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Space and Symmetry in Bartók Author(s): Jonathan W. Bernard Reviewed work(s): Source: Journal of Music Theory, Vol. 30, No. 2 (Autumn, 1986), pp. 185-201 Published by: Duke University Press on behalf of the Yale University Department of Music Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/843574 . Accessed: 11/03/2012 05:10
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chordalfunctions. it oftendesigned to assert the primacyof some other dimensionof the music. ranging on fromthe smallestto the largestof contexts. Symmetry has been depictedas an influenceupon structure manylevels. publishedin Englishtranslation 1971? in Manyof Lendvai's variousmodelsof structure serveto identifysymmetrical patterns of durations. perhaps.In the in of has process.More surprising. The phenomenon symmetry the musicof B61a of in Bart6khas received considerable attention the criticalliterature the pastthirtyyears.Symmetry even playsa role in the delineationof form.The widespread interest symin metry might well be expected. farthe most extenby sive and probablythe most significantis Ern6 Lendvai's B&laBart6k:An Analysisof His Music. not only becauseof its prominencein the audiblesurfaceof muchof Bart6k's work-a fact thatcannothelp but provokespeculation aboutits deeperimplications but also becauseof the potentialpowerof symmetryto controlmusical structure. been addressed its own terms.is thatonly rarelyhas symmetry on as an independently functioningsystemof organization. per 185 .a fascinating varietyof information come to light. Lendvai.SPACE AND SYMMETRY IN BARTOK Jonathan Bernard W.however.' Of the analytical worksthatfall intothis category.does not attachany special to significance symmetry se.theorists havetendedto incorporate into moregeneralframeworks. Rather.and intervals. or to anyothersingledomainof structure.
of course.Evenin thosefew works instead definethe context. . of the two types. Whatdistinguishes one from the other is. while of in the secondit is not. . Can symmetricalformations havedonetraditionas a generate totalmusicalstructure.in a symconceptsin analysisof the post-tonalrepertoire. metrical context there is no reason why the metaphorical space of the shouldbe equatedwith real space. and to Wehavelong been accustomed the conceptsof inversional octave in tonal music. certainlyinvites furtherinvestigation. One pointthat residesin the definitionof the phenomenon problem is literature that there is a difference has not been stressedin the relevant are betweeninstancesof symmetryin which the relationships consistently in in repreterms.for thatmatter.andinstances whichregistral represented literal.for example. Perle'sstatementseems strangelyat odds with the evidencethathe cites-evidence which.or the transposivergenceor divergence instrumental tion or inversionof a chord or motive.after enclusive. afterall. distinctlypessimistic: that as are. the issue?Perhaps be Why. registrally symmetry more represented Symmetryis.shouldsymmetry a "problematical" itself. the authorconsidersthe possibilitythat Bart6k's B61a to a of symmetry breakthrough.remain of ally?The implications Bart6k's problematical? But the readermight well disagree.the formalnatureof his theoryremainssomewhat diffuse. in the first chord the dispositionis symmetrical Db intervalof eleven semitonesseparates and C as does C and B). thoughhardlyconOne is reluctant.exactly. raisingsymmetry represents compositional in far a level of importance aboveits (alleged)insignificance the music of are Perle's certainof his predecessors. Here two chordswith identicalpitchcontentareshownside by side. symImpressive theseprocedures it mustbe observed Bart6k's formations only an incidental are metrical aspectof his totalcompositional structural a wheretheyperform significant means.to dismiss them as mere curiosities. Recognition thisdifference justifiestheprovisional is conclusionthat. of as to Onenotableexception the usualtreatment symmetry a secondary in of Formations the StringQuartets issue is GeorgePerle's"Symmetrical use Bart6k. as in otheraspects.whichis determined roletheydo not ultimately by a curious amalgamof variouselements.registral sentationis only partiallyor not at all present. The conmodulo-12 pitch-classsystem of parts.ConsiderExample1. significant phenomenon. triadicrelations workin this. . conclusions.As a result. firstand foremosta spatial structurally."Here. the registralplacementof the (since the same pitches. is most clearly perceivedwhen 186 . and for the most part we have retainedthese equivalence Nevertheless.however. counteringso many striking instances of symmetricalconstruction.
"The Problem of the New Example2. and Celesta. mm. 1-27. Percussion. head- notes of successive fugal entrances 187 . I. Illustrationsfrom Bl61a Music" mm. Music for Strings. 1 5 9 13 17 27 27 .Example1 tlP re r~P Bart6k. •O Example 3.
are Bb. abouta single of a series of short sections. Even more significantis thatall of these fifths are exactlyseven semitonesin size-that is. In his "TheProbby lem of the New Music" (1920). if all of the notes in mm. each of which is symmetrical pitchor a pairof pitchesone or moreoctavesapart. 2). numerous. stringpartsare disposedin two groupsmovingfor the most part involvedin this motionseems motion(Ex. compositions basedentirelyupon abvery existence. is one of mirrorsymmetryaboutA. Examplesof this sort of in literalsymmetry Bart6k's Their are. no invertedor compoundfifths are substituted.as a general soluteintervallic entire works. Of his fourchords. of In the openingof the second movement the Second Piano Concerto the (1931).in fact. 4a). in order. Bart6k departsbriefly from his usual theoretical presentsseveralexamplesof atonal and reticenceaboutmatters aboutan axis of chords(Ex. B. both aboveand 188 . 5b). mirrorsymmetry(as redifferent symmetry. Eb. Here. is No. vealed by the presenceof a midsegment)is combinedwith parallel symmetrybetweenthe two outersegments. and Bb (Ex. The overalldesign." music is the pattern One well-knowninstanceof symmetryin Bart6k's of fugal entrances in the first movement of Music for Strings. 1-5 are arranged the in a scale. types of symmetrythat will be appliedin the longer analysesto follow. The selves. then a mirror-symmetrical patternemerges. 4c). if takenas a series. Some of this evidenceis provided Bart6khimself.Commentingon these sonorities. suggeststhatrelationships dimensionsmightwell operate. D. 3). methodof symmetrical procedurethroughout Certainly. G. and Celesta (1936) (Ex. the axes of symmetry patternof their own. Bart6k notes that registral is arrangement crucialto their effect. then.by wayof defining Representative samplesare presented hypothesis.threeare symmetrical mirror eitherone or two pitchesand exhibitwhat we will call henceforth symmetry.otherfeatures tions of the Bb'sencompassexactlyone octaveless space. 6-8 in similarfashionrevealsanother fromthatof mm.there is no shortageof evidence tending to supportthis below. controlregistral First. Percussion. FS."Subjectand Reflection" (1933). preserving registral positionsin which they actuallyappear.the openingposilocations. of Arrangement the contentsof mm. 1-5. forma symmetrical axes. equivalent Lendvai's1:3 scale6and is of the parallel-symmetrical octave Besidesthis pattern. radiatingin alternating initialA.Example5a showsthe themof beginning the firstsection. as shown in Example 4b.On a largerscale. The symmetry in contrary but at first only approximate.absolute intervallicdimensionsare preserved. The order of these entrancesproducestwo order from the divergingchains of perfectfifths.in whichthe pitchesappearin variousdifferent structure.in ensemble. The title of Mikrokosmos 141. of course. This series is to type.so called becauseboth exhibitthe same orderof intervalsfrom bottomto top (Ex.5 The piece consists of of course suggestivefrom the standpoint symmetry.
. non vibrato a Violine Viola i sord . r.. on vtbrato Contrabasso '. 2 for Piano and Orchestra." div. 1-5. summaryof pitch content 189 ... mm. 1-8 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1kol 2 2 12 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 Example4b.. _ • '. 12"~ Example 4a.Adagio futto iilez JA66-69 o od o irt tutto ii pezzo con sord. ... mm.. Violoncello | tutto Uipezz~ocon sord. II. summaryof pitch content 22122212221212 2212221222 Example4c. Concerto No. non vibrso tutto il pezzlo vibrato sord.. tut~toii pezzo con sord.. 6-8. non vibrato . div tutto ii pezzo con sord. I l . mm. k l I 1 • I I.
Second.below. in which a given configuration An and maybe saidto give rise to another.The groupC-D-Ebis labeled(A) in example6b.Finally. tracedthrough entirework.and it is immediatelyfollowedby C and Eb in the timpani-pitches which. maybe reas a replication (A). repeated. 5c). exampleof replication inversion at workin the samepassageoccursat the beginningof the thirdmovement of the SecondPianoConcerto(Ex. are to Closely related parallelandmirror symmetry respectively replicais and tion and inversion. The piano re-entersin m.labeled(B). the possibilityalwaysremainsthatit is atypical:a special instance of a procedurethat cannot be generalized. a single axis of symmetry. No matter unwarranted drawing examplemaybe. and the unexamined definition. example. 14. but fills the intervalwith Db insteadof D. Overthe duration the work.and we shouldbe waryof how compellingan conclusionsfromthem. then Eb and F$ doubledbelow. an in m.Such a matrix.then.To go beyond the isolatedexample.we need to considermore closely the concept of symassumptionsinvolvedin its customary metry itself. In m.Let us insteada multivalent involvinga matrixof possibilities symmetry. postulate to be exploitedsuccessivelyor in free combination. Withrespectto (B). The endpointsof this octavescale are the same pair of Bb'sthatopenedthe piece." tionshipsinherentin a symmetrically that for Stravinsky. the D below middleC is the lowestnote in the ensemblechordof octavesandunisons. The foregoingare. of the 1:3 scale of axes. However. At this point. 3. eventually(m. forminga an group(C).completing expansion from the originalC-Eb. of course.can be foundcontinuthe ously in only one octave. 6a).beginningon the Bb below middleC. Othersbesides Perle have noted the potentialpovertyof musical relagoverned"totalmusical complex.thanthe ensembleof Bb'sin the finalsection(mm. the pitchesEb-F-Gb. shownin Example5d.is saidto haveremarked "tobe perfectlysymmetrical is to be perfectly dead. This patternmay be readas follows:Bb and B doubledabove.only examples.the pianoreachesthe A belowthesepitches. 63-82). The doublingof notes in the scale (excluding finalBb. (C) represents inversion. an expansionhas takenplace (Ex. which is treated the as fromthe otheraxes) fall intoa symmetrical somewhat differently pattern well.other definitionsof symmetryare feasible. then.The only difference thatreplication inversionare bettersuitedto describingorderof events.the pianotakesup the of garded timpaniEb and C.then D doubledboth aboveand below. then G doubledabove and below."' What these two statementshave in of commonis an implicitdefinition symmetryas a statein which all components of the musical textureare subsumedunder a single relation. if it 190 . An expansionof the single-axis conceptionwould change the situationradically. 7 with Eb and Gb. Two measureslater. turninto an ostinato. 10) filling in this interval with F.
Example 6a. b. m. "Subjectand Reflection. •."Subjectand Reflection. mm. 1 15 23 30 40 47 63 )-d.f TimpAL dim..•."schematic representations relationships symmetrical sostenuto accel. •. I t .l ! . t.. -. utti( al Pib allegro =l1s Piano 31 12 ! !~ ~~~Bass Dr. 3-15 A t.d. mm. _•. •.Allegro J= 136-144 f~ben ritmico pi No. !. III. . •• (II) 1"3 3 I l 3 of Example5b. p o I ! 3 3 33ce ==-mf cresc. 1-7 Example5a. Concerto No. -. .. . _ ..•.i• .. 3-15." c.•. •-... Mikrokosmos 141. ' . 2 for Piano and Orchestra.c. Example6b. mm. schematicreduction 191 . ..
for example. This systhanto the pitchesthatactuallyconstitute symmetries) will tem therefore not engagethe pitch(or pitch-class)identityof the axes. they may ysis. since these two groupsoccur at the same time. but rather in many differentways at once. thereare other. Thesenotesdelimitthe portionof the musicalspacein use oversome length of of of time.other factorssuch as phrasemarkings.dynamics.or separation restsareby no meansrendered by often standsor falls deabove. 11).In fact.Such a symmetrical systemmay by some of the examplespresented workto createunityby operating. rhythmiccharacteristics may serve to difevents. their parts may be treated.especiallyfor temporally ferentiate Besides the explicit sort of contrastapparent. 192 . simultaneous musicalelements.At the opening of Sonata for Two Pianos and Percussion (see Ex. and so on.or the division of a musical textureinto its componentparts.with important Of course. firstof all. a segmentation criteriaenumerated pendingupon the degree of supportprovidedby these factors. On the passage.changes in by meaningless the texture. Thatis. Second. across ever longer spans of time. alreadysuggested above. the second overlapoccursbepianoentersin canonto the first. whetherfor the duration a single chordor for the duration 7a in Thesetwo possibilitiesareillustrated Examples and severalmeasures.more intricatepossibilities. in the 7b respectively. effect:one possibilitydoes also be consideredin termsof their aggregate not exclude the other.of exists. Finally. Even thoughregistral tween the two. either at particular as has Multivalent symmetry otherimplications well. lowest and highestnotes.between sustainedand rapidnotes. circledpitchesare the lower and upperboundaries In meansof segmentation. as a functionof the matrixof possibilitiesmentionedearlier. must be precededby an enumeration Discussionof any such hierarchy of criteriafor segmentation. Usually thereare severalwaysof segmentinga musical may be betterthan others. momentsor over time.it shouldbe possible.the openingsonoritymaybe divided for intobrassandpercussion consequences the analgroups.some of these segmentations otherhand. of if symmetryis a significantforce. severaldifferent may equallyvalid segmentations well co-exist in the same in criteriafor segmentation a spatialcontext passage.Amongthe relevant are. or lower and upperboundaries. will imply a compositional emphasisupon the procedures symthemselvesratherthanuponthe axesper se. timbreis also an important the firstof the longerexcerptsbelow. each case. which in turnconin which smallersymmetries tributeto even largerones. Third.. to discovera hierarchy relationships to contribute largerones. as independent regionsof activity. metricalprogression to more significancewill be attributed the fact that thereare axes (hence theseaxes. rangingfrom controlof single chordsor motivesto controlof largesectionsof music.Indeed.not exclusivelyon one level.on one level.
.... Concerto I. for Pianoand Orchestra. piano II mm 1-6 7-9 10-13 13-18 19-21 22-29 timp. mm... bns.. "pno. hns... A ~ brass . No.. 14-15.. scheI..... ..... 1-29. I for Piano and Orchestra.. ConcertoNo.....horns 193 ..a) (b 8va bassa 8va ..... J Example 7. matic reduction 12 10 1 12 10 8V(1&LU~ Example9 a2 A A sustained a i 1sustained 2 sustained Example10..... Sonata for Two Pianos and Percussion...brass hns..... mm. - brass - 8va bassa . Example8.. 13-19. I..... mm...
Y mm. This interval one is the verticaldistancefromthe top pitchof the hornsin (X) to the top A-Ga.The size of the totalspacein use here. 1-29 (Ex.also for the third time. of is construction evidentas well in the internalstructure Symmetrical (Y) and its placementwith respectto (X): from bottomto top. how in contexts.The followingtwo analyses serve to illustrate.the internal includedin this passage form a series of intervals    in each octave. (Y) returns. and A doubledin the horns and trombonesone octaveapart. 10-13with a second occurrenceof (X). The implications spatialstructure the areconsiderable.an instanceof parallelsymmetry. The musicis symmetrical. 19-21. Again. and the octaveGa's in the hornsbecome the first notes of a are considerations vitalpassagein octaves(Ex. 10). in the trumpet.mm. 22-29 is an octavelower. the overall framework these measures. 13-18.In the constructs interact largerandmoreintricate symmetrical First Piano Concerto(1926). in of Thejuxtaposition (X) and(Y) is interesting otherwaysas well. With respect to mm. In is .andthe bassoonshaveassumed for the motivic role of the horns. Let detailof the vertical us considerthe pianoandbrassnotesof (X) as internal betweenthe lowest notes of (X) and (Y). oppositeof expanouter delineated sion. the first are six measures devotedto a sonorityto be called (X). First. the interval with fromthe lowerlimitof (X) to the lowerlimitof (Y). notes of structure the horns' Second. 13-18. 194 . takesplaceat this pointwith respectto the previously of boundaries the entirepassage. 7-9 a brasschord. tervalbetweenthe highestnotein the brassof mm. but in a slightly differentguise. Example8 showsthatcontraction.expressedin semitones.in differentways.the otheris the verticaldistance pitchof the hornsin (Y). 1-6 is exactly lower is thanthe highestnote of (Y).articulated of notesandthe upperandlowerboundaries the horns' bothby the sustained octave passage. thus the inThe highestnote in this sustainedchordis A. All of these correspondences instancesof replication. symmetrical in in two ways. for the sakeof convenientreference. first movement. it encomto corresponds two othersof equalsize: passesa spanof . 8). This relationship markedin Example8 by bracketswith single cross-marks. of Aftera thirdappearance (X) in mm. to the colnotesin mm.to be called (Y). Example9 shows that the span of formedby thejuxtaposition (X) and (Y) is replicated structure intervallic in (Y) itself.This contradiction might seem at first to is since the upperdistanceof contraction a semitone be only approximate. is DS-A-D%-A: space is uniformlydivided into tritones. takesthe place of (X). two octavesapart. 7-9 is addeda doublingof the high A one lectionof sustained octavebelow. consistsof the pitchB doubledin the pianoandtim(X) pani.piano.Here. The passagecontinuesin mm. of followedby furtherdevelopment (Y) in mm. in everything mm. Note the brackets are double cross-marksin Example8.
Example13 showsthatmm.become more significant to eventsin the remainder m. Heard this way. while II's is only in triple. by PianoI's standsas a symmetrical expansionfromthe previouslymentioned B. The uppertwo terminalB's. Cumulatively speaking. 22-29. Here.The midpoint of this new formation the middleBb. reduction). One likely reasonfor this discrepancy that is Piano II's range.This B prefigures next development. 4 the intervalDS-A hasbeen filledchromatically threeoctaves(thelowestthreeof the piano's in range). and PianoII'sas a symmetrical expansionfromthe B one octavehigher. then the last G$ of the upperhorn partin m.if insteadof hearingthe intervalbetween the upperA andthe lowerA we focus uponthe successionof attackpoints. 4: the pitchsuccessionBb-A-Bin threeadjacent each octaves. 4-5.PianoI's material. 12b).in the m.Thus mm.wouldnot standin symmetryto the pitch B. 1la.we findthatgroup3 is a replication group1. is a symmetrical rangement. 2-3. The contractionitself may be regardedas serving the functionof closing the introductory sectionandpreparing the transition for to the Allegrowhich follows directlythereafter. at the tritone. in a sense. overlapof subsequent ping spatialareas are outlinedindependently each of the two pianos.a spacewhich then standsas an expansionfrom the F). first movement. and one symmetrical design gives way to another. 4-5 are an extensionof mm. 2-3.up to the downbeatof m. while argroup2 is of a different type. exhibitother the features. At this point.andthe timpaniparthas suppliedthe pitchB betweenthe uppertwo of these three filled intervals. also the midpoint the firstvertical is of in m.is in quadruple octaves. Ex. In Example 12.However.it be(in comes clear that the fourthtrichord. 18 is followedby the upper A in mm. mm. Thesetrichords. again. however.however. This happens in the firstthree measures.if furtherexpanded. score.the new one. Note that Piano II enters in canon to I.by othercriteria. In the Sonatafor Two Pianos and Percussion(1937). lib. 4. the two distancesof contractionare exactly the same.where the initial solo F$ in the timpanieventuallybecomesthe midpointof the spacedelineated the lowest(Dc) and by the highest(A) notes in the firstpiano.emergeas prominent.whenthe groupsof Example13aare verticalized Ex.symmetryoperatesnot so muchby replication verticalspansas by expansionfromandcontraction of to singlepitchesthat. 1-8 (Ex. of course. we mightpausein our progressthrough excerptto exthe amine the melodic materialof mm. 5. This in itself. 2-5 more closely.largerthanthe lower. 13b). is an inversionof the second trichord. besidesfillingchromatically spaceD$-A. with an imitative periodof two eighths.Taking circledgroupsof Example12aandverticalthe interesting of izing them(Ex.enlarging of the chromatic segmentsdescribedaboveby two semitones. 195 . measures2-3 are viewed as an interlocking collection of three trichords. completemm. 4 and all of m.
c. off. '• • • • *col legn?: -••I with the heavy end ?f a drum stick' ?n the dome" $: ?I Pno. I.* "- ' t I Example 1 la. snares **senzacorda: Perc. -oco s I* Pno.Assai lento 5 Piano I = ca.on the dome. II- 0 B •~ i•pi ff -d PIP Pno. II Side Drum s. mm. Sonata for Two Pianos and Percussion. 1-8 196 . l end of a drumstick..70 Piano II Timpani Percussion I :. i # Ii *~ heavrcy legno:withthe Pno. . |I T - - - .
I" 'P." P. II .17 .P II t p P. P. schematicreduction. P".P I . mm. P .'P.I Example1lb. 1-8. 197 .
an abrupt of octavesapart. 7 to m. two notes a semitoneapart soundtogether. which is exactlythe same as the distanceof contraction D's from the triple-octave to the apex trichordG-G$-A. 5. Second.exceptat the apex. The space filled by the run in m. The compositeof these two spansof is E-A. 14): of verticalization its contentsshows that its two componenttrichordsare relatedand.are of the same type as numbers1 and inversionally 3 in Example12. the upperboundary successivelylowered. The prominence this trichordis guaranteedfurtherby its placementat the point of maximumloudnessin the crescendo-diminuendo patternplayedby Piano II.First. further. the apex afterPiano I and has therefore betweenthe outer G-G$-Aof the runin m.then. triple-octave spanof D's. PianoII presentsa doublerunof rapidnotes. At the same time the originallow D.amongother shift in registral location. This sudden burstof activityhas severalfeaturesworthnoting.and at each point in the run.The D immediately is the center of a contractioncarriedout from m. explicitlysubdivided octave of segments. 8. 6 continuesto exert influenceupon in structure mm. 4-5.then finallyto the D an octave below that. the extendsfromthe D abovemiddleC downto the E below it. 4-5 (thatis.is a replication the final positionof Piano I in m. 6. 6 herald. continuesto affectstructure since Piano II'smaterial. PianosI and II takentogether)-and. afterm. a clearly symmetrical layoutof its own (see Ex. readerwill havenoticed Bart6k's 198 .owingto the factthat abovemiddleC.to an areabounded D's three by events.Third. here.has fadedmorequicklythanthe othernotesin the texture. of to Withthe diminuendo the downbeat m. The melody in Piano II. Also in m. it is symmetrical in itself: an ascent is made from the B below middleC to the A above it and back again. The connectionmakes sense musically. wherethreeare playedsimultaneously. to are applicable Toclaimthatthese symmetrical procedures universally The music wouldcertainlybe premature. from the boundaryD's one octavebelow and above. . 5 (C$'s). ends been heardmore recently. The melody in PianoII has.from the initialhigh D to the D an octavelower. Previousmaterial. as well. 6-7. at the dynamicof piano. then. 6 it is not struckagain.The lowerboundary the sonorityin PianoI is symmetricof ally placedwith respectto the boundaries mm. to those of the entirepiece up to this point.The sudden forte andfortissimodynamicsof m. 6 standsexactlyhalfway trichord of of boundaries the measure(D's). into the Furthermore. hence.being the comes of the canon in mm. while still sounding. the beginningand ending B is the very pitch that stood in symby metryto the spacedelineated PianoII in m. replicating space B-A of the run of rapidnotes. 8 comes the end of a series is as of spatialcontractions.
(1) (2) (3) Example12 (4) Example13 Example14 199 .
and the limitationsimposedby size of the ensembletogether of and individuality need to promotedistinctiveness with the (presumed) parts. rathera reflection the originsof this studyin the perthat "slowmusic"andthe impression it conveys of ceivedcharacter Bart6k's of steadyand relentlessmotionfrom one point to the next. Second.from which the foregoingexampleswere drawnis cirthat the repertoire in cumscribed two ways. manyof the excerptsquoted(andboth of the longerones) are with slow tempos.one must concludenonethelessthat symmetricalprocessesdo havea thoroughgoing influenceuponcompositional othermusic in designin the passagescited. is possible that the special demandsof writing for the piano. For pragmatic of reasons.may entail specialcontrolsupon delineationof registralspace-or. such music is ideal for illustration the ideas in this paper. all but one of the pieces chosen featurethe It piano prominentlyin the instrumentation. No claim is madeherethatthese are the only aspectsof his music worthdiscussing-only that symmetryhas greaterpowerthan might have been suspectedto explainnot only the presenceof manyspecificelements musicaltextures(thatis. Given these limits. may have suggestedto Bart6kthe possibilityof institutingsuch controls. smaller total range. with its unbrokenrangeof more than that transformation sevenoctavesandits uniformrateof timbral throughout range. by heavilyfavored otherinvestimay gatorsof symmetry.too. The implicationsseem well worth exploring in future analyticalwork.Thus. given the lack of timbraluniformity. large movementsor sections may be more easily treated. however. singlenotesand smallgroupsof notes) of Bart6k's but also the dispositionof entire passagesand their relativelocations in musical space.This is not an accidental takenfromworksor movements of but circumstance.First. becausethe rateof pitchchangewith respectto time is slow.the stringquartet literature. 200 . at least. be preciselythe wrongplaceto look for extensive the use of registral symmetry. andprobably muchof Bart6k's as well.
Conversationswith Igor Stravinsky(New York: Knopf. Antokoletz. "Principlesof Pitch Organizationin Bart6k'sFourthString Quartet."Journal of Music Theory3 (1959): 292-298. 20. "An Essay in Analysis: Tonality. Leo Treitler." The Music Review 16 (1955): 300-312. Bart6k'suse of canon here can be regardedas yet anotheraspect of symmetricalconstruction (replication). 1984). Bl61a Bart6k. Twelve-Tone Tonality (Berkeley: Universityof CaliforniaPress. 6. 51. Colin Mason. Arnold Whittall. "Towarda Chronology of the Mikrokosmos."The Problemof the New Music." TheMusical Quarterly35 (1949): 377-385. besides those listed in notes 2 and 3 below. B&laBart6k. p. 3. B&laBartdk:An Analysis of His Music (London: Kahn and Averill. pp."HarmonicProcedure in the Fourth Quartetof Bla Bart6k. 10-12. ed. Elliott Antokoletz. 455-459." reprintedin B&laBartdkEssays. p. 2. "SymmetricalFormationsin the String Quartetsof Bl61a Bart6k.NOTES 1. Symmetry and Latent Serialism in Bart6k'sFourthQuartet. 1977). Allen Forte. Among the more importantstudies dealing with symmetry." The Musical Quarterly46 (1960): 233-245." The Music Review 32 (1971):265-270."The StringQuartetsof Bart6k. "Bart6k's 'Serial' Composition. are: Milton Babbitt. George Perle. 1971)." In TheoryOnly 3/6 (1977):3-22. The date of composition is supplied in John Vinton. Numbers in bracketsexpress the size of intervals in semitones. 7." The Music Review 18 (1957): 189-201. Lendvai. 9. pp. esp. 8. 4. Benjamin Suchoff (London: Faber and Faber."Studia Musicologica 8 (1966): 41-69. George Perle. 201 . Ern6 Lendvai. TheMusic of Bdla Bartdk:A Study and Music (Berkeley:Universityof Caliof Tonality Progressionin Twentieth-Century fornia Press. 1976).. 1959). "Bart6k's Second String Quartet. Igor Stravinskyand Robert Craft. 5.
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