3SL rocket lifted off at 10:21pm PDT on July 15 (5:21 GMT, July 16) from the Odyssey Launch Platform, positioned at 154 degrees

the Block DM-SL upper stage inserted the 5,511 kg (12,150 lb) EchoStar XI satellite into geosynchronous transfer orbit, on its way to a final orbital position at 110 degrees West Longitude. Operators at the Gnangara ground station in Perth,
West Longitude. One hour later, Australia, acquired the spacecraft's first signals from orbit shortly after spacecraft separation. All systems performed nominally throughout the mission. "Congratulations to DISH Network, and to Space Systems/Loral for tonight's outstanding success," said Kjell Karlsen, president and general manager of Sea Launch. "We're proud of our role in DISH's continued success. We thank you for your continued trust and confidence in our system and our team. I also want to thank the Sea Launch team, the Sea Launch partners, and all the suppliers and contractors around the world who support us."


Monday Night - Seniors A2: RADIO ASTRONOMY

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Bistatic radar solves NASA, 98 [July 28, Radio astronomers find a lost satellite, The detection of SOHO raises hopes for its
recovery, page @ http://science.nasa.gov/newhome/headlines/ast28jul98_1.htm]
Ground-based radio telescopes have been able to detect the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft and have found it rotating slowly near its original position in space, a potentially important step toward possible recovery of direct communications with the spacecraft. Radio contact with SOHO, a joint mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA, was interrupted on June 24, an event under review by a joint ESA/NASA investigation board. With the encouragement of Dr. Alan Kiplinger of the

researchers at the U.S. National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center used the facility's 305-meter (990-foot) diameter radio telescope to transmit a signal toward SOHO on July 23. The 70-meter dish of NASA's Deep Space Network in Goldstone, CA, acted as a receiver, locating the spacecraft's echo and tracking it using radar techniques for more than an hour. Astronomers used a technique called bistatic radar to detect SOHO. Bistatic radar means that two radar dishes work together, in this case the 70m Goldstone antenna and the 305m Arecibo dish. The Arecibo dish is so large that its steering is limited . SOHO was only in its field of view for
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Space Environment Center in Boulder, CO, (NAIC) in Arecibo, Puerto Rico, about an hour. The Arecibo RADAR team utilized the entire hour transmitting powerful pulses toward the satellite. Meanwhile, NASA's Deep Space Network radio antenna in Goldstone, CA, which is 60 degrees longitude to the west of Arecibo, was used to pick up the reflections. This is a technique that has also been used to study the rings of Saturn and asteroids. The image (right) shows the animated radar blip from the satellite recorded at Goldstone. The image links to a larger animation courtesy of Astronomy Now.

Their evidence assumes studies from the 1970s Emerson and Davis, 2K2 [IUCAF Chair, National Radio Astronomy Observatory, and URSI
IUCAF Member, SETI Institute. “POTENTIAL IMPACT OF A SOLAR POWER SATELLITE SYSTEM ON RADIO ASTRONOMY” GA02/papers/p1965.pdf+solar+powered+satelites+fail&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=5&gl=us&client=firefox-a] Solar power satellites studies received extensive funding in the US in 1976-1980. The results of those studies are
available in [1], [2] and [3] and the references they cite. Both the US Department of Energy and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration participated in this work,

Part of the study effort addressed potential impact of the ReferenceSystem on other fields, including radio astronomy. The results of these studies
and established a ‘Reference System’ for the studies. The next section describes that reference system. are summarized in the final section.

In-flight spacecraft and orbital telescopes solve space observation Ruidoso News, 8/1/2K8 [The innermost solar system, Nexis]
Just recently named Makemake (after the creation god of the inhabitants of the island of Rapa Nui, better known as Easter Island), this object is currently located in our western skies after dusk, in the constellation of Coma Berenices just north of the large scattered star cluster within that constellation. It turns out, meanwhile, that the other extreme end

What might lie within the orbit of Mercury still remains quite a bit of a mystery to some extent, and because of the overpowering light of the sun it is very difficult for our Earthbound instruments to explore this region of space. While we know of several asteroids and numerous comets that pass through this part of the solar system, this is because we've seen them when they're farther away from the sun, and we know that their orbits take them much closer. We can study these regions during total solar eclipses, but these are very brief events (never lasting more than a few minutes), often involve travel to remote areas of the Earth's surface, and there is always the prospect of being clouded out. The best way we have now of studying these regions is through the usage of a device known as a "coronagraph," which creates an artificial total solar eclipse. Such devices have been used in Earthbound telescopes for several decades, although these are primarily for studying the sun's corona, or outer atmosphere; the sunlight scattered by the Earth's atmosphere makes them impractical for studying much of the space near the sun . Beginning in the early 1970s,
of the solar system is probably even less well known, despite the fact that it is located quite a bit closer to us. coronagraphs began to be deployed in orbiting spacecraft, including aboard the Skylab space station, and this is when we first began to explore this innermost part of the solar

The primary spaceborne coronagraphs operating today are those aboard the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft that was launched in late 1995, and those aboard the twin Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft that were launched in 2006. The SOHO coronagraphs, in particular, have revealed that the population of small comets passing near the sun is far larger than ever before realized. Some of these are apparently in short-period orbits that bring them back to the sun every few years; one such case has been confirmed, and several more are suspected.


Monday Night - Seniors A2: RADIO ASTRONOMY

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Space telescopes solve NASA, 2K7 [Cecilia Barnbaum, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Physics and Astronomy, Valdosta State
University, Hubble Space Telescope, http://www.nasa.gov/worldbook/hubble_telescope_worldbook.html] page @

The Hubble Space Telescope is a powerful orbiting telescope that provides sharper images of heavenly bodies than other telescopes do. It is a reflecting telescope with a light-gathering mirror 94 inches (240 centimeters) in diameter. The telescope is named after American astronomer Edwin P. Hubble, who made fundamental contributions to astronomy in the 1920's. Astronomers have used the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain images of celestial objects and phenomena in detail never before observed. These include pictures of stars surrounded by dusty disks that might someday evolve into planetary systems, images of galaxies on the edge of the observable universe, pictures of galaxies colliding and tearing each other apart, and evidence suggesting that most galaxies have massive black holes in their center. How the telescope works In orbit about 380 miles (610 kilometers) above the earth, the Hubble Space Telescope views the heavens without looking through the earth's atmosphere. The atmosphere bends light due to a phenomenon known as diffraction, and the atmosphere is constantly moving. This combination of diffraction and movement causes starlight to jiggle about as it passes through the air, and so stars appear to twinkle. Twinkling blurs images seen through ground-based telescopes. Because an orbiting telescope is above the atmosphere, it can produce pictures in much finer detail than a ground-based telescope can The Hubble Space Telescope can also observe ultraviolet and infrared light that is blocked by the atmosphere. These forms of light, like visible light, are electromagnetic radiation. The wavelength (distance between successive wave crests) of ultraviolet light is shorter than that of visible light. Infrared light has longer wavelengths than visible light. Ultraviolet light comes from highly energetic processes, such as the formation of disks around black holes and exploding stars. Infrared light provides information about cooler, calmer events, such as the formation of dust clouds around new stars.



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China will blind our satellites if we don’t maintain space control Muradian, 2K6 [11/1, Poke in the eye; China's laser attacks expose U.S. satellite vulnerabilities, Nexis]
China's efforts to blind U.S. spy satellites with lasers and advances in Russian satellite-jamming capabilities illustrate vulnerabilities to the U.S. space network that are driving the U.S. Air Force to develop new space architectures and highly classified systems. China fired high-powered lasers at U.S. spy satellites flying over its territory in what experts see as a test of Chinese ability to blind the spacecraft, according to sources. It remains unclear how many times a ground-based laser was tested against U.S. spacecraft or whether the tests were successful. The hardware on the spacecraft can't be changed after they are launched, but software changes can help them weather attacks. Lasers of sufficient power could blind electro-optical satellites such as the giant
Keyhole spacecraft or even interfere with radar satellites such as the Lacrosse, experts said. Blinding, one source said, is different than disabling. It requires enormous power to shoot a laser through the dense lower atmosphere and reach a fast-moving satellite in orbit. . In 2003, the Air Force destroyed such a system deployed to Iraq to keep American bombs guided by the Global Positioning System (GPS) from finding their targets. GPS-guided bombs destroyed the site.

Russian jamming systems are publicly known


Monday Night - Seniors A2: INTERFERENCE

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Non-Unique: White Space Devices Prism Insight, 8/1/2K8 [Broadcast Engineering Online Exclusive, Top frequency coordinator
suggests white space device tests at political conventions, Nexis] The chairman of the group tasked with frequency coordination during the Democratic and Republican political conventions has suggested to FCC Chairman Kevin Martin that the commission conduct real-world field tests of proposed unlicensed white space deviceduring the political extravaganzas. In a letter dated July 9 to Martin, Louis Libin, president ofBroad-Comm in Woodmere, NY, and chairman of the PoliticalConventions Communications Committee (POLCOMM2008), pointed outthat there is "extensive use" by "licensed wireless microphones used for news operations" of the same channels white space device proponents seek to share. Libin proposed allowing tests of the unlicensed devices before the start of each convention to see if the spectrum sensing or beacon technology white space device proponents say will protect wireless mics from harmful interference generated by the unlicenseddevices actually does so. As of July 30, Libin had not received a response to his offerfrom the FCC, he told "News Technology Update.""We have so many interference concerns about these devices ," he said. "We figured this is the greatestvenue available to
test these devices." The conventions prove to be particularly demanding on wirelessmic spectrum. The distance between standup positions on theconvention floor can be

Injecting white space prototypes into this environment -- evenbefore the day's events begin while wireless mics are beingtested -- could prove to be the ultimate test for the unlicensed devices. "The possibility of FCC approval of white space devices is coming up very quickly," Libin said. "We just want toknow what will happen. We want to know if we are in serioustrouble."
measured in hundreds of feet, he said,pushing the skillful use of wireless mic technology to the limit.

SPS microwaves wont interfere- different frequencies and precise targeting Shinohara, PhD in engineering, Associate Professor Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere
(RISH) , Kyoto University, 2K5 [N., Wireless Power Transmission for Solar Power Satellite (SPS), page @ http://www.sspi.gatech.edu/wptshinohara.pdf] The other requirement from MPT use to the semiconductor amplifier is linearity of amplifier because power level of the MPT is much higher than that for wireless communication system and we have to suppress unexpected spurious radiation to reduce interference. The maximum efficiency usually is realized at
saturated bias voltage. It does not guarantee the linearity between input and output microwaves and non-linearity causes high spurious which must be suppressed in the MPT.

There are unique development items for the SPS from the microwave point of view distinguished from the ordinary use of the microwave technology such as telecommunications. These three points may be described as 1) pureness in spectrum, 2) high power and high efficient power generation and high efficient detector in a small and light fashion, and 3) precise beam control for a large phased array antenna combining with a huge number of sub-arrays. To cope with the second requirement for the microwave
Therefore, dissolution of tortuous relationship between efficiency and linearity is expected by the MPT. technology, the large plate model by a layered configuration in a sandwich fashion was proposed. The point of this configuration is the effective integration with DC power generation, microwave circuit operation and radiation, and their control. As one of the promising microwave technologies, the “the Active Integrated Antenna (AIA)” technique

The AIA has many features applicable to the SPS. Due to the nature of small-size, thinness, lightness and multi-functions in AIA, a power transmission part of the spacetenna (space
is considered. The AIA is defined as the single entity consisting of an integrated circuit and a planar antenna. antenna) can be realized in thin structure. Prof. Kawasaki’s group have developed some AIA system for the MPT application[20]. In present, new materials are developed fore the semiconductor device to increased output power and efficiency. They are called wide-bandgap devices such as SiC and GaN. The wide-bandgap devices can make over hundreds watt amplifier with one chip. In recent days, there are some development of microwave amplifiers with SiC MESFET[21][22] or GaN HEMT[23][24]. The other trend is development of MMIC (Microwave Monolithic Integrated Circuit) to reduce space and weight, especially for mobile applications. Lighter transmitters can be realized with the MMIC devices. The MMIC devices still have heat-release problems, poor efficiency, and low power output. However, it is expected that the technical problems will be solved by efforts of many engineers.


Monday Night - Seniors WEATHER JACKS AIR FORCE

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Critical unmanned vehicles don’t have all-weather capabilities GAO, 2K5 [December, UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS, DOD Needs to More Effectively Promote, Interoperability and Improve Performance, Assessments, page @ http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d0649.pdf]
DOD has achieved certain operational successes using UAS, including identifying time-critical targets in Iraq and Afghanistan, and striking enemy positions to defeat opposing forces. Some missions
effectively supported joint operations, and in other cases, the missions were service-specific. DOD has encountered challenges which have hampered joint operations at times. First, some UAS cannot easily transmit and receive data with other communication systems because they are not interoperable. Although DOD guidance requires interoperability, detailed standards for interoperability have not been developed; DOD has relied on existing, more general standards; and the services developed differing systems. For now, U.S. forces have developed technical patches permitting transmission but slowing data flow, potentially hampering time-critical targeting. Second, some sensor payloads cannot be interchangeably used on different UAS because DOD has not adopted a payload commonality standard. Some UAS missions may have to be delayed if compatible unmanned aircraft and payloads are not available. Based on its experience with UAS in Persian Gulf operations, U.S. Central Command believes communications interoperability and payload commonality problems occur because the services’ UAS development programs have been service-specific and insufficiently attentive to joint

the electromagnetic spectrum needed to control the flight of certain unmanned aircraft and to transmit data is constrained and no standard requiring the capability to change frequencies had been adopted because the problem was not foreseen. Thus, some systems cannot change to avoid congestion and consequently some missions have been delayed, potentially undermining timecritical targeting. In addition to the joint operational challenges, inclement weather can also hamper UAS operations. Unmanned aircraft are more likely to be grounded in inclement weather than manned aircraft and DOD had not decided whether to require all-weather capability. While DOD has acknowledged the need to improve UAS interoperability and address bandwidth and weather constraints, little progress has been made. Until DOD adopts and enforces interoperability and other standards, these challenges will likely remain and become more widespread as new UAS are developed and fielded.
needs. Lastly,


Monday Night - Seniors CHINA WILL ATTACK US

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China will challenge our space control
Griffin and Lin, Research Assistant, School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University, 2K8 hristopher Griffin and Joseph Lin, Armed Forces Journal, “China’s Space Ambitions” April 8, 2008, http://www.aei.org/publications/filter.all,pubID.27772/pub_detail.asp)

China's drive toward developing military space capabilities lies within the Chinese military's view of future warfare, with the U.S. as its most likely adversary. The
The impetus behind
Chinese military, known as the People's Liberation Army (PLA), has been obsessed with information-age warfare ever since the U.S. leveraged its space-based C4ISR systems to eradicate Saddam Hussein's military during the 1990-1991 Gulf War. One Chinese military commentator noted with awe afterward: "The United States deployed three defense communications satellites, established 128 defense satellite

the American advantage in the area of military satellites presents the Chinese government with what it recognizes as an asymmetric disadvantage. The U.S. is so dominant in this sphere of military competition that it seems impossible to win a head-to-head competition. Faced with this dilemma, the People's Liberation Army has developed a two-pronged response that invests in both its own space assets and in anti-satellite capabilities with which to disrupt American space dominance. Even if the PLA believes it cannot compete directly with American space power, the necessity to invest in space assets is by no means wasted in Beijing. The Chinese military is developing aerospace networks in pursuit of the technological advantages that the U.S. has come to expect during wartime. A 2004 article printed in the People's Liberation Army Daily stated: "Information dominance cannot be separated from space dominance. We can say that seizing space dominance is the root for winning the informationalized war." Indeed, the U.S. Defense Department reports that China plans to launch some 17 satellites in 2008 in an ambitious bid to have a fully indigenous satellite fleet by 2010. But even as China deepens its own reliance on space-based assets in support of military operations, policymakers in Beijing are fixated on the deficit they face in a conflict with the U.S. and the concomitant requirement to challenge American space power. One PLA analyst recently argued that in modern wars, "seizing space dominance has already become a vital part of seizing information dominance, from which one can then retain the active position in the war ." In a less-subtle argument
communications terminals and built an ultra-high frequency network before the assembling of allied troops." Indeed,

for the use of offensive capabilities in space, another PLA officer recently proclaimed that China requires ASAT capabilities for "destroying, damaging and interfering with the enemy's observation and communications satellites."


Monday Night - Seniors

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A) The moon is a satellite- they put solar power on it Nine Planets, 2K5 [The Moon, http://www.nineplanets.org/luna.html]
The Moon is the only natural satellite of Earth: orbit:
384,400 km from Earth diameter: 3476 km mass: 7.35e22 kg

B) They use relay satellites
Criswell, 2K2 [David R, Physicist and director of the University of Houston’s Institute for Space Systems Operations, The Industrial Physicist , “Solar Power via the Moon”, April/May 2002,< http://ecow.engr.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/get/ne/421/briggs/articles/solarpowerviathemoon.pdf] Power could be received anywhere on Earth via a fleet of relay satellites in high-inclination, eccentric orbits around Earth (Figure 2). A given relay satellite receives a power beam from the moon and retransmits multiple beams to several rectennas on Earth required by an alternative operation. This enables the region around each rectenna to receive power 24 hours a day. The relay satellites would require less than 1% of the surface area needed by a fleet of solar-power satellites in orbit around
Rectennas located on Earth between 60º N and 60º S can receive power directly from the moon approximately 8 hours a day. Earth. Synthetic-aperture radars, such as those flown on the Space Shuttle, have demonstrated the feasibility of multibeam transmission of pulsed power directed to Earth from orbit.

C) SBSP can be lunar-based or orbit-based
NSSO, 2K7 [October 10, National Security Space Office, Report to the Director, Space-Based Solar Power As an Opportunity for Strategic Security; Phase 0 Architecture Feasibility Study, http://www.nss.org/settlement/ssp/library/final-sbsp-interim-assessment-release-01.pdf] The SBSP Study Group found that many different architecture/construction proposals have emerged since
the original photovoltaic‐at‐geostationary orbit concept was first proposed by Dr. Peter Glaser in 1968. Today, there are two major schools of thought regarding system

there are many who feel that the utilization of lunar resources to construct either Moon‐based or Earth orbit‐based systems is a credible, evolutionary pathway for SBSP. Finally, the mechanism for capturing solar energy can be accomplished one of two primary ways: via photovoltaics (concentrator or thin film) or solar thermal
placement: Earth orbit or lunar‐based. Additionally, dynamic systems. Each of these architecture options has pros and cons, and assigning merit to one over the other is beyond the scope of this Phase o Interim Report (for a more detailed discussion regarding pertinent design trade questions, see Appendix A – SBSP Design Considerations and Tradeoffs).

No net net-benefit- they use microwaves Criswell, 2K2 [David R, Physicist and director of the University of Houston’s Institute for Space
Systems Operations, The Industrial Physicist , “Solar Power via the Moon”, April/May 2002,< http://ecow.engr.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/get/ne/421/briggs/articles/solarpowerviathemoon.pdf]
Two general concepts have been proposed for delivering solar power to Earth from space. In one, Peter Glaser of Arthur D. Little, Inc. (Cambridge, MA), proposed in 1968 that

solar power would be collected on the moon. In both ideas, many different beams of 12-cm wavelength microwaves would deliver power to receivers at sites located worldwide. Each receiver would supply commercial power to a given region. Such
a huge satellite in geosynchronous orbit around Earth could dependably gather solar power in space. In the second concept, discussed here, a receiver, called a rectenna, would consist of a large field of small rectifying antennas. A beam with a maximum intensity of less than 20% of noontime sunlight would deliver

Unlike sunlight, microwaves pass through rain, clouds, dust, and smoke. In both scenarios, power can be supplied to the rectenna at night.
about 200 W to its local electric grid for every square meter of rectenna area.

And, even if relay satellites are different, they still modify the weather Marwick, 89 [E.F., Solar Mirrors, Sails, And Screens, For Better Environments and More Useful
Energy, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/852/2490/00074767.pdf?arnumber=74767] By the judicious use of Earth-orbiting Mirrors the climate of the Earth could be so modified that there are more
bountiful harvests because of longer growing seasons and better weather which includes fewer: droughts, untimely frosts, floods, and damaging storms. I estimate that the total areas of the screens is almost twice the areas of the mirrors and that the quantity of solar radiation that is shaded from the Earth is more than five times the quantity of solar radiation which is mirror reflected onto the Earth. Perhaps the orbiting mirrors might shade the tropics about a thirtieth as much as screens. Probably it might be best that the orbiting mirrors be in or slightly farther from the Earth that geostationary orbit and therefore they will not block any communication transmissions from geostationary satellites

the purpose of those mirrors is to selectively heat specific areas so that the weather pattern is modified in the desired way. weather modification
to Earth. However, sometimes they will block solar radiations to those satellites. It should be understood that is about as developed as was the science of astronautics fifty years ago. But I see no reason why it should not quickly be developed and bloom as has astronautics

- if the

governments and scientists of Earth nurture it! As an example of applied weather modification might be as follows: moving East North Eastward towards the Caribbean Sea

A plurality of mirrors are so directed to reflect solar radiation onto specific areas near the storm such that the proto-hurricane looses its ferocity and its direction is somewhat changed.
and is growing in strength and is following a path similar to the path of many past hurricanes.


Monday Night - Seniors A2: OFFSETS

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1) Perm do the CP- doesn’t sever out of increaseOnly 3 billion for ethanol subsidies Biofuels Digest, 2K8 [“US corn exports rose 6 percent in 2007; $3 billion ethanol
subsidy reduced crop support payments $6 billion, reduced US trade deficit more than $20 billion” March 27, 2008. http://www.biofuelsdigest.com/blog2/2008/03/27/us-corn-exports-rose-6-percentin-2007-3-billion-ethanol-subsidy-reduced-crop-support-payments-6-billionreduced-us-trade-deficit-more-than-20-billion/] EPIC also noted that US ethanol subsidies, totaling $3 billion, have resulted in a $6 billion reduction in crop price supports and a $15 billion drop in US oil imports. EPIC said that the true reason for rising food prices was rising labor, packaging and fuel costs, and rising wealth and demand from China and India.

Plan costs 10 billion
PM, 2K8 [Erik Sofge, “Space-Based Solar Power Beams Become Next Energy Frontier” http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/air_space/4230315.html] The idea of using satellites to beam solar power down from space is nothing new—the Department of Energy first studied it in the 1970s, and NASA took another look in the ’90s. The stumbling block has been less the engineering challenge than the cost. A Pentagon report released in October could mean the stars are finally aligning for spacebased solar power, or SBSP. According to the report, SBSP is becoming more feasible, and eventually could help head off crises such as climate change and wars over diminishing energy supplies. “The challenge is one of perception,” says
John Mankins, president of the Space Power Association and the leader of NASA’s mid-1990s SBSP study. “There are people in senior leadership positions who believe everything in space has to cost trillions.” The new report imagines a market-based approach. Eventually, SBSP may become

enormously profitable—and the Pentagon hopes it will lure the growing private space industry. The government would fund launches to place initial arrays in orbit by 2016, with private firms taking over operations from there. This plan could limit government costs to about $10 billion. As envisioned, massive orbiting solar arrays, situated to remain in sunlight nearly continuously, will beam multiple megawatts of energy to Earth via microwave beams. The energy will be transmitted
to mesh receivers placed over open farmland and in strategic remote locations, then fed into the nation’s electrical grid. The goal: To provide 10 percent of the United States’ base-load power supply by 2050. Ultimately, the report estimates, a single kilometer-wide array could collect enough power in one year to rival the energy locked in the world’s oil reserves. While most of the technology required for SBSP already exists, questions such as potential environmental impacts will take years to work out. “For some time, solar panels on Earth are going to be much cheaper,” says Robert McConnell, a senior project leader at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Colorado. “This is a very long-range activity.”


Monday Night - Seniors 2AC UNITED NATIONS DA

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Non-Unique: U.S. violation of U.N. military conventions is inevitable Washington Post, 2K6 [11/5, Dissent Grows at U.N. Over Iran; China, Russia Object to Including U.S.-Backed
Military Option, Nexis] The effort to constrain the United States underscores lingering distrust over the Bush administration's decision to invade Iraq in March 2003 without explicit Security Council approval, analysts said. It follows a similar push to prevent the United States from adopting U.N. resolutions that one day may be used to punish Sudan and North Korea with stronger sanctions or military force. "People are afraid it's a slippery slope; that if they agree to sanctions today, they give the authority for military intervention tomorrow ," said Edward C. Luck, a Columbia University historian who studies the United Nations. He said the political dispute over the use of force has eroded the council's credibility. "It is a sign of weakness and division," Luck said. The U.N. debate over the use of force in Iran coincides with a realignment of power in the region that is already diminishing the prospects for U.S. military action against Iran, analysts say. U.S. and NATO military setbacks in Iraq and Afghanistan are eroding public support in the United States for military action in the region. And the United States' European allies are firmly opposed to any U.S. military action in Iran. The Bush administration maintains that though it never takes the military option off the table, its diplomatic campaign to rally support for sanctions against Iran and North Korea is not a cover for launching new conflicts.

No Link: SPS would not violate the treaty Pop, 2K [Glasgow specialist in extraterrestrial property rights, Virgiliu, “SECURITY IMPLICATIONS OF
NON-TERRESTRIAL RESOURCE EXPLOITATION,” http://www.geocities.com/virgiliu_pop/publications/security.pdf] The 1976 Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques forbids State Parties to - "engage in military or any other hostile use of environmental modification techniques having widespread, long-lasting or severe effects as the means of destruction, damage or injury to any other State Party" (Art. I.1). The term "environmental modification techniques" is defined as "any technique for changing - through the deliberate manipulation of natural processes - the dynamics, composition or structure of the earth (...) or of outer space" (Art. II). OTA believes that the principles of the ENMOD Convention "obviously allow for criticism

of some SPS designs as having weather modification potential, requiring restrictions or redesign to reduce such effects"[26]. Still, their weather modification
"potential" - if we employ OTA's vocabulary - would be more of the concern of the Additional Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 Relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts, 8 June 1977, whose Art. 35.3. prohibits the employment not only of methods or means of warfare "which are intended (...) to cause widespread, long-term and severe damage to the natural environment", but also of those which "may be expected" (my emphasis) to cause such effects. Indeed, according to Bertell, the SPS would be "capable of causing physical changes in the ionosphere"[27]. The "Thunderstorm" SPS (TSPS) imagined by Bernard Eastlund would be used precisely

for peaceful weather modification in order to prevent the formation of tornadoes[28]. The development of the TSPS would not violate Art. III.1 of the ENMOD Convention - "The provisions of this Convention shall not hinder the use of environmental modification techniques for peaceful purposes (...)";
nevertheless, fears for its military misuses may arise. "Fear may be justified" - considers Eastlund "however, such fear should not stop responsible scientists for pursuing areas of research that could significantly save lives and property"[29]. Eastlund formulates guidelines "to handle this issue" - , inter alia "[s]ystem design is to include provisions that prevent military or harmful applications";

"[o]versight committees with international representation will review all plans and experiments" and "[s]pace platforms for severe weather modification should be
manned by internationally chosen personnel"[30].


Monday Night - Seniors 2AC UNITED NATIONS DA

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Non Unique: HAARP Chossudovsky 22/05/2008 [Chossudovsky has taught as visiting professor at academic institutions in Western Europe, Latin
America and Southeast Asia, has acted as economic adviser to governments of developing countries and has worked as a consultant for international organizations including the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the African Development Bank, the United Nations African Institute for Economic Development and Planning (AIEDEP), the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the World Health Organisation (WHO), the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC). In 1999, Chossudovsky joined the Transnational Foundation for Peace and Future Research as an adviser.[3] Chossudovsky is past president of the Canadian Association of Latin American and Caribbean Studies. He is a member of research organisations that include the Committee on Monetary and Economic Reform (COMER), the Geopolitical Drug Watch (OGD) (Paris)and the International People's Health Council (IPHC).[3] http://www.theecologist.org/pages/archive_detail.asp?content_id=1215]

Beware the US military’s experiments with climatic warfare, says Michel ChossudovskyRarely acknowledged in the debate on global climate change, the world’s weather can now be modified as part of a new generation of sophisticated electromagnetic weapons. Both the US and Russia have

developed capabilities to manipulate the climate for military use. Environmental modification techniques have been applied by the US military for more than half a century. US mathematician John von Neumann, in liaison with the US
Department of Defense, started his research on weather modification in the late 1940s at the height of the Cold War and foresaw ‘forms of climatic warfare as yet unimagined’.During the Vietnam war, cloudseeding techniques were used, starting in 1967 under Project Popeye, the objective of which was to prolong the monsoon season and block enemy supply routes along the Ho Chi Minh Trail. The US

military has developed advanced capabilities that enable it selectively to alter weather patterns. The technology, which is being perfected under the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP), is an appendage of the Strategic Defense Initiative – ‘Star Wars’. From a military standpoint, HAARP is a weapon of mass destruction, operating from the outer atmosphere and capable of destabilising agricultural and ecological systems around the world.Weather-modification,
according to the US Air Force document AF 2025 Final Report, ‘offers the war fighter a wide range of possible options to defeat or coerce an adversary’, capabilities, it says, extend to the triggering of floods, hurricanes, droughts and earthquakes: ‘Weather modification will become a part of domestic and international security and could be done unilaterally… It could have offensive and defensive applications and even be used for deterrence purposes. The ability to generate precipitation, fog and storms on earth or to modify space weather… and the production of artificial weather all are a part of an integrated set of [military] technologies.’In 1977, an international Convention was ratified by the UN General Assembly which banned ‘military or other hostile use of environmental modification techniques having widespread, long-lasting or severe effects.’ It defined ‘environmental modification techniques’ as ‘any technique for changing – through the deliberate manipulation of natural processes – the dynamics, composition or structure of the earth, including its biota, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere, or of outer space.’While the substance of the 1977 Convention was reasserted in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) signed at the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio, debate on weather modification for military use has become a scientific taboo. Military analysts are mute on the subject. Meteorologists are not investigating the matter and environmentalists are focused on greenhouse gas emissions under the Kyoto Protocol. Neither is the possibility of climatic or environmental manipulations as part of a military and intelligence agenda, while tacitly acknowledged, part of the broader debate on climate change under UN auspices.The HAARP ProgrammeEstablished in 1992, HAARP, based in Gokona, Alaska, is an array of high-powered antennas that transmit, through high-frequency radio waves, massive amounts of energy into the ionosphere (the upper layer of the atmosphere). Their construction was funded by the US Air Force, the US Navy and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).Operated jointly by the Air Force Research Laboratory and the Office of Naval Research, HAARP constitutes a system of powerful antennas capable of creating ‘controlled local modifications of the ionosphere’. According to its official website, www.haarp.alaska.edu, HAARP will be used ‘to induce a small, localized change in ionospheric temperature so physical reactions can be studied by other instruments located either at or close to the HAARP site’.But Rosalie Bertell, president of the International Institute of Concern for Public Health, says HAARP operates as ‘a gigantic heater that can cause major disruptions in the ionosphere, creating not just holes, but long incisions in the protective layer that keeps deadly radiation from bombarding the planet’. Physicist Dr Bernard Eastlund called it ‘the largest ionospheric heater ever built’.HAARP is presented by the US Air Force as a research programme, but military documents confirm its main objective is to ‘induce ionospheric modifications’ with a view to altering weather patterns and disrupting communications and radar. According to a report by the Russian State Duma: ‘The US plans to carry out large-scale experiments under the HAARP programme [and] create weapons capable of breaking radio communication lines and equipment installed on spaceships and rockets, provoke serious accidents in electricity networks and in oil and gas pipelines, and have a negative impact on the mental health of entire regions.’An analysis of statements emanating from the US Air Force points to the unthinkable: the covert manipulation of weather patterns, communications and electric power systems as a weapon of global warfare, enabling the US to disrupt and dominate entire regions.Weather manipulation is the pre-emptive weapon par excellence. It can be directed against enemy countries or ‘friendly nations’ without their knowledge, used to destabilise economies, ecosystems and agriculture. It can also trigger havoc in financial and commodity markets. The disruption in agriculture creates a greater dependency on food aid and imported grain staples from the US and other Western countries.HAARP was developed as part of an Anglo-American partnership between Raytheon Corporation, which owns the HAARP patents, and British Aerospace Systems (BAES). The HAARP project is one among several collaborative ventures in advanced weapons systems between the two defence giants.The HAARP project was initiated in 1992 by Advanced Power Technologies, Inc. (APTI), a subsidiary of Atlantic Richfield Corporation (ARCO). APTI (including the HAARP patents) was sold by ARCO to E-Systems Inc, in 1994.E-Systems, on contract to the CIA and US Department of Defense, outfitted the ‘Doomsday Plan’, which ‘allows the President to manage a nuclear war’. Subsequently acquired by Raytheon Corporation, it is among the largest intelligence contractors in the World.BAES was involved in the development of the advanced stage of the HAARP antenna array under a 2004 contract with the Office of Naval Research. The installation of 132 highfrequency transmitters was entrusted by BAES to its US subsidiary, BAE Systems Inc. The project, according to a July report in Defense News, was undertaken by BAES’s Electronic Warfare division. In September it received

The HAARP system is fully operational and in many regards dwarfs existing conventional and strategic weapons systems. While there is no firm evidence of its use for military purposes, Air Force documents suggest HAARP is an integral part of the militarisation of space.
DARPA’s top award for technical achievement for the design, construction and activation of the HAARP array of antennas.


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Non-Unique: U.N. is aiding Chinese weather moficiation
The Times, 2K8 [5/21, Toughest event at the Olympics? Getting weather forecast right, Nexis] Teams of experts from seven countries will be competing to be the Olympic forecasting champion .
Every three hours scientists from Japan, the US, Australia, Canada, Austria, France and China will be analysing observational data and atmospheric pressure to predict the temperature, humidity and precipitation for the Beijing area for up to 36 hours ahead. Their forecasts will be submitted to the China Meteorological Administration, which will

The Weather Demonstration Project is part of a global research programme started in 1999 by the World the United Nations' official "voice" on the weather. The project, which featured at the Sydney Games in 2000, is designed to showcase the latest technology used by national agencies. Japan is favourite to take gold despite
judge them against the weather. Meteorological Organisation, making a number of errors in the warm up competition last year.Kazuo Saito, the team leader, identified the Chinese as a threat, however. Britain will not be represented. It dropped out of the annual forecast demonstration programme in 2006 because of a lack of resources. "If you look at the other nations taking part, they're a centrally-funded part of government. We stand or fall on the profit we make," a spokesman from the Met Office said. One aim of the exercise is to test advances in the ensemble prediction

The weather has become something of an obsession for the Chinese in the run-up to the Games amid concerns that the athletes will be hampered by extreme heat, humidity and pollution. Haile Gebrselassie, the world record holder for marathon running and an asthma sufferer, has pulled out of the Games because of health concerns. The Chinese Weather Manipulation Office has employed various techniques to ensure perfect weather at the Games, including cloud-seeding - shooting silver iodide pellets into clouds to induce rainfall away from Olympic venues and help to clear smog. Olympic organisers also bought a multimilliondollar IBM supercomputer, which is 1,000 times faster than any weather-forecasting system used in previous Games. It will provide every venue with three-hourly forecasts and half-hourly satellite pictures. The information will be distributed via text messages, television screens, scoreboards and the internet.
technique, which reduces the margin for error in long-term forecasting by taking the average value from a collection of forecasts.

Non-Unique: U.N. cred jacked by Iran sanctions Herald Sun, 8/5/2K8 [Iran warned of new sanctions, page http://www.news.com.au/heraldsun/story/0,21985,24130538-5005961,00.html]
" Earlier, France's deputy ambassador to the United Nations, Jean-Pierre Lacroix, said: "


In the absence of a positive response to the six (world powers), Iran will then have to face new sanctions," it said. If we don't get an encouraging response from the Iranians, we will have to show firmness, resort to sanctions as in the past." His comments were echoed by the British Foreign Office. "We will have no choice but to ask the UN to proceed with further sanctions ," a foreign office spokesman said today. The United Nations has imposed three sets of sanctions against Iran over the nuclear dispute and is mulling a fourth round of measures. Tehran has steadfastly refused to suspend its uranium enrichment activities, which it says are aimed only at producing fuel for nuclear power production. The United States and its allies fear the program is a cover for developing nuclear weapons.

Non-Unique: Hezbollah and Lebanon AsiaTimes, 8/5/2K8 [Israeli pre-emption better than Islamist cure, http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Middle_East/JH05Ak02.html]
In another triumph for Iran, the government of Lebanon reportedly will legalize the Hezbollah militia and guarantee its right to "liberate or recover occupied lands", that is, to attack Israel. Two years after a United Nations resolution requiring the disarming of Hezbollah ended a regional war, Iran's military presence in Lebanon will obtain official status, without a harrumph from the US State Department.



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1) Non-Unique: HAARP causes miscalc Russian Foreign Intelligence Service, 6/21/2K8 (‘Stop Now Or We’ll Bury You’, China Warns US As
Weather War Intensifies, page @ http://www.fourwinds10.com/siterun_data/government/new_world_order/news.php?q=1214102097, )

the head of China’s Central Military Commission, General Guo Boxiong, has ‘warned’ the United States Secretary of Defense, Robert Gates, to ‘immediately stop targeting China or we will bury you’. As we had previously reported on in our June 17 report, ‘Weather Wars’ Pummel
Russian Military Analysts are reporting to the Kremlin today that

US-China Heartlands, India In Total Chaos, the United States and China have been pummeling each other from their respective billion watt over-the-horizon radar systems located in China’s Lop Nor and the US’ Alaskan tundra. Such catastrophic damage has occurred due to this conflict that China has reported over 176 deaths due to massive flooding, and the United States has reported over 24 deaths with billions more in crop damage to their most vital growing regions threatening Global food price rises of

China’s latest warnings, however, these reports state, are due to what the Chinese Military is saying is the United States ‘deliberate steering’ of Typhoon Fengshen towards the South China Sea after its deadly rampage through the Philippines. Both Russian and Chinese scientists have long stated that the United States has ‘perfected’ its abilities to direct the paths of cyclonic storms and give as the latest example the ‘steering’ of Typhoon Nargis into Myanmar, and which left nearly 200,000 dead in that embattled oil rich Nation, and which ‘conveniently’ both US and French warships were ‘positioned’ near its coast to provide ‘aid’. Of the greatest fears, however, of China’s warning to the US is that like they blame the Americans for doing to them , and as we had previously reported on in our May 30 report “China Orders Strike Against US For Catastrophic Earthquake”, the Chinese by increasing the wattage of their attack radar are able to, also, inflict a catastrophic earthquake upon the North American Continent. Canadian researcher, and former Asia-Pacific Bureau Chief of Forbes Magazine, Benjamin Fulford, and as we had, also, previously reported on, has warned of these attacks, and based upon the strange multicoloured clouds that form in the ionosphere preceding the ‘heating’ of our Earth’s ionosphere by these radar weapons, Russian President Medvedev has ordered Russia’s Strategic Bombers to begin patrols of the Arctic Regions where the first evidence of an attack will be spotted.
unprecedented amounts.

2) HAARP Pisses Off Russia Interfax News Agency, 2K2 [8/10, US HAARP Weapon Development Concerns Russian Duma US
Could Dominate The Planet If http://www.rense.com/general28/deathray.htm] It Deploys This Weapon In Space,

The Russian State Duma has expressed concern about the USA's programme to develop a qualitatively new type of weapon. "Under the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Programme (HAARP) [website address: http://server5550.itd.nrl.navy.mil/projects/haarp/], the USA is creating new integral geophysical weapons that may influence the near-Earth medium with high-frequency radio waves," the State Duma said in an appeal circulated on Thursday [8 August]. "The significance of this qualitative leap could be compared to the transition from cold steel to firearms, or from conventional weapons to nuclear weapons. This new type of weapons differs from previous types in that the near-Earth medium becomes at
once an object of direct influence and its component.


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Prices Low Associated Press, August 4th
(Stevenson Jacobs, August 4th, <http://ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5i5TtajgUpSm7KY5jf-lCJGHBBtAD92BMHB00> Oil prices plunged to a three-month low Monday, briefly tumbling below $120 a barrel in another huge selloff after Tropical Storm Edouard seemed less likely to disrupt oil and natural gas output in the Gulf of Mexico. Crude's steep drop — prices fell more than $5 at one point during the day — dragged down other commodities from corn to copper and mimicked the big nosedives of the past three weeks, adding to growing beliefs that the oil bubble is at least temporarily deflating. "What this means is that we're going to see some more relief at the pump. We're probably looking at another 10 cents of downside in retail gas prices," said Tom Kloza, publisher and chief analyst at Oil Price Information Service in Wall, N.J. A gallon of regular gas fell on average about half a penny overnight to $3.881. Also weighing on oil prices Monday was a report by the Commerce Department that consumer spending after adjusting for inflation fell in June as shoppers dealt with higher prices for gasoline, food and other items. That fed investors' expectations that a U.S. economic slowdown is sharply curbing U.S. demand for fossil fuels. Light, sweet crude for September delivery fell $3.69, or 2.9 percent, to settle at $121.41 a barrel on the New York Mercantile Exchange. It was crude's lowest settlement price since May 5. Earlier, prices plummeted to $119.50, the lowest level since May 6. Crude has now fallen in six of the last nine sessions and has shaved 18 percent off its trading record of $147.27 reached July 11. The dramatic dive came after traders learned that Edouard, aiming for the coasts of Texas and Louisiana, likely would not damage offshore oil and natural gas drilling platforms that sit in the storm's path. Natural gas futures also fell sharply, dropping 66.3 cents, or 7.1 percent, to settle at $8.726 per 1,000 cubic feet. And gasoline futures fell 8.41 cents, or 2.7 percent, to settle at $3.0002 a gallon. Other commodities including gold, copper, corn and soybeans also traded lower. "That has taken a lot of pressure off the market. It looks like the thinking is that we dodged another bullet," said Phil Flynn, analyst at Alaron Trading Corp. in Chicago. Still, oil market traders expressed surprise that a potential hurricane in the Gulf coupled with escalating tensions with Iran didn't send prices higher — an almost certainty just a few weeks ago. "Any market that really doesn't respond to seemingly bullish news is often a tip off that we're going lower," said Jim Ritterbusch, president of energy consultancy Ritterbusch and Associates in Galena, Ill. He and other analysts have predicted that, barring any surprises, crude could tilt toward $100 a barrel by the end of the year. Meanwhile, retail gas prices kept falling, reflecting the continuing price-driven drop in U.S. fuel demand. Gas has fallen 5.6 percent since hitting an-all time high above $4 a gallon on July 17, but so far hasn't kept up with oil's steep descent, suggesting struggling filling stations are still saddled with gas bought when crude prices were higher. "They still have expensive gas to feed into the system, so they're reluctant to drop prices," Ritterbusch said. "Prices never come down as fast as they go up." Still, Monday's drop in crude was expected to help make retail gas cheaper. Adding to the bearish sentiment around oil, Democratic presidential candidate Barack Obama on Monday proposed that the government sell 70 million barrels of oil from its strategic reserves to help lower gasoline prices. He had previously opposed tapping the supplies, but said in a major energy speech that past releases from the reserve have "lowered gas prices within two weeks." The Illinois senator also reiterated his statement Friday that he could now support limited new offshore drilling in the U.S. if needed to enact a compromise energy policy that would foster fuel-efficient autos and alternative energy sources. Following Obama's remarks, "the market is increasing the odds now that the drilling deal will get done and we will see more production coming out of the Gulf of Mexico," Flynn said. Oil prices began the day trading mostly lower after the Commerce Department said inflation-adjusted consumer spending fell by 0.2 percent in June. That was the worst showing since February and gave energy market traders another reason to sell on beliefs that people will further cut back on their driving to cope with near $4-a-gallon gasoline. Edouard was threatening to pick up strength from warm Gulf waters and gain near-hurricane speeds over the next 24 hours, prompting Shell Oil Co. to begin evacuating about 40 workers from
some of its operations in the western Gulf. But Edouard is not likely to disrupt production, according to one financial firm that specializes in the energy industry. "He'll just be (a) little tropical storm tike compared to big mamma's that rip things up and spike gas prices," the Houston-based securities firm Tudor Pickering Holt & Co. said in a note Monday. Crude's drop came as traders ignored mounting tensions between the West and Iran. The Bush administration said Monday the five permanent members of the U.N. Security Council and Germany have agreed to seek more sanctions against Iran over its nuclear program after it failed to meet a weekend deadline to respond to an incentives package aimed at diffusing the standoff. On Sunday, Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad said diplomacy was the only way out of the standoff. Those comments came a day after he asserted his oil-producing country would not give up its "nuclear rights," signaling that it would refuse demands to stop enriching uranium or at least not to expand its enrichment work. In


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other Nymex trading, heating oil futures fell 8.67 cents to settle at $3.3501 a gallon. In London, Brent crude for September delivery fell $3.50 cents to settle at $120.68 a barrel, after earlier falling to a contract-low of $118.80.


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TURN: hegemonic weather modification by the military could upset global ecology, there is no public oversight to prevent mismanagement Watt, 1993 (Angus, Commander of Air Command and Chief of the Air Staff of the Canadian Air Force. “Weather Modification: The Ultimate Weapon” April http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA283033) The use of weather as a weapon by the military raises many questions that, at best, can only be partially answered. In many ways, offensive weather modification is a technology in which man's reach often exceeds his grasp. The capability to modify large and very powerful weather systems now exists, although the extent and effectiveness are debatable. More certain is the fact that the effects of human intervention are not well understood. Offensive weather modification Is a very unpredictable weapon which, individually or in combination with natural phenomena, could cause terrible damage to the world ecosystem through unforeseen and uncontrollable reactions. Even In the name of national security, it is very difficult to justify such a weapon. Offensive weather modification poses another thorny ethical problem in that it would be difficuflt to determine responsibility for changes in the weather. Weather Is generally assumed to result from natural forces; thus, offensive weather modification is a technology which lends itself to covert action, especially in the case of long-term climate modfication which could be used to economically drain an enemy. Such actions could remain unknown to the general citizenry of both the victim and the aggressor nations. For example, one scientist has proposed fertilizing the Antarctic Ocean with Iron In order to encourage algae growth which would draw carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and result in global cooling.38 While the scientific rigor of this particular theory may be debatable, it does serve to illustrate the potential for a covert climate modification project, with fearful consequences for which it would be difficult to assign blame.


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Hegemonic dominance of the weather would make destructive militarism and ecological degradation inevitable. No rationality would dissuade the elite.
Fleming, 2007 (James R., public policy scholar at the Wilson Center and holder of the American Association for the Advancement of Science’s, “The Climate Engineers” The Wilson Quarterly, http://www.wilsoncenter.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=wq.essay&essay_id=231274)

There is, moreover, a troubling motif of militarization in the history of weather and climate control. Military leaders in the United States and other countries have pondered the possibilities of weaponized weather manipulation for decades. Lowell Wood himself embodies the overlap of civilian and military interests. Now affiliated with the Hoover Institution, a think tank at Stanford University, Wood was a protégé of the late Edward Teller, the weapons scientist who was credited with developing the hydrogen bomb and was the architect of the Reagan- era Star Wars missile defense system (which Wood worked on, too). Like Wood, Teller was known for his advocacy of controversial military and technological solutions to complex problems, including the chimerical “peaceful uses of nuclear weapons.” Teller’s plan to excavate an artificial harbor in Alaska using thermo nuclear explosives actually came close to receiving government approval. Before his death in 2003, Teller was advocating a climate control scheme similar to what Wood proposed. Despite the large, unanswered questions about the implications of playing God with the elements, climate engineering is now being widely discussed in the scientific community and is taken seriously within the U.S. government. The Bush administration has recommended the addition of this “important strategy” to an upcoming report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the UN- sponsored organization whose February study seemed to persuade even the Bush White House to take global warming more seriously. And climate engineering’s advocates are not confined to the small group that met in California. Last year, for example, Paul J. Crutzen, an atmospheric chemist and Nobel laureate, proposed a scheme similar to Wood’s, and there is a long paper trail of climate and weather modification studies by the Pentagon and other government agencies. As the sole historian at the NASA conference, I may have been alone in my appreciation of the irony that we were meeting on the site of an old U.S. Navy airfield literally in the shadow of the huge hangar that once housed the ill-starred Navy dirigible U.S.S. Macon. The 785- foot- long Macon, a technological wonder of its time, capable of cruising at 87 miles per hour and launching five Navy biplanes, lies at the bottom of the Pacific Ocean, brought down in 1935 by strong winds. The Navy’s entire rigid-airship program went down with it. Coming on the heels of the crash of its sister ship, the Akron, the Macon’s destruction showed that the design of these technological marvels was fundamentally flawed. The hangar, built by the Navy in 1932, is now both a historic site and a Superfund site, since it has been discovered that its “galbestos” siding is leaching PCBs into the drains. As I reflected on the fate of the Navy dirigible program, the geoengineers around the table were confidently and enthusiastically promoting techniques of climate intervention that were more than several steps beyond what might be called state of the art, with implications not simply for a handful of airship crewmen but for every one of the 6.5 billion inhabitants of the planet. Ultimate control of the weather and climate excites some of our wildest fantasies and our greatest fears. It is the stuff of age-old myths. Throughout history, we mortals have tried to protect ourselves against harsh weather. But weather control was reserved for the ancient sky gods. Now the power has seemingly devolved to modern Titans. We are undoubtedly facing an uncertain future. With rising temperatures, increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, and a growing world population, we may be on the verge of a worldwide climate crisis. What shall we do? Doing nothing or too little is clearly wrong, but so is doing too much. Largely unaware of the long and checkered history of weather and climate control and the political and ethical challenges it poses, or somehow considering themselves exempt, the new Titans see themselves as heroic pioneers, the first generation capable of alleviating or averting natural disasters. They are largely oblivious to the history of the charlatans and sincere but deluded scientists and engineers who preceded them. If we fail to heed the lessons of that history, and fail to bring its perspectives to bear in thinking about public policy, we risk repeating the mistakes of the past, in a game with much higher stakes. Three stories (there are many more) capture the recurring pathologies of weather and climate control schemes. The first involves 19th- century proposals by the U.S. government’s first meteorologist and other “pluviculturalists” to make artificial rain and relieve drought conditions in the American West. The second begins in 1946 with promising discoveries in cloud seeding that rapidly devolved into exaggerated claims and attempts by cold warriors to wea ponize the technique in the jungles of Vietnam. And then there is the tale of how computer modeling raised hopes


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for perfect forecasting and ultimate control of weather and climate— hopes that continue to inform and encourage present- day planetary engineers


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Hegemonic weather domination destroys any ethical understanding of nature. Such power would culminate in endless miscalculated militarism, ecological disaster.
Fleming, 2007 (James R., public policy scholar at the Wilson Center and holder of the American Association for the Advancement of Science’s, “The Climate Engineers” The Wilson Quarterly, http://www.wilsoncenter.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=wq.essay&essay_id=231274) With greater gravitas, but no less speculation, the National Research Council issued a study, Critical Issues in Weather Modification Research, in 2003. It cited looming social and environmental challenges such as water shortages and drought, property damage and loss of life from severe storms, and the threat of “inadvertent” climate change as justifications for investing in major new national and international programs in weather modification research. Although the NRC study included an acknowledgment that there is “no convincing scientific proof of the efficacy of intentional weather modification efforts,” its authors nonetheless argued that there should be “a renewed commitment” to research in the field of intentional and unintentional weather modification. The absence of such proof after decades of efforts has not deterred governments here and abroad from a variety of ill- advised or simply fanciful undertakings. The NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts, for example, has provided $475,000 for atmospheric scientist Ross Hoffman’s research on beaming satellitebased microwaves at hurricanes as a means of redirecting them— as if it were possible to know where a storm was originally headed or that its new path would not lead straight to calamity. In 2005, Senator Kay Bailey Hutchison (R.-Texas) introduced legislation “to develop and implement a comprehensive and coordinated national weather modification research policy and a national cooperative Federal and State program of weather modification and development.” (Significantly, the Texas Department of Agriculture already supports weather modification programs covering one-fifth of the state.) And China has announced that its Study Institute for Artificial Influence on the Weather will attempt to manipulate Beijing’s weather by cloud seeding in order to ensure optimum conditions for the 2008 Olympics. With great fanfare, atmospheric chemist Paul J. Crutzen, winner of a 1995 Nobel Prize for his work on the chemistry of ozone depletion, recently proposed to cool the earth by injecting reflective aerosols or other substances into the tropical stratosphere using balloons or artillery. He estimated that more than five million metric tons of sulfur per year would be needed to do the job, at an annual cost of more than $125 billion. The effect would emulate the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, which covered the earth with a cloud of sulfuric acid and other sulfates and caused a drop in the planet’s average temperature of about 0.5°C for roughly two years. Unfortunately, Mount Pinatubo may also have contributed to the largest ozone hole ever measured. The volcanic eruption was also blamed for causing cool, wet summers, shortening the growing season, and exacerbating Mississippi River flooding and the ongoing drought in the Sahel region of Africa. Overall, the cooling caused by Mount Pinatubo’s eruption temporarily suppressed the greenhouse warming effect and was stronger than the influence of the El Niño event that occurred at the same time. Crutzen merely noted that if a Mount Pinatubo– scale eruption were emulated every year or two, undesired side effects and ozone losses should not be “as large,” but some whitening of the sky and colorful sunsets and sunrises would occur. His “interesting alternative” method would be to release soot particles to create minor “nuclear winter” conditions. Crutzen later said that he had only reluctantly proposed his planetary “shade,” mostly to “startle” political leaders enough to spur them to more serious efforts to curb greenhouse-gas emissions. But he may well have produced the opposite effect. The appeal of a quick and seemingly painless technological “fix” for the global climate dilemma should not be underestimated. The more practical such dreams appear, the less likely the world’s citizens and political leaders are to take on the difficult and painful task of changing the destiny that global climate models foretell. These issues are not new. In 1956, F. W. Reichel derfer, then chief of the U.S. Weather Bureau, delivered an address to the National Academy of Sciences, “Importance of New Concepts in Meteorology.” Reacting to the widespread theorizing and speculation on the possibilities of weather and climate control at the time, he


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pointed out that the crucial issue was “practicability” rather than “possibility.” In 1956 it was possible to modify a cloud with dry ice or silver iodide, yet it was impossible to predict what the cloud might do after seeding and impracticable to claim any sense of control over the weather. This is still true today. Yet thanks to remarkable advances in science and technology, from satellite sensors to enormously sophisticated global climate models, the fantasies of the weather and climate engineers have only grown. Now it is possible to tinker with scenarios in computer climate models— manipulating the solar inputs, for example, to demonstrate that artificially increased solar reflectivity will generate a cooling trend in the model. But this is a far cry from conducting a practical global field experiment or operational program with proper data collection and analysis; full accounting for possible liabilities, unintended consequences, and litigation; and the necessary international support and approval. Lowell Wood blithely declares that if his proposal to turn the polar icecap into a planetary air conditioner were implemented and didn’t work, the process could be halted after a few years. He doesn’t mention what harm such a failure could cause in the meantime. There are signs among the geoengineers of an overconfidence in technology as a solution of first resort. Many appear to possess a too-literal belief in progress that produces an anything- is-possible mentality, abetted by a basic misunderstanding of the nature of today’s climate models. The global climate system is a “massive, staggering beast,” as oceanographer Wallace Broecker describes it, with no simple set of controlling parameters. We are more than a long way from understanding how it works, much less the precise prediction and practical “control” of global climate. Assume, for just a moment, that climate control were technically possible. Who would be given the authority to manage it? Who would have the wisdom to dispense drought, severe winters, or the effects of storms to some so that the rest of the planet could prosper? At what cost, economically, aesthetically, and in our moral relationship to nature, would we manipulate the climate? These questions are never seriously contemplated by the climate wizards who dream of mastery over nature. If, as history shows, fantasies of weather and climate control have chiefly served commercial and military interests, why should we expect the future to be different? Have you noticed all the cannons? From Dyrenforth’s cannonading in Texas to Crutzen’s artillery barrage of the stratosphere, military means and ends have been closely intertwined with thinking about control of the weather and climate. In 1996 the U.S. Air Force resurrected the old Cold War speculation about using weather modification for military purposes, claiming that “in 2025, U.S. aerospace forces can ‘own the weather’ by capitalizing on emerging technologies and focusing development of those technologies to war- fighting applications.” In addition to conventional cloud seeding methods, the Air Force visionaries proposed computer hacking to disrupt an enemy’s weather monitors and models and the use of emerging technologies to create clouds of particles that could block an enemy’s optical sensors. Hurricanes were also fair game for weaponization. The Air Force pointed out that weather modification, unlike other approaches, “makes what are otherwise the results of deliberate actions appear to be the consequences of natural weather phenomena.” Given such mindsets, it is virtually impossible to imagine governments resisting the temptation to explore military uses of any potentially climate- altering technology.


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Superpower Geoengineering would culminate in a destructive environmental arms race at the expense of the third world. Global environmental disparities would skew the calculations of the few in control. Cascio, 2008 (James, environmental futurist and a fellow at the Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies. “Battlefield Earth” http://www.foreignpolicy.com/story/cms.php?story_id=4146) Geoengineering involves humans making intentional, large-scale modifications to the Earth’s geophysical systems in order to change the environment. These can include sequestering atmospheric carbon dioxide in the oceans, changing the reflectivity of the Earth’s surface, and pumping particles into the stratosphere to block a fraction of incoming sunlight. Many of these proposals mimic natural events, so we know that—in principle—they can work, although there is insufficient understanding of their potential side effects. Unsurprisingly, geoengineering is highly controversial, and even proponents view it as a “Hail Mary” pass, to be considered only after all other options have failed. But geoengineering presents more than just an environmental question. It also presents a geopolitical dilemma. With processes of this magnitude and degree of uncertainty, countries would inevitably argue over control, costs, and liability for mistakes. More troubling, however, is the possibility that states may decide to use geoengineering efforts and technologies as weapons. Two factors make this a danger we dismiss at our peril: the unequal impact of climate changes, and the ability of small states and even nonstate actors to attempt geoengineering. For a variety of political and natural reasons, global warming affects some countries differently than others. Fragile economies and weak infrastructures tend to worsen the results of climate disruptions, a problem exemplified by Bangladesh’s vulnerability to monsoons, accelerating desertification in northern China, and, most visibly, Hurricane Katrina’s devastation in New Orleans. At the same time, warming and altered rainfall patterns may—temporarily— improve conditions for countries in extreme latitudes, increasing harvests in Canada and Russia for a few years. Similarly, intentional changes meant to fight global warming would also have differential results. At the same time, the resources required for geoengineering projects can vary dramatically. A start-up company called Climos and the government of India have each begun to prepare tests of “ocean iron fertilization” to boost oceanic phytoplankton blooms, in order to extract carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, at a cost of just a few million dollars. At the other end of the spectrum, projects like the injection of megatons of sulfur dioxide into the upper atmosphere to simulate the effects of a volcano would easily cost in the tens of billions of dollars—still within the means of most developed countries. It’s this combination of differential impact and relatively low cost that makes international disputes over geoengineering almost inevitable. Even if there is broad consensus that geoengineering is too risky, research into environmental modification will happen simply out of self-preservation—nobody wants to fall behind. Moreover, it’s not hard to imagine some international actors seeing geoengineering as something other than solely a way of avoiding environmental disaster. It wouldn’t be the first time states looked at the environment as a weapon. In the early 1970s, the Pentagon’s Project Popeye attempted to use cloud seeding to increase the strength of monsoons and bog down the Ho Chi Minh Trail. In 1996, a group of Air Force and Army officers working with the Air Force 2025 program produced a document titled “Weather as a Force Multiplier: Owning the Weather in 2025” (it never went anywhere). The Soviet Union reputedly had similar projects underway. But although the idea of a geoengineering arms race may superficially parallel this line of thinking, it’s actually a very different concept. Unlike “weather warfare,” geoengineering would be subtle and long term, more a strategic project than a tactical weapon; moreover, unlike weather control, we know it can work, since we’ve been unintentionally changing the climate for decades. The offensive use of geoengineering could take a variety of forms. Overproductive algae blooms can actually sterilize large stretches of ocean over time, effectively destroying fisheries and local ecosystems. Sulfur dioxide carries health risks when it cycles out of the stratosphere. One proposal would pull cooler water from the deep oceans to the surface in an explicit attempt to shift the trajectories of hurricanes. Some actors might even deploy counter-geoengineering projects to slow or alter the effects of other efforts.


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The subtle, long-term aspects of geoengineering could make it appealing. Because the overt purpose of geoengineering would be to fight global warming, and because complex climate systems would make it hard to definitively blame a given project for harmful outcomes elsewhere, offensive uses would likely be hard to detect with certainty. And, in a world where nuclear deterrence remains strong but the value of conventional military force has come under question, states will look for alternative, unexpected ways of boosting their strategic power relative to competitors. Despite the global impact of geoengineering, the differential climate patterns and the resilience of local technological, economic, and social infrastructures guarantees that some states will fare better than others. Much as Cold War nuclear strategists could argue about “winning” a nuclear war by having more survivors, advocates of a Global Warming War might see the United States, Western Europe, or Russia as better able to “ride out” climate disruption and manipulation than, say, China or the countries of the Middle East. It’s a new version of “thinking the unthinkable.”


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SPS NEG --- Lunar Solar CP
Lunar solar power solves Criswell, 02
(David R, Physicist and director of the University of Houston’s Institute for Space Systems Operations, The Industrial Physicist , “Solar Power via the Moon”, April/May 2002,< http://ecow.engr.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/get/ne/421/briggs/articles/solarpowerviathemoon.pdf>)

The surface of Earth’s moon receives 13,000 TW of absolutely predictable solar power. The LSP System uses 10 to 20 pairs of bases—one of each pair on the eastern edge and the other on the western edge of the moon, as seen from Earth—to collect on the order of 1% of the solar power reaching the lunar surface. The collected sunlight is converted to many lowintensity beams of microwaves and directed to rectennas on Earth. Each rectenna converts the microwave power to electricity that is fed into the local electric grid. The system could easily deliver the 20 TW or more of electric power required by 10 billion people. Adequate knowledge of the moon and practical technologies have been available since the late 1970s to collect this power and beam it to Earth. Successful Earth–moon power beams are already in use by the Arecibo planetary radar, operating from Puerto Rico. This radio telescope periodically images the moon for mapping and other scientific studies with a radar beam whose intensity in Earth’s atmosphere is 10% of the maximum proposed for the LSP System. Each lunar power base would be augmented
Fortunately, in the Lunar Solar Power (LSP) System, an appropriate, natural satellite is available for commercial development. by fields of solar converters located on the back side of the moon, 500 to 1,000 km beyond each visible edge and connected to the Earthward power bases by electric transmission lines. The moon receives sunlight continuously except during a full lunar eclipse, which occurs approximately once a year and lasts for less than three hours. Energy stored on Earth as hydrogen, synthetic gas, dammed water, and other forms could be released during a short eclipse.

Each lunar power base consists of tens of thousands of power plots (Figure 1) distributed in an elliptical area to form a fully segmented, phased-array radar that is solar-powered. Each demonstration power plot consists of four major subsystems. Solar cells collect sunlight, and buried electrical wires (not shown) carry the solar energy as electric power to microwave generators. These devices convert the solar electricity to microwaves of the correct phase and amplitude and then send the microwaves to screens that reflect microwave beams toward Earth. Hospitable environment Unlike Earth,
the surface of the moon is compatible with the construction of extremely large areas of thin solar collectors and their dependable operation over many decades. No oxygen, water, atmospheric chemicals, or life is present to attack and degrade thin solar collectors. No wind, rain, ice, fog, sleet, hail, driven dust, or volcanic ash will coat and mechanically degrade them. Moonquakes and meteor impacts produce only tens of nanometers of ground motion. Micrometeors erode thin solar collectors less than 1 mm every 1 million years. To produce the lunar components, a few people and a Figure 1. In this lunar power base, sunlight hits the solar converter, which transmits power via

All such reflectors, when viewed from Earth, overlap to form a “lens” that can direct a narrow power beam toward Earth. Microwave rsmall quantity of production machinery, components, and supplies must be transported to the moon. The production machinery constructs the lunar power bases primarily from materials that are widely available on the moon. Bulk soil and separated soil fractions can be melted by concentrated sunlight and formed into thin glass sheets and fibers or sintered into rods, tubes, bricks, and more complex components. Silicon, aluminum, and iron can be chemically extracted from lunar soil for fabrication of solar cells. Trace elements can be brought from Earth for doping solar cells. It is estimated that a kilogram of materials transported from Earth to the moon would result in the delivery of 200 times as much electric energy to Earth as a kilogram of a solar-power satellite. However, the power-per-kilogram ratio can be further increased because the requisite production machinery can be designed so that 90% or more is made on the moon from lunar materials. This further reduces the total mass that must be ferried from Earth and, hence, reduces the up-front cost of transportation. In this case, 1 kg of facilities and components sent to the moon will return approximately 1,400 times as much energy to Earth as 1 kg of a solar-power satellite deployed from Earth. Earth hangs permanently in the sky just above the lunar horizon. As seen from Earth, the microwave reflectors of all the power plots of a power base appear to overlap and form an antenna 30 to 100 km in
underground wires to a microwave generator, which in turn illuminates a microwave reflector. diameter. A lunar power base can efficiently deliver power to a rectenna as small as 400 m in diameter that outputs 25 MW of electric power. Larger rectennas will output proportionally more power. Note that 30 km is the maximum operational diameter of the Very Large Array (VLA) for radio astronomy, which is located 80 km west of Socorro, New Mexico. The VLA has operated automatically for more than 15 years and has routinely achieved 10 times the phasing accuracy required at the 12-cm wavelength by the LSP System. If the cost of the lunar activities—including the design and building of a delivery system—is restricted to $0.001/kWe•h, then as much as $140,000/kg can be

An LSP demonstration system could begin delivering commercial power within 10 years of program start-up. The cost and rate of growth of the LSP System are limited only by how clever we are in applying our industrial skills, not by the cost of transporting materials to the moon.
invested in establishing and operating the LSP facilities and components. Rectennas located on Earth between 60º N and 60º S can receive power directly from the moon approximately 8 hours a day. Power could be received anywhere on Earth via a fleet of relay satellites in high-inclination, eccentric orbits around Earth (Figure 2). A given relay satellite receives a power beam from the moon and retransmits multiple beams to several rectennas on Earth required by an alternative operation. This enables the region around each rectenna to

The relay satellites would require less than 1% of the surface area needed by a fleet of solar-power satellites in orbit around Earth. Synthetic-aperture radars, such as those flown on the Space Shuttle, have demonstrated the feasibility of multibeam transmission of pulsed power directed to Earth from orbit. The LSP System is a reasonable alternative to supply Earth’s needs for commercial energy without the undesirable characteristics of current options. The system collects sunlight on the moon’s surface, converts it to usable energy, and beams the energy to receivers on Earth. The system can be built on the moon from lunar materials and operated on the moon and on Earth using existing technologies. More-advanced
receive power 24 hours a day. production and operating technologies than those described here will Microwave beam significantly reduce up-front and production costs. The energy beamed to Earth is clean, safe, and reliable, and its source—the sun—is virtually inexhaustible.


Monday Night - Seniors Lunar Solar Power sparks a model for space colonization-Lunar mineral collection Currier and Blacic, 00

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(SPACE RESOURCES ROUNDTABLE II, Sponsored by Colorado School of Mines Lunar and Planetary Institute National Aeronautics and Space Administration , 11/8/00, http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20010001658_2000171127.pdf)

Space exploration and colonization must include oxygen for propulsion and life support, as well as, structural materials for construction. To the extent possible, these should be derived from locally available planetary resources. We propose an extractive metallurgy and oxygen recovery process well-suited for resource utilization in space. Locally available minerals are placed in a radio frequency-generated hydrogen plasma. This is accomplished using a fluidized bed contacting device. Electromagnetic energy is coupled to the hydrogen gas forming a non-equilibrium plasma. The plasma produces the ideal reducing agent - atomic hydrogen - in direct and intimate contact with the solid particles.
When using oxide minerals as a feed, atomic hydrogen extracts oxygen from the matrix through the formation of water. The water is subsequently split into oxygen and hydrogen (the hydrogen is then recycled back to the plasma

The processed solids could then be refined to produce structural materials. A conceptual process flow diagram, which requires an initial charge of Central to this process is the plasma fluidized bed (PFB) reactor. In such a device, gas flows upward through a bed of particles such that the upward hydrodynamic drag force on the particles counter-acts the gravitational forces. At this point the bed becomes "fluidized." We have shown that a plasma can be maintained in such devices under the proper flow regimes. We screened extractive chemistry in plasma fluidized
reactor). hydrogen, is given in Figure 1. beds using a hydrogen-argon plasma. The plasma was generated using a microwave applicator (2.45 GHz) coupled directly to a quartz tube (the tube passed through the waveguide). The bed was fitted with a port just the above the

As a lunar surrogate, we used FeTiO3 (ilmenite). With this surrogate, water production from the hydrogen-argon plasma fluidized bed was fairly constant over time and significant changes in crystal structure were observed. These effects are shown in the mass spectra signal for water and in the x-ray diffraction pattern
bed which allowed gas samples to be withdrawn for mass spectral analysis. We have successfully produced water from several surrogates of interest. (Figure 2).

LSP solves economy and environment-generates private investment Criswell, 03
(Testimony of Dr. David R. Criswell at Senate Commerce, Science, and Transportation Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space Hearings: "Lunar Exploration" Thursday, November 6, 2003, http://www.spaceref.com/news/viewsr.html?pid=10926)
I am honored to have this opportunity to introduce a program for the economic and environmental security for Earth, and especially for the United States of America, by meeting Earth's real electrical power needs. By 2050, approximately 10 billion people will live on Earth demanding ~5

solar power from the Moon could provide everyone clean, affordable, and sustainable electric power. No terrestrial options can provide the needed minimum of 2 kWe/person or at least 20 terawatts globally. Solar power bases will be built on the Moon that collect a small fraction of the Moon's dependable solar power and convert it into power beams that will dependably deliver lunar solar power to receivers on Earth. The intensity of each power beam is restricted to 20%, or less, of the intensity of noontime sunlight. Each power beam can be safely received, for example, in an industrially zoned area. The Lunar Solar Power (LSP) System does not require basic new technological developments. Adequate knowledge of the Moon and the essential technologies have been available since the late 1970s to design, build, and operate the LSP System. Automated machines and people would be sent to the Moon to build the lunar power bases. The machines would build the power components from the common lunar dust and rocks, thereby avoiding the high cost of transporting materials from the Earth to the Moon. T
times the power now available. By then, On Earth each power beam will be transformed into electricity and distributed, on-demand, through local electric power grids. Each terrestrial receiver can accept power directly from the Moon or indirectly, via relay satellites, when the receiver cannot view the Moon. he LSP System is distributed and open. Thus, it can readily accommodate new manufacturing and operating technologies as they become available. Engineers, scientists, astronauts, and managers skilled in mining, manufacturing, electronics, aerospace, and industrial production of commodities will create new wealth on the Moon.

Thousands of tele-robotic workers in American facilities, primarily on Earth, will oversee the lunar machinery and maintain the LSP System. Our national space program, in cooperation with advanced U.S. industries, can produce the LSP System for a small fraction of the cost of building equivalent power generating capabilities on Earth. Shuttle- and Space Station-derived systems and LSP production machinery can be in operation in space and on the Moon within a few years. A demonstration LSP System can grow quickly to 50% of averaged U.S. electric consumption, ~0.2 TWe, within 15 years and be profitable thereafter. When LSP provides 20 terawatts of electric power to Earth it can sell the electricity at one-fifth of today's cost or ~1 ¢/kWe-h. At current electric prices LSP would generate ~9 trillion dollars per year of net income. Like hydroelectric dams, every power receiver on Earth can be an engine of clean economic growth. Gross World Product can increase a factor of 10. The average annual per capita income of Developing
Nations can increase from today's $2,500 to ~$20,000. Economically driven emigrations, such as from Mexico and Central America to the United States, will gradually decrease. Increasingly wealthy Developing Nations will generate

Lunar power can generate hydrogen to fuel cars at low cost and with no release of greenhouse gases. United States payments to other nations for oil, natural gas, petrochemicals, and commodities such as fertilizer will decrease. LSP industries will establish new, high-value American jobs. LSP will generate major investment opportunities for Americans. The average American income could increase from today's ~$35,000/y-person to more than $150,000/y-person.
new and rapidly growing markets for American goods and services.


Monday Night - Seniors LSP is the ONLY cost effective form of alternative energy-everything else pales in comparison

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Ouellette et al, 07
(James Aaron, Electrical Engineering Student and Dr. Kourosh Sedghisigarchi, Assistant Professor WVUTech, “Lunar Solar Power System”, < http://www.caetonline.com/Images/AES/2007%20AES%20Abstracts.pdf>) With the ever‐increasing concerns about global warming and other environmental effects that the current means of electrical power productions are having on our planet, there are growing interests in finding a renewable energy source that can meet present and future electrical needs. However the current technologies of renewable energy sources are too costly. The majority of these sources relay on

environmental condition that are both unstable and unpredictable. In contrast the Lunar Solar Power (LSP) system is economically feasible, reliable and has little environmental impacts. The LSP system is comprised of: • r power is A lunar base where solar collecting components are constructed and sola r power is • collected and converted from DC to
microwaves. Retransmitting satellites in a geosynchronous orbit around the earth, and • Rectenna stations on earth where microwave power is received and converted into usable electric power. The major advantages to LSP are: • Lunar dust and rocks contain at least 20% silicon, 40% oxygen, and 10% metals (iron, aluminum, etc.). Solar cells, electric wiring, some micro‐circuitry components, and the reflector screens can be made out of these materials on the moon. • Can supply electric energy to Earth at less than 0.01 $/kWe‐h and does not introduce CO2, ash, or other material waste. • The moon does not suffer from any environmental hindrances therefore it can supply continuous power to the earth. For a 100 GWe LSP system installed over a ten year time period, estimations show for producing 500 GWe‐Yrs of energy the gross revenue cost would be 438 billon dollars, with a total cost of 243 billon dollars yielding net revenues of 195 billon dollars.

Lunar solar power is less expensive, repairable, replaceable and key to exploration and colonization by enabling self-sufficient colonies that utilize indigenous resources Ignatiev 1 (Alex, “In-situ Electric Power Generation to Support Solar System Exploration and Colonization: Manufacture of Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells on the Moon.” Director of the Space Vacuum Epitay Center at the University of Houston, Professor of Physics, Chemistry and Electrical and Computer Engineering. Principal Investigator of the Wtzke Shield Facility program. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/7416/20159/00931705.pdf?arnumber=931705). The long term exploration and colonization of the solar system for scientific research and commercial interests depends critically on the availability of electrical energy. In addition, the long term potential for humans to settle space requires self-sufficiency and therefore, self-sustaining electrical power systems. This can be attained on the Moon by utilizing the indigenous resources present there through the fabrication of solar cells using thin film growth technology and the vacuum environment present on the surface of the Moon.. Thin film silicon-based solar cells will be fabricated directly on the surface of the Moon over a period of time to form a power system that can reach 1 MW in several years. This unique approach for the emplacement of a safe electric power system on the Moon would require the transportation of a much smaller mass of equipment to the Moon than would otherwise be required to install a power system brought to the Moon, and would result in a power system that was repairable/replaceable through the simple fabrication of more solar cells.


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Development of indigenous energy sources enables exploration, development, lunar resource processing and tourism at lower cost Ignatiev 1 (Alex, “In-situ Electric Power Generation to Support Solar System Exploration and Colonization: Manufacture of Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells on the Moon.” Director of the Space Vacuum Epitay Center at the University of Houston, Professor of Physics, Chemistry and Electrical and Computer Engineering. Principal Investigator of the Wtzke Shield Facility program. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/7416/20159/00931705.pdf?arnumber=931705). Energy is fundamental to nearly everything that humans would like to do in space, whether it is science, commercial development or human exploration. If indigenous energy sources can be developed, a wide range of possibilities emerges for subsequent development. Some of these will lower the cost of future exploration; others will expand the range of activities that can be carried out; and some will reduce the risks of further exploration and development. This picture is particularly true for the Moon where significant electric power will be required for a number of lunar development scenarios including science stations; lunar resource processing; and tourism. The transport and installation of immense numbers of cells to support these energy needs will be major challenge that can be significantly mitigated by the ability to manufacture the required solar cells on the surface of the Moon. What is required for a lunar electric power system is a fabrication facility which can be installed on the Moon, and which will utilize the resources of the Moon to fabricate solar cells on location. Moon’s natural resources and vacuum provide ideal environment for production of solar cells Ignatiev 1 (Alex, “In-situ Electric Power Generation to Support Solar System Exploration and Colonization: Manufacture of Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells on the Moon.” Director of the Space Vacuum Epitay Center at the University of Houston, Professor of Physics, Chemistry and Electrical and Computer Engineering. Principal Investigator of the Wtzke Shield Facility program. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/7416/20159/00931705.pdf?arnumber=931705). The Moon has the natural resources from which to fabricate the solar cells, and has an addition major benefit in the presence of ultra-high vacuum at its surface. The natural resources (lunar regolith) allow for the extraction of the basic materials needed for fabrication of solar cells: silicon, iron, magnesium, calcium, rutile, aluminum, etc., and the vacuum environment allows for the vacuum deposition of thin film silicon solar cells directly on the surface of the Moon. As a result, thin film silicon solar cells can be directly manufactured on the surface of the Moon through the integration of both a regolith processing step that is robotically undertaken to extract the needed raw materials for solar cell growth, and a solar cell vacuum deposition process undertaken by an autonomous robotic rover that lays down continuous ribbons of silicon solar cells on the lunar regolith surface. Living off the land revolutionizes space exploration, lowers costs of all space related operations and rapidly expands space activities Ignatiev 1 (Alex, “In-situ Electric Power Generation to Support Solar System Exploration and Colonization: Manufacture of Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells on the Moon.” Director of the Space Vacuum Epitay Center at the University of Houston, Professor of Physics, Chemistry and Electrical and Computer Engineering. Principal Investigator of the Wtzke Shield Facility program. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/7416/20159/00931705.pdf?arnumber=931705). The ability to ‘live of the land’ brings a new paradigm to space exploration and utilization for the space programs of the world. The development of space-fabricated solar power as described here can significantly lower the costs of operating within space and will provide an environment where rapid expansion of space activities can be undertaken. Energy will be required everywhere man or robots go, and for explorations in the inner part of our solar system, where solar radiation is prevalent, the in-situ fabrication solar cells can ’ provide the electrical energy needed for the development of space.


Monday Night - Seniors
10 years $50 billion and will spur an unprecedented amount of global economic growth

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NationMaster.com 5 (“Views on Exploiting Lunar Resources.” http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/DavidCriswell). For over thirty years, Criswell has been an advocate for obtaining solar power from the moon. He proposes the large-scale construction of solar collectors on the lunar surface, using local lunar materials. The solar energy would be converted to microwave energy and transmitted to Earth. Solar power describes a number of methods of harnessing energy from the light of the sun. ... Adjective lunar Bulk silicate composition (estimated wt%) SiO2 44. ... Criswell argues that this energy source would spur an unprecedented amount of global economic growth, allowing poorer nations to approach the living standards of wealthier ones, while having zero environmental impact. Advantages of lunar-solar energy that he cites include that it would not generate nuclear waste, and is is not a finite resource in the sense that fossil fuels are a finite resource. He estimates that the entire lunar-solar power generation system could be built over a ten-year period for approximately US$50 billion. ISRU is key to long term human space program and can solve our Earthly problems Wingo 8 (Dennis, 5/18/08. “To ISRU or Not to ISRU, This is the Dumbest Question.” Author of Moonrush: Improving Life on Earth with the Moon's Resources, CTO of Orbital Recovery Corporation and president of Skycorp, Inc. http://www.spaceref.com/news/viewnews.html?id=1290). In Situ Resource Utilization or ISRU is the use of materials derived at the location in space that you have traveled to. This is mostly associated with the Moon, Mars, or the Asteroids. Without ISRU there simply is no long term human space program. Why? We simply cannot afford to take everything with us at prices exceeding two hundred thousand dollars per kilogram for the Moon and even more for Mars. Therefore, for any rational human space exploration program, the question is not why but how, when, and where we implement ISRU. In previous missives ("Bootstrapping the Moon" and "Plan B For Outer Space") it has been stated that the purpose of human space exploration should not be primarily science but rather, development. Also, in lieu of NASA's continuing difficulties in moving outward from low earth orbit (LEO), it was postulated that this would have to have a return on investment, even if over a longer period than a normal venture capital investment horizon. Bootstrapping with as little investment as is practical is the prudent course. Interestingly enough, the problems of setting up a selfsustaining lunar enterprise mirror in microcosm the problems that we have here on Earth in devising a prosperous, long-term, and sustainable planetary civilization. Therefore, the issues involved can provide lessons as well as possible solutions to our planetary-level problems at home. This becomes a very strong rational for this approach for lunar exploration and development as we now can directly trace from the Moon to practical solutions on Earth. This answers one of the prime political complaints about space exploration: that it does not help to solve our problems "back here on Earth".


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Lunar Solar Panels can completely replace fossil fuels for the entire earth while also stimulating lunar colonization. ScienceDaily Apr. 17, 2002 [“Getting Power From The Moon”, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2002/04/020416073334.htm] ScienceDaily (Apr. 17, 2002) — If a physicist in Houston has his way you’ll be able to say good-bye to pollutioncausing energy production from fossil fuels. In the April/May issue of The Industrial Physicist Dr. David Criswell suggests that the Earth could be getting all of the electricity it needs using solar cells – on the moon. In the article Criswell proposes a Lunar Solar Power (LSP) System, using arrays of solar cells on the lunar surface to beam energy back to Earth. Criswell estimates that the 10 billion people living on Earth in 2050 will require 20 Terrawatts (TW) of power. The Moon receives 13,000 TW of power from the sun. Criswell suggests that harnessing just 1% of the solar power and directing it toward Earth could replace fossil fuel power plants on Earth. "The lunar operations are primarily industrial engineering," says Criswell. He and Dr, Robert Waldron first described LSP in 1984 at a NASA symposium on Lunar Bases and Space Activities in the 21st Century. "Adequate knowledge of the moon and practical technologies have been available since the late 1970’s to collect this power and beam it to Earth. The system can be built on the moon from lunar materials and operated on the moon and on Earth using existing technologies," reducing the expenses associated with transporting materials to the moon. He adds that LSP would be even cheaper if parts of the production machinery are designed to be made of lunar materials. The LSP system consists of 20-40 lunar power bases, situated on the eastern and western edges of the moon, as seen from Earth. Each power base has a series of solar cells to collect energy from the sun, which is sent over buried electric wires to microwave generators that convert the solar electricity to microwaves. The generators then send the energy to screens that reflect the microwave beams toward Earth, where they are received by arrays of special antennas strategically placed about the globe. "Each antenna converts the microwave power to electricity that is fed into the local power grid," says Criswell. "LSP is probably the only option for powering a prosperous world within the 21st century," says Criswell. "However, it does require a return to the moon." The system depends on some human occupation of the moon to build and run the lunar bases, but Criswell also sees this as an opportunity. "Once we are back and operating at large scale then going down the various learning curves will make traveling to the moon and working there ‘routine."


Monday Night - Seniors LSP could displace fossil fuels. Steven Wintergerst June 01, 2005 [“What to Do on the Moon”, http://www.redcolony.com/art.php?id=0506010]

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The energy necessary to process helium 3 might be more efficiently put to work in creating solar panels. Solar panels on the moon would be more efficient than on the earth, since no atmosphere, or cloudy weather would interfere with the production. The electricity could then be beamed to earth via microwave. The energy cost necessary to extract hydrogen 3 from the entire lunar surface would probably be more than the energy cost necessary to pave the entire moon in solar paneling. While the energy production would not be immediately as great, solar panels would continue to produce energy until the panels surface is smashed apart, or pitted beyond recognition by various meteorite impacts. This risk goes down the longer the solar system exists, and certain measures might be taken to reduce this risk. Magnetic fields, lasers, plastic coating on the panels, and large orbiting balls of foam have been suggested for such purposes Maintenance expenses for replacement due to this problem is likely to be less expensive than replacement and maintenance due to human error. All of the raw materials that go into making solar panels can be found on the moon. Current processes require the use of hydrogen in the processing. This could be limiting, but at least there is a large supply of that on earth. Oxygen-carbon fuel cells can also be produced on the moon, in order to store power while the sun is down. This will allow the production of electricity to go on fairly well and such power could be transported to other areas via microwave, thus doing away with the need for rocket ships to transport this commodity. Electrical production on the moon provides an attractive alternative to the usual practice of burning fossil fuels for energy, because it is an inexhaustible and reusable form of energy production. Electricity produced on the moon would also not affect the atmosphere of the earth.


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LSP works. V.LALITH KUMAR July 25, 2006 [Ubiquity Volume 7, Issue 28 http://www.acm.org/ubiquity/views/v7i28_kumar.html, ASSOCIATE HRMS CONSULTANT at SIERRA ATLANTIC] Fortunately, in the Lunar Solar Power (LSP) System, an appropriate, natural satellite is available for commercial development. The surface of Earth's moon receives 13,000 TW of absolutely predictable solar power. The LSP System uses 10 to 20 pairs of bases-one of each pair on the eastern edge and the other on the western edge of the moon, as seen from Earth-to collect on the order of 1% of the solar power reaching the lunar surface. The collected sunlight is converted to many low intensity beams of microwaves and directed to rectennas on Earth. Each rectenna converts the microwave power to electricity that is fed into the local electric grid. The system could easily deliver the 20 TW or more of electric power required by 10 billion people. Adequate knowledge of the moon and practical technologies has been available since the late 1970s to collect this power and beam it to Earth. Successful Earthmoon power beams are already in use by the Arecibo planetary radar, operating from Puerto Rico. This radio telescope periodically images the moon for mapping and other scientific studies with a radar beam whose intensity in Earth's atmosphere is 10% of the maximum proposed for the LSP System. Each lunar power base would be augmented by fields of solar converters located on the back side of the moon, 500 to 1,000 km beyond each visible edge and connected to the earthward power bases by electric transmission lines. The moon receives sunlight continuously except during a full lunar eclipse, which occurs approximately once a year and lasts for less than three hours. Energy stored on Earth as hydrogen, synthetic gas, dammed water, and other forms could be released during a short eclipse. Each lunar power base consists of tens of thousands of power plots figure (2) distributed in an elliptical area to form fully segmented, phased-array radar that is solar-powered. Each demonstration power plot consists of four major subsystems. Solar cells collect sunlight, and buried electrical wires carry the solar energy as electric power to microwave generators. These devices convert the solar electricity to microwaves of the correct phase and amplitude and then send the microwaves to screens that reflect microwave beams toward Earth. Rectennas located on Earth between 60º N and 60º S can receive power directly from the moon approximately 8 hours a day. Power could be received anywhere on Earth via a fleet of relay satellites in high inclination, eccentric orbits around Earth figure (1). A given relay satellite receives a power beam from the moon and retransmits multiple beams to several rectennas on Earth required by an alternative operation. This enables the region around each rectenna to receive power 24 hours a day. The relay satellites would require less than 1% of the surface area needed by a fleet of solar-power satellites in orbit around Earth. Synthetic-aperture radars, such as those flown on the Space Shuttle, have demonstrated the feasibility of multibeam transmission of pulsed power directed to Earth from orbit. Relay satellites may reflect the beam or may receive the beam, convert it in frequency and phasing and then, transmit a new beam to the rectenna. A retransmitter satellite may generate several beam and simultaneously service several rectennas. The orbital reflector and retransmitter satellites minimize the need on earth for long distance power lines. Relay satellites also minimize the area and mass of power handling equipments in orbit around earth. There by reducing the hazards of orbital debris to space vehicles and satellites.


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LSP can completely solve our dependence on fossil fuels by 2050. Dr. David R. Criswell September, 1998 [Institute for Space Systems Operations, University of Houston, “LUNAR SOLAR POWER SYSTEM FOR ENERGY PROSPERITY WITHIN THE 21ST CENTURY”] It is technically and environmentally feasible to provide commercial solar electric power to Earth from solar power facilities on the Moon. The Lunar Solar Power (LSP) System can supply electric energy to Earth at less than 0.01 $/kWe-h that is independent of the biosphere and does not introduce CO2, ash, or other material wastes into the biosphere. The LSP System uses bases on opposing limbs of the Moon as seen from Earth. Each base transmits multiple microwave power beams directly to Earth receivers called rectennas when a given rectenna can view the Moon. Also, satellites in orbit about Earth can be used to redirect beams to rectennas that cannot view the Moon and thus enable loadfollowing power to rectennas located anywhere on Earth. The LSP System is an unconventional approach to supplying commercial power to Earth. However, the key operational technologies have been demonstrated at a high technology readiness level. To achieve low unit cost of energy the lunar portions of the LSP System are made primarily of lunarderived components. Factories, fixed and mobile, are transported from the Earth to the Moon. On the Moon the factories produce 100s to 1,000s of times their own mass in LSP components. Construction and operation of the power receivers on Earth constitute greater than 90% of the engineering costs. An LSP demonstration Power Base, scaled to deliver the order of 10 to 100 GWe, can cost as little as 20 billion dollars in incremental costs over 10 years when completed as part of a large permanent base on the Moon. Capacity can grow to 20,000 GWe within the 21st century and eventually to greater than 100,000 GWe. Global energy prosperity requires commercial systems that supply at least 2 kWe/person by approximately 2050 and approximately 1,000,000 GWe-Y of energy by 2070. Conventional renewable and non-renewable systems cannot achieve these goals. An LSP System can enable global energy prosperity by 2050, stop the depletion of terrestrial resources, bring new non-polluting net energy into the biosphere, and greatly accelerate the creation of new net wealth on Earth. China is winning the race to weather control. Wired, November 14, 2007 [“China Leads Weather Control Race”, http://blog.wired.com/wiredscience/2007/11/china-leads-wea.html, Bill Woodley: private consultant, president of Woodley Weather Consultants] Said Bill Woodley, a weather modification researcher who spent several decades running cloud seeding experiments for NOAA, “There's much we don't know, as compared to China, where investment is 100 million a year. They're training young scientists and pilots; they've just gone crazy there. It's the epicenter of all weather modification activity. They're pushing hard. Whereas in the United States, the amount of money invested by any government is probably in the hundreds of thousands of dollars, if that. For a country our size, not much is being invested.”


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Using weather modification violates the UN treaty Daily Express 2005 (Weather War? New evidence suggests US & Russia are embroiled in an illegal race to harness the power of hurricanes & earthquakes) Since then, a United Nations treaty has been signed which bans environmental warfare, such as causing earthquakes, melting the polar ice caps and altering climate. But some experts believe that clandestine work to create the ultimate weapon of mass destruction continues. These claims are dismissed by sceptics as wild conspiracy theories and the stuff of James Bond
movies but there is growing evidence that the boundaries between science fiction and fact are becoming increasingly blurred. The Americans now admit that they invested L12million over five years during the Vietnam war on "cloud seeding" - deliberately creating heavy rainfall to wash away enemy crops and destroy supply routes on the Ho Chi Minh trail, in an operation codenamed Project Popeye. It is claimed that rainfall was increased by a third in targeted areas, making the weather-manipulation weapon a success. At the time, government officials said the region was prone to heavy rain. However this sort of rain-making experiment was nothing new. In Britain, it has been alleged that before the devastating Lynmouth floods in Devon in 1952, the RAF had been conducting secret rain-making tests. Aircraft showered clouds with silver iodide, on which water droplets formed, became heavy and eventually fell to the ground as rain. In the next 12 hours nine inches of rain fell - 250 times the normal amount for August - and 35 people were killed. Former North Devon MP Tony Speller, then a 22-year-old soldier who helped in the relief effort, sought answers from the MoD. "I have no doubt they were seeding in the area because there were RAF log books to prove it, " he says now. "Of course the MoD denied any knowledge but that is not to say it did not happen." Speller, now 76, adds: "I doubt we will ever know the truth." Early work on climate control was crude and unpredictable but it is claimed that both the Americans and Russians continued to experiment behind closed doors even after the UN ban in the mid-Eighties, and both now possess sophisticated systems which are capable of controlling the weather - with potentially devastating results. In the US, the technology was developed under the high-frequency active auroral research programme ( HAARP) - originally part of Ronald Reagan's controversial Star Wars defence system. Based in Gokoma, Alaska, the weapon operates by beaming powerful radio waves into the upper atmosphere to alter weather patterns. Some experts claim the system is already up and running, while others say it won't be ready for another 20 years. Michel Chossudovsky, professor of economics at the University of Ottawa in Canada, who has studied official military documents about HAARP, is in no doubt that the weapon is ready. "There are very clear statements by the US Air Force to the effect that weather modification technology is available. HAARP will be fully operational by next year and could be used in actual military situations, " he says. "To claim this system has any nonmilitary purposes is twisting

the truth. I don't think there are any peaceful applications - it is a weapon of mass destruction, capable of major climatic disturbance. Part of the beauty is that the enemy might never know that a weapon had been used.


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Howard J. TAUBENFELD 1967 Professor of International law at Southern Methodist University School of Law and Former Editor of Oceana Publications, Weather Modification and Control: Some International Legal Implications California Law Review, Vol. 55, No. 2 (May, 1967), pp. 493-506 Published by: California Law Review, Inc. As Man’s Knowledge about weather increase, and it increased dramatically in the last decade, it seems safe to predict that there will be substantial wide-scale experimentation with weather modification. It also seems likely, though this is less certain, that man will also develop the capacity to some degree to control weather – that is, to modify it on a greater than local scale. This possibility gives rise to great hopes. Yet it also seems clear that even a modest ability to alter the weather will probably give rise to conflict between interested nations just as local experiments and modification activates have led to litigation, legislation and even gunfire within the United States. As the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has pointed out: It is not unrealistic to expect that mankind will eventually have the power to influence weather, and even climate, on a large scale. However, the complexity of the atmospheric processes is such that a change in the weather induced artificially in one part of the world will necessarily have repercussions elsewhere. This principle can be affirmed on the basis of present knowledge of the mechanism of the general circulation of the atmosphere. However, that knowledge is still far from sufficient to enable us to forecast with confidence the degree, nature or duration of the secondary effects to which a change in weather or climate in one part of the earth may give rise elsewhere, nor even in fact to predict whether these effects will be beneficial or detrimental. Before undertaking an experiment on large-scale weather modification, the possible and desirable consequences must be carefully evaluated, and satisfactory international agreement must be reached. That the international implications of weather modification activities cannot be ignored at present is indicated by the number of countries already conducting studies in this field. In addition to the United States, other countries with field programs include the Soviet
Union, with a program two or three times as large as that of the United States, Argentina, Australia, Canada, France, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Korea and Tunisia. Studies are also under way in Germany, Great Britain, India, Israel and Switzerland. Since it is clear that

weather knows no boundaries, even local weather modification activities may have an unintentional impact in other countries. Of greater concern is the possibility that make weather modification and control activities may prove to be zero-sum game. Because some countries must be losers or, at least, will so regard themselves international conflict over changes is inevitable. In commenting on these potentials, Dr. von
Neumann expressed great concern about the potential dangers of weather control: Present awful possibilities of nuclear warfare…[among them world-wide fallout] may give way to others even more awful. After global climate control becomes possible, perhaps all our present involvements will seem simple…Once such possibilities become possible, they will be exploited. And Dr. Edward Teller told the Senate Military Preparedness Subcommittee in November 1957: Ultimately, we can see again and again that small changes in the weather can lead to very big effects… Please imagine a world in which the Russians can control weather in a big scale, where they

can change the rainfall over Russia, and that – and here I am talking about a very definite situation – that might very well influence the rainfall in our country in adverse manner… What kind of a world will not be where
they have this new kind of control, and we do not? These drastic risks must in time be considered, but at present they are highly speculative. First, while modest local modification capabilities now see, certain, it is conceivable that man, for the foreseeable future, will not be able to effect substantial changes in the world’s climate. Second, while “no international agreements or conventions dealing with weather modification activities” exist, at least as of mid-1967, the United States already has over a dozen bilateral agreements with countries for meteorological training and exchanges, and scores of countries are participating with the United States in using satellite-derived information for forecasting. It may well be that nations will be more amendable to international cooperation in this area than in some others where they have believe vital national interest were at stake. Despite many weather modification activities in the United States, there have apparently been no international problems with Canada or Mexico to date, though such activities in the United States might eventually cause concern to those neighbors. Nevertheless, since it is always useful to give some thought to those future possibilities which can realistically be imagined, this article will explore a few of the questions which might be raised by probable minor interference in another nations’

territory or by potential major international conflicts of interest resulting from weather modification and control activities. There will be no discussion, however, of theories of ownership, liability and the like within the domestic law context, even though they may be relevant as analogies in international matters. These problems have been explored at length in many existing studies.


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CONTROLLING THE WEATHER INTRUDES ON THE WELL BEING OF OTHER NATIONS – VIOLATING INTERNATIONAL LAW Howard J. TAUBENFELD 1967 Professor of International law at Southern Methodist University School of Law and Former Editor of Oceana Publications, “Weather Modification and Control: Some International Legal Implications” California Law Review, Vol. 55, No. 2 (May, 1967), pp. 493-506 Published by: California Law Review, Inc.
Minor interference in another nation’s territory Among the concepts of national sovereignty are the rights to maintain the national territory free from physical interference by other states and their nationals, to control acts and persons on the national territory, and to protect the lives, property and interests of nationals when threatened from any quarter. To enforce this last-mentioned claim, many states, though not all, claim “jurisdiction over an act or actor when the effects of the action are felt in the nation or by a national. Moreover, and of importance for our purposes, all states claim absolute rights of sovereignty (ownership) in the airspace above their national territories and national waters.

While the question of whether a private landowner “owns” the clouds (or “the weather”) over his property is still being argued in domestic cases in the United States, it seems clear that nations are likely to asset rights of control over clouds and other weather phenomena in their national airspace. This involves, on the one hand, a right to “use” the weather over their territory, and, on the other, a claim to “receive” weather due to arrive from over another country. Although there are few cases, those which do exist suggest the right of a state, for itself and its citizens, to claim compensation for damage arising out of activities conducted in another state. Various theories have served as a basis for such claims, including nuisance and abuse of rights. General international law thus imposes limitations upon actions that one state may take which would cause injury in the territory of another state. This principle runs throughout the range of state-to-state relationships. In the well-known
(and in a sense unique) international cases in point, the Trail Smelter Arbitration between the United States and Canada, Canada was held responsible for the injury and dame resulting in the United States from fumes and “fallout” emitted from a smelter located in British Columbia and deposited over a large area of the State of Washington. The tribunal concluded that, “under the principles of

international law, as well as of the law of the United States, no State has the right to use or permit the use of its territory in such a manner as to cause injury by fumes in or to the territory of another or the property or persons therein when the case is of serious consequence and the injury is established by clear and convincing evidence.” Canada was therefore obliged to pay damages on the general theory that a state incurs liability under
international law when it permits or fails to act reasonable to prevent conduct within its territory which causes injury in the territory of another state. Thus, where there has been injury to a state because of a violation of international law, there is a resulting obligation of the offending state to make reparation in an appropriate manner. The nature of the reparation varies, of course, according to the facts and circumstances of the particular case. The recognized manner of reparation for injury of a physical nature is pecuniary compensation, and its measure extends at least to damages fro the actual loss. There is a division among the authorities as to whether the measure includes consequential damages, but the better view is that it does. The problems involved in making claims against governments are well known; and they may prove to be as difficult for injuries caused by weather modification activities as they are in other spheres. Nations have apparently been willing to accept concepts of absolute liability, in effect making themselves insurers, in certain new technological fields such as outer space activities. They might well do the same for weather modification activities to speed the process of experimentations. This would certainly ease the burden on claimants of establishing liability; but, absent an international agreement covering the matter, the claimant’s task will remain difficult at best.


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The U.S. led and signed an international treaty against the use of weather modification technology.

US department of State, Signed 1977 (Signed Geneva 1977, In force 1978, “Convention on the Prohibition of Military or any other hostile use of environmental Modification Techniques,” http://www.state.gov/t/ac/trt/4783.htm)
Use of environmental modification techniques for hostile purposes does not play a major role in military planning at the present time. Such techniques might be developed in the future, however, and would pose a threat of serious damage unless action was taken to prohibit their use. In July 1972 the U.S. Government renounced the use of climate modification techniques for hostile purposes, even if their development were proved to be feasible in the future. Both the U.S. Senate and the House of Representatives held hearings, beginning in 1972, and the Senate adopted a resolution in 1973 calling for an international agreement "prohibiting the use of any environmental or geophysical modification activity as a weapon of war...." In response to this resolution, the President ordered the Department of
Defense to undertake an in-depth review of the military aspects of weather and other environmental modification techniques. The results of this study and a subsequent interagency study led to the U.S. Governments decision to seek agreement with the Soviet Union to

explore the possibilities of an international agreement. During the summit meeting in Moscow in July 1974, President Nixon and General Secretary Brezhnev formally agreed to hold bilateral discussions on how to bring about "the most effective measures possible to overcome the dangers of the use of environmental modification techniques for military purposes." Three sets of discussions were held in 1974 and 1975, resulting in agreement on a common approach and common
language. In August 1975, the chief representatives of the U.S. and the Soviet delegations to the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament (CCD) tabled, in parallel, identical draft texts of a "Convention on the Prohibition of Military or any Other Hostile Use of

Environmental Modification Techniques." The Convention defines environmental modification techniques as changing -- through the deliberate manipulation of natural processes -- the dynamics, composition or structure of the earth, including its biota, lithosphere, hydro-sphere, and atmosphere, or of outer space. Changes in weather or climate
patterns, in ocean currents, or in the state of the ozone layer or ionosphere, or an upset in the ecological balance of a region are some of the effects which might result from the use of environmental modification techniques. Intensive negotiations held in the CCD during the spring and summer of 1976 resulted in a modified text and, in addition, to understandings regarding four of the Treaty articles. These were transmitted to the

U.N. General Assembly for consideration during the fall session. Article I sets forth the basic commitment: "Each State Party to this Convention undertakes not to engage in military or any other hostile use of environmental modification techniques having widespread, long-lasting or severe effects as the means of destruction, damage or injury to any other State Party." An understanding defines the terms "widespread, long-lasting or severe." "Widespread" is defined as
"encompassing an area on the scale of several hundred square kilometers"; "long-lasting" is defined as "lasting for a period of months, or approximately a season"; and "severe" is defined as "involving serious or significant disruption or harm to human life, natural and economic resources or other assets." With regard to peaceful uses of environmental modification techniques, the convention

provides that the parties shall have the right to participate in the fullest possible exchange of scientific and technological information. In addition to the provision for mutual consultation regarding complaints and for resource to the Security
Council, the revised draft establishes the framework for a Consultative Committee of Experts, which would meet on an ad hoc basis when so requested by a party, in order to clarify the nature of activities suspected to be in violation of the convention. Responding to the suggestion of many delegations, the revised text incorporates a provision for periodic conferences to review the Conventions operation. During the 1976 fall session, the U.N. General Assembly held extensive debate on the draft Convention, including several resolutions relating thereto. On December 10, the General Assembly adopted a resolution by a vote of 96 to 8, with 30 abstentions, which referred the Convention to all member nations for their consideration, signature, and ratification, and requested the U.N. Secretary-General to open the Convention for signature. The U.N. Secretary-General officiated at the signing ceremony in Geneva on May 18. The United States joined 33 other nations in signing the Convention. The Convention entered into force on October 5, 1978, when the 20th state to sign the Convention deposited its instrument of ratification. President Carter transmitted the Convention to the Senate on September 22, 1978. The Senate gave its advice and consent to ratification on November 28, 1979, by a vote of 98-0. The President ratified the Convention December 13, 1979. The Convention entered into force for the United States on January 17, 1980, when the U.S. instrument of ratification was deposited in New York.


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US commitment to upholding international agreements is key to overall commitment to international law. Bellinger, ’07 (John B., Legal Adviser to the Secretary of State, remarks at Hague “The United States and International Law,”
Thank you very much for coming tonight. It's a privilege to be here in The Hague, before this distinguished audience, to give a speech about the United States and international law. Some of you may think it rather bold of me to come to a city renowned for its institutions of international peace, justice, and security and talk about the United States' commitment to international law. It is hardly news that the United States has taken a battering in Europe, particularly over the last few years, for its commitment to international law - or, rather, what is criticized as its lack of commitment. To put it simply, our critics sometimes paint the United States as a country willing to duck or shrug off international obligations when they prove constraining or inconvenient. That picture is wrong. The United States does believe that international law

matters. We help develop it, rely on it, abide by it, and - contrary to some impressions - it has an important role in our nation's Constitution and domestic law. Three days after she was sworn in to office, at a meeting to which all State Department
employees were invited, Secretary Rice declared: This Department, along with the rest of the Administration, will be a strong voice for international legal norms, for living up to our treaty obligations, to recognizing that American's moral authority in international politics also rests on our ability to defend international laws and treaties. Tonight I will show you how we have kept the Secretary's promise. I will demonstrate that our approach to international law - how and why we assume international obligations, how we implement those we have assumed, and how international law binds us in our domestic system - all reinforce our commitment to international law. In the course of the evening, a few themes should emerge. One is that a reliance on sound bites and short-hand can give the deeply misleading impression that we are not committed to international law. A second is, in fact, deeply ironic: that the very seriousness with which we approach international law is sometimes mischaracterized as obstructionism or worse. A third is that some of the most vehement attacks of our behavior - although couched as legal criticism - are in fact differences on policy. A fourth and related theme is that our critics often assert the law as they wish it were, rather than as it actually exists today. This leads to claims that we violate international law - when we have simply not reached the result or interpretation that these critics prefer. It is a happy coincidence that I am giving a speech on the United States and international law today, the day after the sixtieth anniversary of the announcement of the Marshall Plan. That extraordinary effort demonstrated that the U.S. commitment to a free, democratic and stable Europe did not end with the coming of peace. With U.S. participation and leadership, the international community

created new organizations that were unprecedented in scope and function. The United Nations and the Bretton Woods institutions were only the first. Later, we worked with the international community to build new institutions, including the World Trade Organization. We helped reshape the UN Security Council into a positive force in meeting new threats to peace and security, including Saddam Hussein's invasion of Kuwait, the breakup of the former Yugoslavia, and
various conflicts in Africa. And we continue to work multilaterally, with friends and allies, to face continuing challenges. Just last week, our efforts, in tandem with others on the Security Council, resulted in the establishment of the new Special Tribunal for Lebanon to bring to justice those suspected of assassinating former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri.


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International Law is key to prevent multiple scenarios for Nuclear War
Courier-Journal 1/3/2003 Nuclear war is now thinkable. India and Pakistan, both nuclear powers, dispute control of Kashmir, while North Korea, an emerging nuclear power, threatens South Korea and Japan. The United States threatens nuclear war against Iraq, should Iraq attempt to defend itself with its own weapons of mass destruction. All three of these confrontations are potential wars that have been actual wars in the recent past. The difference now is the growing presence of nuclear weapons, and stated intentions to use them. Nuclear war in the present generation is highly likely, but not inevitable. Peace also is thinkable. There are two things that everyone can do to make war less likely. The first is to think globally. We need a permanent system of enforced international law to resolve conflicts between nations. This may conflict with the supposed sanctity of national sovereignty, but it is the only way to prevent nuclear warfare in the 21st Century. We need to create and support global institutions to resolve global problems


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Weather modifications causes extinction
Shore 9-5
Michael Shore 9-5-5http://www.rense.com/general67/wmds.htm. Can Hurricanes Be Used As Weapons Of Mass Destruction? If Not, Why Did The UN Outlaw Such Practices? What the masses of human beings all over the world have not been told is that it

is possible to control and manipulate weather with a technology called 'scalar energy'. These energy weapons have other major capabilities that are even more dangerous than atomic weapons. Scalar Weapons could literally destroy the world and it is of the utmost urgency that human beings all over the world must be told of the existence of this devastating technology. If none of this is true,
where is there a law on the books of the United Nations, which prohibits one Nation from using environmental and weather manipulation weapons and technology against another Nation? Nikola Tesla, one of the most incredible inventors of all time, developed this 'scalar

technology' in the early 1900's. He created one device, about this size of a pack of cigarettes, which nearly brought down a New York highrise before he reportedly smashed it with a hammer to stop the vibrational energy which was beginning to shatter the building. In fact, many major technologies currently being used today were invented by Tesla including alternating current, light bulbs, robotics etc. etc. Tesla also invented an advanced technology to provide Free Energy to the entire planet, anywhere, and mainly for this reason the "powers that be" eliminated Tesla's name from history books.
It's not difficult to understand how 'they' wouldn't permit Free Energy to power the planet. Can you imagine a world, where OIL, HYDRO ELECTRIC ENERGY AND NUCLEAR ENERGY would be obsolete and no longer necessary as a major energy source?

Tesla wanted to give his free energy technology to the world, and for this reason all his funding was cut off by JP Morgan, Westinghouse and others, and he was never permitted to be recognized for his monumental achievements. The New World Order prefers that no one know that Tesla ever existed, so they can withhold this incredible technology from the People. After Tesla died, the U.S.and Russia raced to confiscate all of Tesla's papers. Within his writings and drawings was the secret of energy technology...unlimited power which could clearly be used to dominate the world if it wound up in the wrong hands. This amazing technology can also be used to heal people from many
diseases, simply and for pennies. (So can such energy theoretically be used to induce disease in masses of people.) The current ultra-billion dollar medical-pharmaceutical industry would not be thrilled about Tesla's technology being used to replace their primitive but fantastically-profitable industries. So, human beings are forced to continue to suffer from diseases that can be easily and successfully treated using Tesla's technology. Sounds too good to be true? It's not.

Scalar technology can also be used in an EVIL WAY and has the potential to cause huge amounts of damage by using weather as a Weapon of Mass Destruction. This technology exists now. {see links below}. In fact, some government
officials have tried in vain to get a law on the books that says that Scalar Weapons cannot be used by any Nation to manipulate weather to be used as a "weapon" Unfortunately, the US, Russia and Japan - and possibly other nations - have been pursuing the use of dvanced energy technology to control the weather.

Weather modification leads to media cooption and extinction
Haliburton 5
Mary-Sue Haliburton Pure Energy Systems News Copyright © 2005Sept. 6, 2005. http://www.pesn.com/2005/09/06/9600160_Weather_Modification/ For many,

weather control suggests the ability always to have pleasant weather and to avoid serious storms or long droughts. Due to the frequency destructive storms, hurricanes and the consequent floods, or to their total absence and consequent droughts, such people assume that weather control has not been mastered and therefore is not being used. This naive view assumes that weather would always be controlled for the good of humanity. Human nature seems to dictate otherwise. The discovery of any new power is considered to confer a military advantage, and therefore its very existence is kept secret for as long as possible. While the general public is being told that all
phenomena, including some highly anomalous ones inexplicable by natural forces, are "Mother Nature" at work, various military and even private agencies have been flexing their technological muscles and playing havoc with the weather.

Although the American military has actually published a detailed document "Owning the Weather by 2025", many people will simply say "I don't believe it" when confronted with this. Why? They may say because it has not been reported in the mass media, it must not be real. (Some others will say this is a prime indication that it is real, because most of what the mass media publishes is fantasy.) But normally any military power must be kept secret, and the major media outlets are well aware that they must not cross this line or they could be shut down. Freedom of the press is allowable only if "national security" policies are not breached.
Some apologists attempt to argue away the frightening contents of this policy document by focussing on the disclaimer that it represents only possible future scenarios and should not be taken to be factual:


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"2025 is a study designed to comply with a directive from the chief of staff of the Air Force to examine the concepts, capabilities, and technologies the United States will require to remain the dominant air and space force in the future. Presented on 17 June 1996, this report was produced in the Department of Defense school environment of academic freedom and in the interest of advancing concepts related to national defense. The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy or position of the United States Air Force, Department of Defense, or the United States government. This report contains fictional representations of future situations/scenarios." Emphasis included in original. (Ref.) But such theoretical reports have a tendency to be implemented behind the scenes, even while being denied in public. In his article The Ultimate Weapon of Mass Destruction: "Owning the Weather" for Military Use, professor and independent analyst Michel

Chossudovsky cites other official documents to arrive at his conclusions that weaponized weather control is already in use. He also explores how public opinion is being misled. At the time this was written, the UN was avoiding dealing with the issue of deliberate human-caused climate change. (Ref.)

WTO Watch Qld bulletin 73. 15/2/03 http://www.drs.org.au/wwwboard/messages/1761.html The security exception is supported by Western states because it gives a competitive advantage to military powers who can afford high military spending, and use it as a tool to intervene in the economy. The United States devotes more than $50 billion of its $276 billion defense budget to weapons procurement, and contracts are selectively handed out to US weapons corporations such as Lockheed Martin, Boeing, and Raytheon. The government also assists these corporations in
foreign arms sales through promotions, financing incentives, and other means. For example, it's estimated that in 1995 alone the US government subsidized arms exports by $7.6 billion. This special treatment for weapons corporations is not normally permitted in trade agreements. Export subsides, discrimination against foreign corporations bidding on government contracts, and preferential treatment for allies, all violate WTO rules. Countries who cannot afford high levels of military spending must abide by these rules, while the U.S. and other military powers are provided an escape clause. Regulations for Coverage and Handling of Special Military Procurement . May 27th 1999. =en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=us&client=firefox-a

In conducting procurements referred to in the proceeding Article, the military entity shall meet the following
requirements: 1. Before conducting a procurement, the entity shall report the case to the head of the entity or the personnel authorized by the head for approval regarding the necessity to conduct the procurement in accordance with the order referred to in the proceeding Article. 2. In

conducting a procurement by limited tendering procedures, the entity shall, in principle, invite two or more suppliers for price competition except for a sole source product, supply or contracting. If there is insufficient time for the entity to sign a contract with the supplier, an agreement in writing, by fax or telex shall be obtained in advance.3. If there is insufficient time to confirm the total price of the contract with the supplier, the unit price and the limit of the
total price of the contract shall be confirmed in advance. 4. Conditions of payment shall uphold the security for the use of public fund.5. The processing documents shall include the wordings of “war procurement pursuant to subparagraph 1 of paragraph 1 of Article 104 of Government Procurement Act”.6. The award data provided by the entity in accordance with Article 62 of the Act shall state explicitly the fact that the procurement is conducted pursuant to subparagraph 1 of paragraph 1 of Article 104 of the Act.


Monday Night - Seniors

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Obama endorses Ethanol. Washington Post, ‘08 (Alec MacGillis, The Trail, “Obama’s Evolving Ethanol Rhetoric,” http://blog.washingtonpost.com/the-trail/2008/06/23/obamas_evolving_ethanol_rhetor.html)
Given that energy appears likely to be a dominant issue in this election season, Barack Obama's campaign may want to settle on a more consistent message when it comes to subsidies for ethanol, the corn-based alternative fuel that is hailed by some as a key resource in weaning America off foreign oil and forestalling global warming but lambasted by others as a wasteful boondoggle that is driving up food prices. Since entering the Senate in 2005, Obama has

been a staunch supporter of ethanol -- he justified his vote for for the Bush Administration's 2005 energy bill, which was favorable to the oil industry, on the grounds that it also contained subsidies for ethanol and other forms of alternative energy, and he has sought earmarks for research projects on ethanol and other biofuels in his home state of Illinois, the second-highest corn-producing state after Iowa. Obama's support for
ethanol is shared by many farm state senators (even Hillary Clinton came around after an ethanol industry took root in upstate New York) but it contrasts sharply with John McCain, who has for years been so critical of the subsidies that he decided not to compete in the 2000 Iowa caucuses. Today, in a New York Times article on Obama's support for ethanol, Jason Furman, the Obama campaign's new economic policy director, is quoted saying that Obama's stance on the issue was based on the merits, a determination that ethanol subsidies are in the national interest. "That is what has always motivated him on this issue, and will continue to determine his policy going forward," Furman said. The article continues: "Asked if Mr. Obama brought any predisposition or bias to the ethanol debate because he represents a corn-growing state that stands to benefit from a boom, Mr. Furman said, 'He wants to represent the United States of America, and his policies are based on what's best for the country.'"

Ethanol is the preferred alternative Energy for subsidies. National Energy Information Center ’00 (“Federal Financial Interventions and Subsidies in Energy Markets 1999: Primary Energy,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/servicerpt/subsidy/tax.html)
Tax expenditures and direct expenditures do not involve large sums of money in comparison with the Federal civilian budget or the value of U.S. energy consumption. Tax expenditures, largely aimed at energy production, are modest, totaling some $2.4 billion in outlay equivalent in fiscal year 1999. Tax expenditures are concentrated: the largest single item is $1.0 billion for the Section 29 tax credit for alternative energy sources. Although the legislation permits the credit for a large array of possible energy sources, almost all the $1.0 billion in tax expenditures for this legislation is claimed for natural gas production. The other large item in this account is the excise tax exemption for ethanol, with an outlay equivalent value of $0.7 billion--less than 1 percent of the $138 billion value of retail gasoline sales in 1998 but still a significant subsidy for ethanol.

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