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Analysis Using the mm Hg to kPa and kPa to psia units conversion factors,

1-52 The pressure given in mm Hg unit is to be converted to kPa. Analysis Using the mm Hg to kPa units conversion factor,

1-16 1-53 The pressure in a pressurized water tank is measured by a multi-fluid manometer. The gage pressure of air in the tank is to be determined. Assumptions The air pressure in the tank is uniform (i.e., its variation with elevation is negligible due to its low density), and thus we can determine the pressure at the air-water interface. Properties The densities of mercury, water, and oil are given to be 13,600, 1000, and 850 kg/m3, respectively. Analysis Starting with the pressure at point 1 at the air-water interface, and moving along the tube by adding (as we go down) or subtracting (as we go up) th e terms until we reach point 2, and setting the result equal to Patm since the tube is open to the atmosphere gives

Solving for P1,

or,

Noting that P1,gage = P1 - Patm and substituting,

Discussion Note thatMATERIAL. © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies,next Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course PROPRIETARY jumping horizontally from one tube to the Inc. and realizing that pressure remains the same in the same preparation. If you theaanalysis greatly. fluid simplifies are student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

1-17

1-54 be determined. reading at a location is given in height of mercury column. The atmospheric pressure is to be The barometric determined. Properties The density pressure at two given to be 13,600akg/m3. can be expressed as of mercury is different depths of liquid Analysis The gage Analysis The atmospheric pressure is determined directly from and

Taking their ratio, h1 1 Solving for P2 and substituting gives h2 2 Assumptions The variation of the density of the liquid with depth is negligible.

1-55 The gage pressure in a liquid at a certain depth is given. The gage pressure in the same liquid at a different depth is to

Discussion Note that the gage pressure in a given fluid is proportional to depth.

1-56 The absolute pressure in water at a specified depth is given. The local atmospheric pressure and the absolute pressure at the same depth in a different liquid are to be determined. Assumptions The liquid and water are incompressible. Properties The specific gravity of the fluid is given to be SG = 0.85. We take the density of water to be 1000 kg/m3. Then density of the liquid is obtained by multiplying its specific gravity by the density of water,

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

Analysis (a) Knowing the absolute pressure, the atmospheric pressure can be determined from

Patm h

Properties The density of air is given to be ! = 1. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. we obtain It yields h = 231 m which is also the height of the building. The vertical distance climbed is to be The determined. 695 mmHg Taking an air column between the top and the bottom of the building and writing a force balance per unit base area.600 kg/m3. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.and 1-58E The pressure in chamber 3 of the two-piston cylinder shown in the figure is to be determined. Analysis Taking an air column between the top and the bottom of the mountain and writing a force balance per unit base area.18 kg/m3. If you are a student using this Manual.which pressure 3 acts is given by area upon Assumptions The variation of air density and the gravitational acceleration with altitude is negligible. © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies. we obtain h=? 630 mbar The force produced by pressure 1 on the piston is then F1 while that produced by pressure 2 is 740 mbar According to the vertical force balance on the piston free body diagram It yields Pressure 3 is h = 934 m then which is also the distance climbed. you are using it without permission. . Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. The density of mercury is 13. © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Analysis Atmospheric pressures at the top and at the bottom of the building are 675 mmHg h PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.20 kg/m3. you are using it without permission. If you are a student using this Manual. Inc. Inc. Properties The density of air is given to be ! = 1. 1-64 A barometer is used to measure the height of a building by recording reading at the bottom and at the top of the building. Analysis The area upon which pressure 1 acts is F2 and the area upon which pressure 2 acts is F3 1-21 1-63 A mountain hiker records the barometric reading before and after a hiking trip. Assumptions The variation of air density with altitude is negligible. The height of the building is to be determined.

1-72 The air pressure in a duct is measured by a mercury manometer. Analysis The pressures at tank is to be toes of the person can be expressed as the absolute pressure in the the head and determined. AIR Substituting. (b) The absolute pressure in the duct is determined from P PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course AIR 15 mm 1-73 The air pressure in a duct is measured by a mercury manometer. Inc. For a given mercury-level difference between the two columns. you pressure using duct is above atmospheric pressure since fluid column on the duct side is at a lower level. Properties The density of mercury is given to be ! = 13. The pressure difference between the toes and the head is determined by subtracting the first relation above from the second.18 [kg/m^3] 1-66 A man is standing in water vertically while being completely submerged. the absolute pressure in the duct is to be determined.3-m of water height. For a given mercury-level difference between the two columns. © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies.h=230. and thus the density does not change with depth. Inc.325 kPa) is equivalent to 10.36 m Patm = 98 kPa Discussion This problem can also be solved by noting that the atmospheric pressure (1 atm = 101. Analysis (a) The pressure in the duct is above atmospheric pressure since the fluid column on the duct side is at a lower level. 1-26 Properties We take the density of water to be ! =1000 kg/m3. If you are a student using this Manual.600 kg/m3. For a given oil-level difference between the two columns. hhead 1-71 The air pressure in a tank is measured by an oil manometer. you are using it without permission. Properties The density of mercury is given to be ! = 13. Assumptions Water is an incompressible substance. .75 m.3 [m] P_bottom=695 [mmHg] P_top=675 [mmHg] rho=1. Analysis (a)If Theare a studentin thethis Manual.600 kg/m3. where h is the vertical distance of the location in water from Analysis The absolute pressure in the tank is determinedfrom the free surface. you are using it without permission. htoe 0. and Properties The density of oil is given to be ! = 850 kg/m3. The difference between the pressures acting on the head and on the toes is to be determined. © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies. (b) The absolute pressure in the duct is determined from AIR P 45 mm PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. and finding the pressure that corresponds to a water height of 1. the absolute pressure in the duct is to be determined. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. the preparation.

© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Substituting. It can be shown . 2 Oil does not mix with water. the pressure at this surface can be expressed as Noting that ha = hw and rearranging. 2 The effect of air column on pressure is negligible. Assumptions 1 All the liquids are incompressible. Assumptions 1 Both water and oil are incompressible substances. For a given vertical level difference. Analysis The gage pressure in the duct is determined from 12 cm 45° The length of the differential fluid column is Discussion Note that the length of the differential fluid column is extended considerably by inclining the manometer arm for better readability. the gage pressure in the duct and the length of the differential fluid column are to be determined. 1-50 1-116 The air pressure in a duct is measured by an inclined manometer. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. density of water to be !w = 62. its effect on the pressure difference between the two pipes is negligible.2 kg/m3 corresponds to a pressure difference of 0. Analysis Starting with the pressure in the fresh water pipe (point 1) and moving along the tube by adding (as we go down) or subtracting (as we go up) the terms until we reach the sea water pipe (point 2). If you are a student usingis given to be !are= 49. Properties The densities of seawater and mercury are given to be !sea = 1035 kg/m3 and !Hg = 13. and setting the result equal to P2 gives Air hsea Fresh Water hw hair hHg Mercury Sea Water Rearranging and neglecting the effect of air column on pressure. We take the density of water to be ! w =1000 kg/m3. We take the Properties The density of oil this Manual. Assumptions The manometer fluid is an incompressible substance. Discussion When the person stops blowing. Inc. the oil will rise and some water will flow into the right arm. and the oil side is pressurized until the contact surface of the two fluids moves to the bottom and the liquid levels in both arms become the same.70-m high air column with a density of 1. Properties The density of the liquid is given to be ! = 0. 1-117E Equal volumes of water and oil are poured into a U-tube from different arms. Therefore. you using it without permission. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 3 The cross-sectional area of the U-tube is constant. The excess pressure applied on the oil side is to be determined.81 kg/L = 810 kg/m3. The pressure difference between the two pipelines is to be determined.39 kPa higher than the pressure in the sea water pipe.008 kPa.1-30 1-78 Fresh and seawater flowing in parallel horizontal pipelines are connected to each other by a double U-tube manometer.4 lbm/ft3. Discussion A 0. oil Analysis Noting that the pressure of both the water and the oil is the same at the contact surface. Therefore.3 lbm/ft3.600 kg/m3. the pressure in the fresh water pipe is 3.

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