STRUCTURE AND WRITTEN EXPRESSION

PART A: STRUTURE SKILL 1: Verbs In some sentences in Part A of the Structure and Written Expression Section, you will be asked to identify the correct verb. In fact, most of the sentences in this part are verb problems. A verb is a word or phrase that expresses action or condition. A verb can be classified as transitive or intransitive according to whether it requires a complement; it can be classified further according to the kind of complement it requires, including not only nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs, but also –ing forms or infinitives. SKILL 2: Pronouns In some sentences in Part A of the Structure and Written Expression Section, you will be asked to identify the correct pronoun. A pronoun is a word that can be used instead of a noun, usually to avoid repeating the noun. A pronoun may be singular or plural; masculine, feminine, or neuter; and first, second or third person to agree with the noun to which it refers. A pronoun may be used as the subject of a sentence or a clause or as the object of a sentence, a clause, or a preposition. In English, pronouns are also used to express possessives and reflexives. SKILL 3: Nouns In some sentences in Part A of the Structure and Written Expression Section, you will be asked to identify the correct noun. A noun is a word thay names persons, objects, and ideas. There are two basic classifications of nouns in English; count nouns and noncounts nouns. Count nouns are those that can be made plural by -s,-es, or an irregular form. They are used in agreement with either singular or plural verbs. Noncount nouns are those that cannot be made plural in these ways. There are used in agreement with singular verbs. It is necessary to know whether a noun is count or noncount to maintain verb agreement and to choose correct adjective modifiers. SKILL 4: Modifiers In some sentences in Part A of the Structure and Written Expression Section, you will be asked to identify the correct modifier. A modifier can be an adjective or and adjectival phrase that describes a noun or an –ing form. A modifier can also be and adverb or and adverbial phrase that adds information abour the verb, adjective, or another verb. Adjectives do not change form to agree with the nouns or –ing forms that they describe, but some adjectives are used only with count nouns and others are used only with noncount nouns. SKILL 5: Comparatives In some sentences in Part A of the Structure and Written Expression Section, you will be asked to identify the correct comparative. A comparative can be a word or phrase that expresses similarity

example and purpose. Some common relationships are cause ad result. Introductory verbal modifiers are -ing forms. addition. substitution. you will be asked to identify errors in point of view. you will be asked to identify errors in agreement. a pronoun and the noun or pronoun to which it refers must both be singular or plural and both be masculine or feminine or neuter. A connector expresses relationships between the words. participles. or between the verbs in a sentence and adverbs that express time. you will be asked to identify the correct connector. Related ideas of equal importance often occur in the form of a list. A comparative can also be a word ending like –er or –est that expresses a degree of comparison with adjectives and adverbs. To agree a subject and verb must both be singular or both be plural.or difference. The subject modified by an introductory verbal modifier must follow the comma. PART B: WRITTEN EXPRESSION SKILL 7: Point of View In some sentences in Part B of the Structure and Written Expression Section. To agree. SKILL 9: Introductory Verbal Modifiers In some sentences in Part B of the Structure and Written Expression Section. phrase or clauses. phrase and clauses that it joins. Parallel structure is the use of the same grammatical structures for related ideas of equal importance. If the correct subject does not follow the comma. A phrase with an introductory verbal modifier occurs at the beginning of a sentence and is followed by a comma. A connector is a word or phrase that joins words. exception. but. and infinitives. such as and. or between a pronoun and another pronoun. you will be asked to identify errors in parallel structure. Often the changed meaning is not logical. you will be asked to identify errors in introductory verbal modifiers and the subjects that they modify. SKILL 11: Redundancy . SKILL 10: Parallel Structure In some sentences in Part B of the Structure and Written Expression Section. contradiction. SKILL 8: Agreement In some sentences in Part B of the Structure and Written Expression Section. the meaning of the sentences is changed. and or. SKILL 6: Connectors In some sentences in Part A of the Struture and Written Expression Section. Sometimes related ideas of equal importance are connected by conjunctions. Point of view is the relationship between the verb in the main clause of a sentence and other verbs. Agreement is the relationship between a subject and verb or between a pronoun and noun.

and connectors.In some sentences in Part B of the Structure and Written Expression Section. you will be asked to identify errors in structure. you will be asked to identify errors in word choise. These cumulative exercises include a variety of style problems and structures. nouns. comparatives. pronouns. Word choise is the selection of words that express the exact meaning of an idea. . modifiers. SKILL 13: Structure In some sentences in Part B of the Structure and Written Expression Section. structure is the correct use of verbs. Sometimes it is necessary to make a choice between words that are very similar in appearance but very different in meaning. SKILL 12: Word Choise In some sentences in Part B of the Structure and Written Expression Section. Remember. you will be asked to identify errors in redundancy. Redundancy is the unnecessary repetition of words and phrases. you will be asked to identify the incorrect answer from among four underlined alternatives. In some sentences in Part B of the Structure and Written Expression Section.