Test On Transformer (Open-Circuit and Short-Circuit Test

Sharifah Salihah bt Wan Mahdi, EA09025, E01 (G12)

Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP) Pekan Campus, 26000 Pekan, Pahang darul Makmur. salihah_mahdi@yahoo.com
Abstract— This laboratory is done to differentiate the

construction and winding of single phase or three phase transformer and to develop the connection wiring for single and three phase transformer. Besides, we also need to conduct test on transformer for single and three phase transformer and also analyzed the transformers performance. We use a laboratory console with attached 3Ø variable transformer (Variac) 0-450V (TSGC2 3kVA Voltage Regulator), 300VA 110/55V 1Ø transformer with handy plug-in connections extendable to 220/110V, 300VA 570 (3×380V)/330V (3×220V) 3Ø transformer with handy plug-in connections extendable to 1140 (3×2×190V)/330V (3×2×110V), LN Analog-Digital Multimeter (SO5127-1Z) 600V, 20A and also RMS-meter (SO5127-1L) 3-1kV,0.1-30A. The measured outcomes are used to calculate the core resistance (Rc), magnetism reactance (Xm), winding resistance (Req) and leakage reactance (Xeq) and are tabulated clearly. I. INTRODUCTION Transformer is a device that changes AC electric power at one level voltage into AC electric power of the same frequency at another level through the action of a magnetic field. It consists of two or more coils of wire wrapped. One of the transformer windings is connected to a source of AC electric power, and the second transformer winding supplies electric power to loads. The coil to which the source supplies the power is called primary winding, and the coil that delivers power to the load is called the secondary winding [1]. There are two types of transformer, which is ideal transformer and practical transformer. Both types have stepup and step-down transformer. Ideal transformer is a transformer which has no loses. Its winding consists no ohmic resistance, no magnetic leakage, and also no power and core loses [2].While practical transformer is the inverse of the ideal transformer. In a working transformer the performance aspects like magnetizing current, losses, voltage regulation, efficiency and others are important. Therefore, the effects of the nonidealization like finite permeability, saturation, hysteresis and winding resistances have to be added to the core of ideal transformer to make it a practical transformer [3].

As we know, in practical transformer there are transformer losses. Generally, there are two types of losses; such as iron losses and copper losses. Iron losses occur in core parameters while copper losses occur in winding resistance [2]. Core losses are caused by two factors, such as hysteresis and eddy current losses. Hysteresis loss is that energy lost by reversing the magnetic field in the core as the magnetizing AC rises and falls and reverse direction. Eddy current loss is a result of induced currents circulating in the core [4]. Transformer performance can be analysing by its efficiency and voltage regulation. Efficiency can be determined by comparing the output with respect to the input. System with higher efficiency is the better in performance. Voltage regulation can be defined in two ways- Regulation Down and Regulation Up. Regulation Down is defined as the change in terminal voltage when a load current at any power factor is applied, expressed as a fraction of the no-load terminal voltage. At the other side, Regulation Up is expressed as the ratio of the change in the terminal voltage when a load at a given power factor is thrown off and the on load voltage [3]. The purpose of voltage regulation is basically to determine the percentage of voltage drop between no load and full load. Voltage regulation can be determine based on three methods; such as basic definition, equivalent-circuit test and short-circuit test. If the voltage regulation is greater than 3%, the system is considered poor and called by purely resistive load [2]. There are two test conducted on transformer, which is open-circuit test and short-circuit test. This test is conducted to determine the parameter of the transformer. Open-circuit test is done to determine the magnetism parameter, core resistance (Rc), magnetism reactance (Xm), while short-circuit test is done to determine copper parameter, winding resistance (Req) and leakage reactance (Xeq), by varying the input voltage on high voltage side [2].

In this experiment. Figure 2 (a) and (b) [1] show the connection of three phase transformer both for open-circuit test and short-circuit test respectively. The measured value of voltage. current.II. current and power factor is recorded. Both of this apparatus comes with handy plug-in connections. Figure 1 (b): short-circuit test MRM 051011 Figure 2 (a): open-circuit test MRM 051011 Figure 1 (a): open-circuit test MRM 051011 Figure 2 (b): short-circuit test For open-circuit test. 20A also has been used in this experiment. Differently. As before. This multimeter is used for measuring the voltage. The variac knob is turned back to zero and the laboratory console is switched off before develop the short-circuit connection. power and the power factor of the construction. the variac knob is varied until the analog meter on the high voltage side reach it rated voltage. in the three phase transformer. current. For short-circuit test. Malaysia. power and power factor is recorded. Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP). Meanwhile. The same tests are conducted for three phase transformer. 300VA 110/55V extendable to 220/110V and 300VA 570 (3×380V)/330V (3×220V) extendable to 1140 (3×2×190V)/330V (3×2×110V) also has been used for both single phase and three phase transformer. 0. LN AnalogDigital Multimeter (SO5127-1Z) 600V. the RMSmeter is turned slowly until it reached the rated current. laboratory console with attached 3Ø variable transformer (Variac) (TSGC2 3kVA Voltage Regulator) is used to provide up to 450V AC supply. for both rated 55V for single winding and 110V for double winding. All the data measured are recorded.1-30A is used to measure the rated voltage and rated current. 5A on the low voltage side. RMS-meter (SO5127-1L) 3-1kV. EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS This laboratory is conducted at Electrical Machines and Drives Laboratory. the measured power. Figure 1(a) and (b) [1] shows the connection of single phase transformer for open-circuit test and short-circuit test respectively. voltage. Besides. the MRM 051011 .

The effect is with low frequency power transformers. Magnetic losses consist of two types: electrically conductive magnetic core and permeability of the core material is complex at the frequencies of interest. if the permeability of the core material is complex at the frequencies of interest. Both of these result in power loss through heating of the transformer [6].3 Ioc (A) 0. while second effect occurs with ferrite materials.57 1. 65 4972.42 Vsc (V) 16. the circulating electrical eddy currents induced by the magnetic fields will result in waste heating of the transformer core.: iron core).46 8 2.07 8k 19.44 3 Xeq (Ω) 1. 24 38. III. two rated voltage for each test are taken and a comparison between both readings are make. Rated 55 (calculated) 4925.12 0. TABLE 3 Figure 3: Equivalent Circuit of Practical Transformer [6] Mark: Rc in Figure 3 is the Re (magnetic losses) in Figure 4. We use variac in this experiment because it is efficient and can provide high voltage rated.86 Isc (A) 2.80 6k 38. voltage and current in both tests is lower for rated 55V compared to 110V.065 10.30 3k 79.phase and line voltage of the primary and secondary winding is measured by using RMS—meter. 43 4825.732 1.06 17.5 216. TABLE 1 Rated Voltage (V) Rated 110 Rated 55 Poc (W) 11.525 Rc‘ (Ω) 20.10 Cos θ 0.1 13. the value of Rc is larger (refer Figure 3 and Figure 4). The power factor of open-circuit test also small than in shortcircuit tests for both rated voltages. especially if a greater degree of flexibility in changing the ratio of primary and secondary coils. The reading of shunt impedance (core resistance) and magnetism reactance is large. the power factors are slightly bigger for rated 55V rather than 110V. Rated Voltage (V) Rated 110 (measured) Rated 110 (calculated) Rated 55 (measured) Rc (Ω) 5019. For both tests. RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS Mark: All the calculation data is referred to high voltage side. When Rc is larger.2 9. 36 2407.g. 41 Xm (Ω) 2100.021 6. 18 Req (Ω) 6. 08 8462. variac is simple to operate and easy to control for automatic adjustment to maintain the regulated voltage output [5]. The data taken is used to determine the type of connection of the windings.972 Table 1 show the experimental data for open-circuit test on single phase transformer. the losses of the transformer will getting higher too. If the magnetic core is electrically conductive (e.961 0. Therefore. 27 2115.52 3k Table 3 show the calculated parameters obtained from the experimental data. 56 2402. As we can see.29 Cos θ 0. But. This value gives effect to the transformer performance.435 Figure 3: Equivalent Circuit of Practical Transformer [2] TABLE 2 Rated Voltage (V) Rated 110 Rated 55 Psc (W) 40.386 0.421 78.568 2. Meanwhile Table 2 show the experimental data for short-circuit test on single phase transformer. 58 10. Variac can change the voltage. This is due to the small value of Ioc.5 Voc (V) 232. Small value of Ioc produce small value of Ic.55 9k Xm’ (Ω) 8401. the value of power. Besides.43 5k . But. power will also be dissipated.

TABLE 4 Efficiency.441 TABLE 6 Psc (W) 0. such as hardwire connection check or voltage level check for phase and line voltage. ŋ (%) Rated 110V Rated 55V 83. The efficiency of the transformer is quite good.78 Table 5 and Table 6 shows the experimental data of three phase transformer for open-circuit test and short-circuit test respectively.conformity. There are several differences between the single phase transformer and three phase transformer. we also able to analyze the performance of the transformer based on the experimental data and the calculated data obtained from the experimental data. This may due to the limitations of the hardware.04 5. 1 neutral. Same methods go to secondary winding. 1 stay wire). In this experiment. the line voltage reading is greater than the phase voltage. the transformer is a step-down transformer. This may due to the internal error of the apparatus.7 Cos θ -0.987 IV.26 90. The negative (-) sign of power factor shows that the current is lagging.B.pdf http://notes.69 Voltage Regulation (%) 4. we had achieved our objectives of differentiating the construction and winding of single or three phase transformer. we can see all the neutral port of every phase voltage in primary winding is connected to each other.my/fkee/BEE2123%20(Electrical%20Machines)/ %C2%A9%20MRM%20FKEE%20UMP/EM%20Labsheet%20%20Revised/Lab1%20BEE2123%20revised%20by%20mrm %2005102011. 1 neutral. 1 stay wire).ca/~rhabash/ELG2331LN07. The performance of the three phase transformer is bad. in three phase transformer. Besides. the power factor of short-circuit test is greater than power factor of opencircuit test. while three [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] . primary and secondary windings.ump.in/courses/IITMADRAS/Electrical_Machines_I/pdfs/ http://www.8 Ioc (A) 0. In three phases. Both of these methods show that the primary winding is in star (Y) connection.Y. the connection of primary winding is star (Y) and the secondary winding is delta (∆).shtml TABLE 7 Efficiency.com/mag/electric_know_variablevoltage_transformers/ http://www.edu.45 Voltage Regulation (%) Rated 110V Rated 55V 7.com/artman/publish/printer_47. Single phase consists of 3 wires only (1 phase.10k Vsc (V) 59. Basically there are two lines in single phase.pdf http://nptel.06 Cos θ -0. By using voltage check. . This is showed by the calculated efficiency and the voltage regulation of the transformer in Table 7 which is obtained from the experiment data. the voltage is 380V while 210V for secondary winding.98 Table 4 shows the efficiency and voltage regulation for both rated voltages. This connection can be determine by using two methods. but the voltage regulation is vice versa. For primary winding. the connection of primary and secondary windings needs to be determining first. TABLE 5 Poc (W) 5.uottawa.site.ump. By hardwire check.pdf http://ecmweb. phase consists of 5 wires (3 phases-R. the windings are spaced 120 degrees apart and must be connected in proper sequence to match the incoming voltage.edu.iitm.0 Isc (A) 1. either star (Y) or delta (∆) connection. REFERENCES [1] http://notes.68 Voc (V) 209. As in single phase data.my/fkee/BEE2123%20(Electrical%20Machines)/ %C2%A9%20MRM%20FKEE%20UMP/EM%20Notes %20%C2%A9%20MRM%20FKEE%20UMP/single%20phase %20Transformer%20(Revised%20211111). So. We also able to develop the connection wiring for single and three phase transformer and conducting the open-circuit and short-circuit test for both transformers. CONCLUSIONS As a conclusion. Therefore. ŋ (%) 70.ac.

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