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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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EE5510 Dr. Mohamed Darwish

Introduction

Mechatronics is a science of optimizing the design of electromechanical products and devices. The mechatronic system has four fundamental disciplines or on the other hand is a combination of four engineering field as follow: electronical, mechanical, computer science and information technology [1] in order to design and manufacture useful products. The purpose of this assignment is to carry out some theoretical and simulation work using OrCAD-PSpice in order to understand the principles and applications of phase-controlled rectifiers, and recognise their effects on power network such as power factor and current harmonics, and finally to be able to compare the results between theoretical and practical work. To build a controlled rectifier or a phase-controlled rectifier, the diodes in the rectifier circuit are replaced by silicon-controlled rectifiers (SCR). These circuits produce a variable DC output voltage whose magnitude is varied by phase control, that is, by controlling the duration of the conduction period by varying the point at which a gate signal is applied to the SCR [2]. The phase control is a procedure to control the rectifier output when we adjust the delay time of the gate pulse repeatedly since the gate pulse must be provided in order to conduct an SCR when the anode-to-cathode voltage becomes positive in the circuit. Controlled rectifiers provide DC power for various applications, such as DC motor speed control, battery charging and high-voltage DC transmission. For frequencies less than 400Hz phase control is suited. The main weakness of phase control is radio frequency interference (RFI) which is due to the chopped half-sine wave produces strong harmonies that interfere with radio, television and other communication equipment [2]. Figure-1 shows a single-phase controlled rectifier feeding a resistive load which the theoretical and simulations needs to be done on it.

Figure-1

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Theoretical Work

i. The Output Voltage (Vdc) The average DC output voltage can be controlled from zero to its maximum positive value by varying the triggering angle, this value of DC voltage can be calculated as below: () 1 [ cos ] = sin () =

Note that the peak load voltage (Vm) is equal to 2 , which vin is given at 60V. The results of the theoretical output voltage (Vdc) at different triggering angles (a) are shown in Table-1.

() =

(1 + cos )

Alpha Vdc

18 52.70

36 48.86

54 42.89

72 35.36

90 27.01

108 18.66

126 11.13

144 5.16

162 1.32

180 0

60 50 Output Voltage (Vdc) 40 30 20 10 0 0 18 36 54 72 90 108 126 144 162 180 Triggering Angle ()

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ii.

The Power factor (P.F.) In order to calculate the power factor (P.F.), iin is required as well as load and apparent power values. Since the iin value is calculating from the equation below: () = () sin 2 1 + 2

() () () = = () () 2 (1 + cos ) . . = 1 + sin 2 2

From the equation which was subtracted, the results were calculated and are shown in Table-2.

Alpha P.F.

18 0.774

36 0.680

54 0.554

72 0.417

90 0.287

108 0.175

126 0.089

144 0.034

162 0.006

180 0

0.9 0.8 0.7 Power Factor (P.F.) 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0 18 36 54 72 90 108 126 144 162 180 Triggering Angle ()

iii.

The Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) The investigation into the harmonic distortion begins with a Fourier analysis of the fundamental component of the input current. Using Figure-1, which shows the input current waveform, the Fourier series component can be expressed as: 1 2 = () cos() ()(1) 0 1 2 = () sin() () 0 (cos 2 1) 2

Since in determining the THD this analysis is only concerned with the fundamental component (n=1), the above equations must only be used for n equal to one. The derivation of a1 and b1 is summarized below. 1 =

1 =

Since both a1 and b1 are magnitude and at the same frequency they must be changes rms values and their geometric mean must calculated. 1() =

2 2 1 + 1 1 2

[sin 2 + 2( )] 2

() = () =

() sin 2 1 + 2

2 2 () 1()

1()

The results of the theoretical THD at different triggering angles (a) are shown in Table-3.

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180 0 0

Table-3 The theoretical total harmonic distortion (THD) in terms of triggering angle

3.0 Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0 18 36 54 72 90 108 126 144 162 180 Triggering Angle ()

V(out) 52.70 48.86 42.89 35.36 27.01 18.66 11.13 5.16 1.32 0

P.F. 0.774 0.680 0.554 0.417 0.287 0.175 0.089 0.034 0.006 0

I(t) 5.316 5.202 4.921 4.442 3.771 2.952 2.056 1.176 0.428 0

I(1) 5.301 5.108 4.675 4.005 3.161 2.243 1.365 0.641 0.166 0

THD 0.075 0.193 0.329 0.479 0.651 0.856 1.127 1.537 2.384

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Simulation Work

The circuit in Figure-1 has been simulated using OrCAD-PSpice software (Figure-5) and the results for output voltage (Vdc), the power factor (P.F.) and total harmonic distortion are shown in Table-5 and they are plotted in order to compare them with the theoretical results.

Figure-5

Figure-5 shows how the circuit was designed and also the triggering angles are defined using Parameter reference by naming it Alfa in order to be able to calculate them separately. Table-5 shows the results which are gained from OrCAD-PSpice software.

V(out) 52.711 51.341 47.124 40.479 32.071 22.735 15.462 9.1579 4.1788 1.0210

P.F. 0.977 0.974 0.950 0.891 0.788 0.640 0.500 0.346 0.195 0.068

I(t) 5.2571 5.2402 5.1186 4.8113 4.2772 3.5104 2.6448 1.8324 1.0363 0.363

I(1) 5.2164 5.1865 4.9980 4.5725 3.9130 3.0812 2.1770 1.3152 0.608 0.149

THD 0.125 0.144 0.221 0.327 0.441 0.546 0.690 0.970 1.380 2.222

Efficiency 0.978 0.978 0.979 0.979 0.979 0.978 0.975 0.970 0.960 0.927

Table-5 The simulation results in terms of triggering angles using OrCAD-PSpice software 0631151 Page 6

60 50 Output Voltage (Vdc) 40 30 20 10 0 0 18 36 54 72 90 108 126 144 162 180 Triggering Angle ()

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1.2 1 Power Factor (P.F.) 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 18 36 54 72 90 108 126 144 162 180 Triggering Angle ()

Figure-11 The simulation plot to get the values for I1 (first harmonic) 0631151 Page 8

2.5 Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0 18 36 54 72 90 108 126 144 162 180 Triggering Angle ()

Figure-6 and 7 show the results for the output voltage which was taken from the simulation software and are to be compared with the theoretical results in the discussion. Also the results for the power factor are shown in Figure-8 and 9 which was calculated in OrCADPSpice software by dividing the values of real power by apparent power. In order to get the values for It and I1 from the software, the average function for the input current has been used to get the values for It and also by getting the maximum value in Fourier function of the input current which is shown in Figure-11, the values for I1 were taken. Figure-12 shows the simulation result for the total harmonic distortion which is taken from Figure-10 and 11. Figure-13 and 14 show the efficiency of the circuit in terms of triggering angle from the simulation which the results are also shown in Table-5.

Figure-13 The rectifier circuit efficiency in terms of triggering angle 0631151 Page 9

0.99 0.98 The Efficiency 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.94 0.93 0.92 0 18 36 54 72 90 108 126 144 162 180 Triggering Angle ()

Practical Work

1) Circuit in Figure-1 The circuit in Figure-1 was connected in the SEP Lab in order to verify the theoretical work and be able to compare the theoretical and observed results. The results which are taken from the practical work are shown in Table-6 below. The Figures-15, 16 and 17 are computed from the results which were taken in the lab showing the output voltage, power factor and total harmonic distortion respectively.

P.F. 0.993 0.970 0.912 0.812 0.680 0.524 0.353 0.193 0.044 0

I(t) 4.912 4.827 4.578 4.134 3.524 2.737 1.852 1.014 0.225 0

I(1) 4.902 4.742 4.369 3.751 2.969 2.088 1.231 0.565 0.0648 0

THD 0.064 0.190 0.313 0.463 0.639 0.848 1.124 1.490 3.325

60 50 Output Voltage (Vdc) 40 30 20 10 0 0 18 36 54 72 90 108 126 144 162 180 Triggering Angle ()

1.2 1.0 Power Factor (P.F.) 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0 18 36 54 72 90 108 126 144 162 180 Triggering Angle ()

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4 Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) 3 3 2 2 1 1 0 0 18 36 54 72 90 108 126 144 162 180 Triggering Angle ()

2) Circuit in Figure-18 The circuit shown in Figure-18 was connected in the lab in order to get the results for motor speed, motor voltage and the power factor in terms of triggering angle (at no load). The difference in this circuit is that there is no resistive load and circuit is performing at no load, instead a DC motor is connected to the circuit with a 100V supply a resistive load of 398 ohms which are shown in the figure below (Figure-18).

Figure-18

After running the circuit, the results were observed and taken into computer to same them, the taken results are shown in Table-7 and they are plotted in Figure-19, 20 and 21 for the motor speed, voltage and power factor respectively.

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V(out) 48.9 45.7 40.5 33.2 25.2 17.5 10.3 4.34 0.026 0

P.F. 0.857 0.808 0.739 0.637 0.537 0.425 0.306 0.175 0.064 0

i.

Motor Speed

By using a speed meter which was placed in the circuit, the motor speed was observed at every triggering angle, therefore the results which shown in Table-7 are plotted in Figure-19. The maximum speed which was observed was at 934 rpm at 0 angle and also came to its minimum at angle of 144 which can be seen in the Figure-19.

1000 900 800 Motor Speed (rpm) 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 18 36 54 72 90 108 126 144 162 180 Triggering Angle ()

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ii.

Motor Voltage

The motor voltage was also taken from the voltage meter device which was placed in the circuit, therefore the observed results were shown in Table-7 and Figure-20 shows them in a plot.

60 50 Motor Voltage (V) 40 30 20 10 0 0 18 36 54 72 90 108 126 144 162 180 Triggering Angle ()

iii.

The power factor results which were observed in the experiment are plotted versus their triggering angle in Figure-21. The actual results are also available in Table-7 which already been mentioned.

0.9 0.8 Power Factor (P.F.) 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 18 36 54 72 90 108 126 144 162 180 Triggering Angle ()

Figure-21 The motor power factor (P.F.) in terms of triggering angle 0631151 Page 14

iv.

Torque/Speed Characteristics

In order to effectively design with D.C. motors, it is necessary to understand their characteristic curves. For every motor, there is a specific Torque/Speed curve and Power curve. In order to calculate the results for the torque and speed characteristics of the motor, then the triggering angle was set at 90 and the torque of the motor was calculated by multiplying the diameter of the motor (0.076m) with the difference in the load applied to the motor. The results for each individual torque and its speed are shown in Table-8.

Torque (NM)

The maximum value for the torque represents the point on the graph at which the torque is a maximum, but the shaft is not rotating and that is called the stall torque.

0.988 340

2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0

1.064 328

0

310

50

1.216 294

100

1.292 276

150

1.368

1.444

1.748

1.824

1.976

2.052

1.14

1.52 198

250

258

240

116

94

30

Torque/Speed Curve

200

300

350

Speed (rpm)

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Discussion

As it can be seen in Figure-23 also according to the results which already are taken, very similar results were achieved in all methods of theoretical, simulation and practical. The value of the output voltage (Vdc) or Vout(rms) is just above 50V at angle of 18 degree and reduces to zero at 180, In fact, the time of thrysistor are controlled by the triggering angles when triggering angle is high , it means that Vout are 0 in period then it cause less value for output voltage of r.m.s.

Theoretical 60 Output Voltage (Vdc) 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 18 36 54 72 90 108 126 144 162 180 Triggering Angle () Simulation Practical

The results for the power factor in the plot shows that the results for simulation and practical are similar and the ratio starts at 1 and goes to its minimum of 0 at 180 degrees. The theoretical results are slightly different, and it could be due to some miss-calculations.

Theoretical 1.2 Power Factor (P.F.) 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0 18 36 54 72 90 108 126 144 162 180 Triggering Angle () Simulation Practical

According to Figure-25 and the results from the tables, it can be seen that the results of theoretical and practical are almost the same and the simulation results are also similar with a bit of changes as the trigger angle increases. The starting value for total harmonic distortion is about zero in all methods and up to 90 degrees are still about the same value.

Theoretical Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0 18 36 54 72

Simulation

Practical

90

108

126

144

162

180

Triggering Angle ()

The efficiency in the theoretical work is at 1 or 100%, due to ideal conditions which output power and input power are equal and there is no loss. On the other hand the efficiency in the simulation was calculated and the results were shown in Figure-14 which varies from 97.9% to 96% and comes to its lowest value of 92.7% at angle of 180 degrees.

Simulation

108

126

144

162

180

Triggering Angle ()

Conclusion

Voltage controller controls output voltage by changing triggering angle. In fact the triggering angle is the time period that avoid to pass current at the particular time so by increasing the period of time which avoids to pass the current, output voltage and rms will decreases and goes to its minimum value of zero at 180 which is a complete sinusoidal. The output voltage and the output power are proportion to each other; a decrease in the output voltage will result in output power decrease in terms of triggering angle. All the values for which voltage and current and power are at their maximum when the triggering angle is at zero (0) but on the other hand they are equal to zero at 180 due to no signal allowance to pass power factor. Results show that the obtained and observed results which were collected from theoretical, simulation and practical works are very similar to each other and perhaps sometimes about the same, and the only differences in them are due to human errors and miss-calculations which occurs in the theoretical work or either miss-read the results from practical work. In total, it can be concluded that the results from theoretical or simulation are more accurate compare to the practical work.

References

[1] Devdas Shetty, Richard Kolk, Mechatronics System Design, Volume 1, PWS publish England, (1997), Pages 1-15. [2] Single-Phase Controlled Rectifiers, Chapter 6, Pages 150-187. [3] Dr. Mohamed Darwish, Rectifier Circuits (AC/DC) Lecture Notes, Brunel University, School of Engineering and Design, 2011-12, Pages 32-60. [4] McCarty, M., Taufik, T., Pratama, A., and Anwari, M., "Harmonic Analysis of Input Current of Single-Phase Controlled Bridge Rectifier", Symposium on Industrial Electronics and Applications, IEEE, pp. 520-5242009, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, October 4-6, 2009.

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