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Know 6 essential nutrients & functions of each o Carbohydrates main fuel source for body, only fuel source for brain o Protein important for tissue growth and repair, regulate acid-base quality of body fluids, inefficient fuel source o Fats energy source for our bodies, especially during low intensity exercise and when were resting, also functions as insulation, important for the transport of the fat-soluble vitamins and obtaining fatty acids o Vitamins required in small amounts to regulate important processes in the body and to perform very specific functions for the metabolism of carbs, fats, and proteins for energy o Minerals they are not broken down during digestion or absorptionthey maintain their structure in all environments. Many functions in the body: maintain proper fluid balance and normal cell and muscle activity, provide structure in the formation of bones and teeth, help maintain normal heart rhythm, muscle contractions, and nerve impulse conduction, and regulate metabolism. o Water important in muscle contractions, nerve conduction, waste elimination, joint lubrication, nutrient transport, metabolism, and proper fluid balance. Be familiar with Food Guide Pyramid o Serving sizes, calories, percent daily values, blah blah Dietary Reference intake guidelines o 45 to 65 percent of calories from carbs, 20 to 35 percent from fat, 10 to 35 percent from protein o One hour of moderately intense physical activity each day o Added sugars should comprise no more than 25 percent of calories o 38 grams of fiber for men, 25 for women LDL vs HDL; Cholesterol Identify primary risk factors for coronary heart disease. Be able to list. o Which factors are controllable? Cigarette smoking High cholesterol increases chances of disease High blood pressure Physical inactivity Obesity diabetus o Which factors are uncontrollable? Age 65 and older Sex men are more likely to develop it Genetics history of first degree male relatives that had it Identify secondary risk factors for coronary heart disease. Be able to list. Stress

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Alcohol consumption Diet and nutrition

Define Stress o Stress is the response that occurs in the body when a stressor or stimulus is present. Stress occurs when the bodys internal balance is broken or disrupted Psychological or Cognitive Response to Stress o Stress processes are stimulated by the presence of a stressor, and psychological or cognitive processes take over. o Perceptions of a situation can elicit a response that may vary from arousal to anxiety. Arousal is bodys heightened awareness that a stressor is present and signals to the higher grain to respond Anxiety is feelings of tension, apprehension, nervousness, and worry o emotional response depends on the individual Physiological response to stress o Alarm stage Increased heart rate Coronary arteries dilate Abdominal arteries contract Dilate pupils Dilate bronchial tubes Increase strength of skeletal muscles Release glucose from liver Increase mental activity Significant increase basal metabolic rate o Resistance stage Bodys attempt to reestablish a state of internal balance, homeostasis Reduces initial response to a more manageable level o Recovery stage Coping or a change in the status of the stressor occurs, and causes better reestablishment of internal balance Body returns to pre-stressed state o Exhaustion stage Body is tired after long term exposure to stressor Personality and Stress Type A personality More prone to coronary heart disease Competitive, verbally aggressive, hard-driving, unable to relax, very time conscious, easily angered, hostile Type B personality Absence of type A

May be ambitious or successful, calmer, more patient, less hurried Type C personality Thrive and stay well during challenge and difficulty Able to interpret challenge and difficulty as a positive challenge or opportunity rather than as threats Tend to be committed rather than detaches or alienated Feel in control of events and their reactions Challenge interprets a difficult task or change as a challenge rather than a threat Confidence believes in his ability to master a difficult problem or challenge Commitment positively engages with his job, family, and friends rather than feeling alienated Control believes in his or her ability to control events and reactions to events rather than feeling helpless General guidelines for stress reduction. o Change how you perceive stress inducing events o Try to understand and deal with your anger; acknowledge your anger and learn to differentiate between levels of anger o Take time to relax or meditate o Use your social support system and expand your network by establishing relationships with new people or groups that may be able to give you emotional support o Exercise regularly o Eat well, eat regular, well balanced meals and avoid drank and cigs o Slow down, learn to slow your pace of talking, walking, and eating o Focus on the positive and be grateful for what you do have o Practice goodtime management by not taking on too many responsibilities or setting unrealistic deadlines o Look outside of yourself by volunteering to help those less fortunate o Laugh regularly o Seek out campus resources and get help! o Relaxation techniques Diaphragmatic breathing Progressive relaxation and autogenic training Hatha yoga Acute vs Chronic injuries o Acute injuries are the result of a single event that causes damage to a part of the musculoskeletal system; collisions, falls, and awkward movements of joints are the usual causes; sprains , strains, fractures, and cartilage tears are common types of acute injuries, each affecting different types of musculoskeletal tissues

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Chronic injuries are not the result of any single event; chronic injuries are caused by repetitive forces that inure a structure over time; musculoskeletal structures gradually adapt to repetitive forces by becoming stronger and better able to absorb stress placed on it Levels of Heat Illness o Heat cramps Sudden painful contraction of muscle tissue Dehydration Mineral imbalance o Heat exhaustion Feeling of weakness Fatigue Occasional collapse without loss of consciousness Profuse sweating o Heat stroke Serious emergency Collapse Confusion Loss of consciousness possible Elevated core temperature Decreased or no sweating Complete shutdown of bodys defensive mechanism against overheating Treatment of Injuries (Chronic vs. Acute) o RICE; Rest, Ice, Compress, Elevate Rest: Rest is vital to protect the injured muscle, tendon, ligament or other tissue from further injury. Resting the injured part is important to promote effective healing. Ice: When icing an injury, choose a cold pack, crushed ice or a bag of frozen peas wrapped in a thin towel to provide cold to the injured area. An ice massage is another extremely effective way to direct cold to the injured tissue. Cold provides short-term pain relief and also limits swelling by reducing blood flow to the injured area. When icing injuries, never apply ice directly to the skin (unless it is moving as in ice massage) and never leave ice on an injury for more than 20 minutes at a time. Longer exposure can damage your skin and even result in frostbite. A good rule is to apply cold compresses for 15 minutes and then leave them off long enough for the skin to re-warm. (Also see: The Proper Use of ICE). Compression: Compression helps limit and reduce swelling, which may delay healing. Some people also experience pain relief from compression. An easy way to compress the area of the injury is to wrap an ACE bandage around the swollen part. If you feel throbbing, or if the wrap just feels too tight, remove the bandage and re-wrap the area so the bandage is a little looser.

Elevation: Elevating an injury help control swelling. It's most effective when the injured area is raised above the level of the heart. For example, if you injure an ankle, try lying on your bed with your foot propped on one or two pillows.