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Section 11 SEX
Dr Mike Walsh
I. Sexuality One‟s sexuality is a product of their biology and the social conditioning they have received. Biology is used to determine if someone is male or female. Man and woman refer to the psychosocial roots of our sexuality. And masculinity and femininity refers to the resultant of one‟s biology and psychosocial experience.
A. Biological Basis of Sexuality 1. Genetic Basis The biological basis of our sexuality is determined by whether an X sperm cell or a Y sperm cell wins the race to the egg. The egg is haploid (one set of chromosomes) X if it is fertilized by a haploid X sperm cell, a biological female (diploid) is produced. If the haploid X egg is fertilized by a haploid Y sperm cell then a biological male is produced. 2. Gonadal Basis Development of gonads: testes for males and ovaries for females, occurs within the first trimester of pregnancy. Development of male reproductive organs will take place if there is a presence of the SRY gene (sex-determining region on the Y chromosome) is expressed to make the protein testis-determining factor (TDF). If the SRY gene is not present, then female gonads will develop.
3. Structural Basis
In general, there is slow growth through childhood. In puberty there is an increase in male and female hormone (testosterone and estrogen (both are also needed for gonadal basis) that stimulates the growth of secondary sexual characteristics. In females, menarche also occurs at this time and both genders become capable of sexual reproduction. In males, normally testosterone is converted to a more potent form, dihydrotestosterone, by the enzyme 5-alpha reductase. Males lacking this enzyme often have female appearance and genitals and behaviour until puberty then develop male sex organs and behavior.
2 In the Dominican Republic. At menopause they have an abrupt cessation of reproductive capacity. It is your own personal feelings combined with what you think you have in common with others. television can play a large part in gender adoption. Males have a gradual reduction in spermatogenesis but can be still be reproductive past 70. B. Aging Females are born with a full complement of eggs. Gender Preference The infant and child are steered subtly and /or overtly toward behaviours considered appropriate for the gender. These male children are called 'guevedoces' (literally. This usually occurs at the age of about 50. feeling. Whether this gender preference stage is truly environmental or has some genetic basis is open for discussion. penis at 12 years). 2. watching. This is done primarily by the parents but also by many outside influences. it is remarkable that one cell can last 50 yr. Gender Adoption Observing. you will get some very definitive responses. and practicing what adults do enables the child and adolescent to begin thinking. the infant recognizes itself as male or female and is quite robust by 3 yr. While there is some debate about exact egg number. Also learning the psychological attributes of the opposite gender is important to the development of a balanced sexuality. they to do not have male pattern baldness 4. 3. and acting like an adult of their gender. if you ask some 7 year old children if they would be happier changing gender. Either way. In later life. Gender Identity By the age of about 18 months. . Psychosocial Basis of Sexuality 1. the incidence of 5-alpha reductase deficiency can be 1-2 %. Certainly most children are very comfortable with their bodies. Obviously. except for perhaps obesity.
testicles. gyny=female) Androgyny is having a self-image that incorporates aspects of both genders. and anus. and it is also the birth canal. Adult Gender Identification The final development of an adult image of oneself is in a gender-specific context. psychologically more flexible. The vaginal opening leads to the internal reproductive organs. vaginal opening. Sex Anatomy and Physiology 1. 2. The vaginal opening is initially partially covered by the hymen. Male Sex Organs Male organs in the genital area going anterior to posterior are the penis. people who demonstrate a less polarized sexual image and a more androgynous one have greater self-esteem. Of course this image may differ substantially between people because of their differing genetics and experience. . is the clitoris. The clitoris is very sensitive to touch. C. At the head of the penis is the opening for the urethra. The hymen is ruptured during a woman‟s first intercourse. Female Sex Organs The female anatomy in their genital region. urinary opening. It is the orifice of choice for most heterosexual intercourse. and have more motivation to achieve. This means the absence of a hymen is not necessarily an indication of lost virginity. This combination of masculine and feminine qualities is more prevalent today than in past decades and centuries. Androgyny (andro=male. It can also be ruptured by athletic activity. In general. and anus. hence it plays an important part of sexual arousal and orgasm. from anterior to posterior. more social. which serves for both the voiding of urine and ejaculation of semen. 5.3 4. This final image may also be changing with time: male levels of testosterone and viable sperm are decreasing.
the outer portions of the endometrial lining degenerate and separate from the endometrium. Follicle stimulating hormone stimulates the egg/follicle to make estrogen. b.5 C lower than core temperature. 3. The average female‟s first menstrual cycle (aka menarche) occurs at 12. However.4 The testicles are. 4. Luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) are released in greater amounts from the anterior pituitary gland. and progestational phase. Female Sexual Cycle (aka Menstrual Cycle) The menstrual cycle is a monthly ovarian (thus female) cycle in which an egg is made receptive to fertilization and if fertilization does not occur there is a loss of blood and the enriched tissue lining of the uterus.8 yr with a substantially large but normal range. Thus the endometrium is prepared for implantation by a fertilized egg. by design. . The scrotum can substantially decrease its size when temperature is lower. located exterior to the body core to maintain sperm temperature about 2. Menses The onset of menstrual bleeding indicates day 1. The average female cycle is about 28 days although the duration between women does vary from 20-45 days. a. There is very little medical evidence to support the prevalence of this procedure. ovulation. Estrogenic Phase (aka Follicular Phase: ~8 days) Begins when menstrual flow ceases. With low levels of estrogen and progesterone. The menstrual cycle consists of 4 phases: menses. This can be important in Africa since circumcision may reduce the spread of AIDS. estrogenic phase. The loss of blood and epithelial lining normally lasts about 5 days. Small changes in temperature strongly affect the viability of the sperm. The reasons for this are cultural and religious. Circumcision This is when a male cuts off another male‟s (not anesthetized) foreskin when all the other males leave the room. lately it has been shown that circumcised males suffer less STDs. The uterine lining (endometrium) begins to thicken and gets enriched with blood vessels and glands in response to the increasing estrogen produced by the follicle.
the corpus luteum is preprogrammed to degenerate. c. Most sexual acts involve the latter. Ovulation (1 day) Rapid increase in estrogen stimulates an increase in LH which induces ovulation: the release of the ovum from the follicle. make babies. Women are more creative in this phase. D. it is necessary to understand why the sexual activity is occurring. d. They also inhibit further secretion of LH and FSH from the pituitary gland. Most high school-aged males that engage in sexual activity have a higher than normal self-esteem. Sex can be to express love. Progestational Phase (aka Luteal Phase: 7-13 days) The remaining follicle tissue becomes luteinized (made yellowish) into the corpus luteum (yellow body). and estrogen. Estrogen and progesterone decrease and can no longer maintain the uterine lining which then becomes the start of menses. To practice responsible sexual behaviour. This occurs at about day 14.5 During this phase 5-25 follicles are released. or attain physical gratification. Of these. Communication It is difficult to express your intentions and determine your partner‟s when the hormones are flowing. One might recognize incompatibility here. The corpus luteum is a separate endocrine organ that generates progesterone secretion and estrogen secretion. The remaining follicle becomes the corpus luteum. If the egg does not become fertilized in the next about 12 days. they have a lower than average self-esteem and lower than average mental health. a single follicle increases in size from 25 um to 15 mm diameter in response to the combined effects of LH. For similar aged females. These hormones (especially progesterone at this time) stimulate the continued growth and development of the endometrial lining. . Responsible Sexual Behaviour 1. FSH. Of course the egg inside the follicle is much smaller.
There is a large variety of contraceptive methods. you respect them afterwards and do not discuss you or your partner‟s sexual activities with others.6 2. 7. Agreed-on Sexual Activities Each sexual partner must engage in each sexual act willingly. Methods discussed later. they should be practiced before being used. whether it is done by drugs or physical dominance. “Lose lips sink ships” 4. Abstenince…safest? . pregnancy is not a desired outcome. Coercion is a very bad sexual act. Consequences include not only pregnancy but also STDs and emotional changes. the use of drugs increases the risk of unplanned and unsafe sex. 5. Taking Responsibility If you engage in the activity you must accept the consequences. E. This can be due to both the nature of the contraceptive method used and the improper implementation. coercion is unacceptable. Sexual Privacy Not only do you respect the person during the act. With this is a variety of advantages and disadvantages including contraceptive failure rate. Contraception (Chapter 6) In the majority of sexual intercourse acts. 3. The contraceptive failure rate is the percentage of how many women out of 100 users become pregnant within one year. Sober Sex As mentioned in the alcohol section. Safer Sex With the prevalence of STDs in our society “Anyone who is not in a mutually monogamous relationship with an uninfected partner and who wishes to have sex should always use a condom” p88 6. Some methods require a certain degree of motor skill. Using Contraception If you do not want a pregnancy then use contraception.
broken condom) or were not used. not for the contraceptive effects. older women follow the instructions more closely than younger women. Emergency Contraception Emergency contraceptives are oral contraceptives that are taken when regular contraceptive methods failed (e. The hormones make the body think it is pregnant and thus there is no ovulation. b. emergency contraception has no effect. As with all birth control methods. d. These must be taken within 72 hr of intercourse. Some women take the pill. . c. Injectable Contraceptives Long-lasting progestins (sometimes with other hormones) are injected every 1-3 months. The woman still has her period while taking the pill. Contraceptive Implants Capsule(s) filled with progestin are inserted under the skin (usually the medial upper arm). The pill must be taken every day for 21 or all 28 days of the ovarian cycle. If the woman is pregnant. Period tends to have some minor and irregular bleeding. The elevated levels of these hormones prevent ovulation. The pill is a very effective birth control method when instructions are followed. The most common pill contains estrogen and progestin (a progesterone mimicking molecule).g. Reversible Contraceptives Reversible contraceptive methods are one‟s in which conception is possible after discontinuation. They function by preventing ovulation and slowing egg and sperm transport.7 1. a.. but rather for the reduced menstrual cramps. Periods may be absent or stronger. It also reduces sperm and egg motility. Periods maybe become absent after a year in about 70 % of users. These implants can maintain effectiveness for up to 5 years. Oral Contraceptive (The Pill) This is the most common form of contraception for young women.
They need some serious preparation. f. often still had holes in them and (yuk) they were reusable. Intrauterine Device (IUD) These are small plastic devices containing progestin.8 Two or four pills are taken: 1-2 right away and 1-2 four hours later. The copper type works by impairing sperm mobility and also causing some irritation of the uterus lining preventing embryo implantation. although the nature of these sheaths maybe be debatable. Romans used linen and attached them with a ribbon In the mid 1700s. The progesterone acts similar to a „localized pill‟. Do not use a lubricant for oral sex. Condoms Historically. Be sure one is not pregnant before insertion. maintaining local levels of progesterone while systemic levels are low. e. However. One may also require antinausea medication. Condoms are not as effective as the above-mentioned methods and reduce male sensation. There are two types: one that contains copper and one that releases progesterone. They prevent the sperm from entering the vagina. penis sheaths have been found on cave paintings dating back 15.000 BC. Oil-based lubricants dissolve latex quite rapidly. They must be put on before insertion because pre-ejaculation fluid can contain sperm. Female Condoms . Any lubricant used with a condom must be water based. Use a condom for the first 2-3 months. Today (since the late 1800s) condoms are single-use latex (sometimes polyurethane) tubes placed over the penis. animal membranes were being used. their frequency of use has increased in the last 10 years because they help prevent some STDs. g. The device is placed in the uterus and can provide 1-10 yr of contraception.
50 0.8 2. jellies..0 0. Fertility Awareness Method (aka Rhythm Method) In this method.....5 0. Table 6-3: Contraceptive Effectiveness. It is a 2-ring design with one ring located at the cervix and the other ring outside of the vagina.6 1.10 0... Vaginal Spermicides Spermicides are compounds designed to kill sperm. From the beginning of menstruation. The woman is considered infertile during the remainder of the ovarian cycle. Reality was the first to be sold in BC.g.. h. there is 6-9 days when the woman is infertile depending on the regularity of her ovarian cycle.30 0. Method Contraceptive Implant Vasectomy Injectable Contraceptive Female Sterilization Copper IUD Progestasert IUD Oral Contraceptives Combination Percent One Year Failure Rate Typical Use Perfect Use 0....50 0.. and creams.05 % 0.. i.30 0.. The trick is in determining which phase of the menstrual cycle the woman is in and which days of that cycle she is fertile/infertile. They actually have a high failure rate and therefore are usually used in combination with other methods of contraception (e. the woman only has intercourse when she is not fertile and practices abstinence when she is fertile.15 0. They are most effective (relative term) when applied 5-30 min prior to intercourse. days 8-19 are considered fertile.1 . Clear cervical mucus means the woman is more fertile and cloudy means less fertile.. used with barrier methods such as a cervical cap).. They come in foam. What do you call a couple who practices the rhythm method?.. Then there are 8-14 possible fertile days centered around ovulation..9 These condoms are larger (loose-fitting) than the male counterparts. For a 26-32 day cycle. Like the male condom.05 % 0. Fertility awareness uses body temperature and cervical mucus to determine the timing of the ovarian cycle. it is a barricade contraceptive device that also prevents some STDs... It should be inserted 20 min before intercourse and can be inserted up to 8 hr prior to intercourse..
5 3 4 5 9 6 85 .10 Progestin Only Male Condom Withdrawal Female Condom Fertility Awareness Spermicides Chance 14 19 21 25 26 85 0.
200 3.000 1 in 28.700 1 in 5.800 10.500 1 in 1.11 Table 6-1: Contraceptive Risks Contraceptive Method Risk of Death in Any Given Year Oral Contraceptives Non-smoker Age less than 35 Age 35-44 Heavy Smoker < 35 35-44 IUDs Barrier Methods.000.000 None None 1 in 38.600 1 in 1.000 .700 1 in 200.000 10.300 1 in 700 1 in 10. Spermicides Fertility awareness Tubal Ligation Vasectomy Abortion Before 9 weeks After 15 weeks Illegal Abortion Pregnancy and childbirth 1 in 66.000.000 1 in 1 in 1 in 1 in 262.
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