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Model Reference Adaptive

WON-SANG KIM* KYO-BEUM LEE* SUNGHOI HUH** AND FREDE BLAABJERG***

Division of Electronics and of Science and Technology Institute of Energy Technology

Information Engineering 335 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Pontoppidanstraede 101, DK-9220,

664-14, Deokjin-dong, Jeonju, Daejeon 305-701, KOREA Aalborg East, DENAMRK

561-756, KOREA Email: fbl@iet.aau.dk

Email: kyl@chonbuk.ac.kr

Abstract - This paper presents a new robust sensorless control In [6, 7], the authors proposed adaptive methods to tune

system for high performance induction motor drives fed by a the control gain by using neural networks (NN). However,

matrix converter with variable structure. The lumped some parameters of the NN are updated based on a

disturbances such as parameter variation and load disturbance back-propagation strategy, which normally leads to a local

of the system are estimated by a variable structure approach minima problem. Uncertain parameters in VSC can be

based on model reference adaptive scheme. A Reduced Order

estimated by adopting proper adaptive laws. Recently, VSC

Extended Luenberger Observer (ROELO) is also employed to

bring better responses at the low speed operation. Experimental combining model reference adaptive control (MRAC) has

results are shown to illustrate the performance of the proposed been intensively researched in relation to complex nonlinear

system. systems and has shown improved transient and steady state

responses under a bounded disturbance [1-5, 8]. In [2],

I. INTRODUCTION unknown parameters in a 2-degree of freedom robot

manipulator are adaptively updated, resulting in improved

Variable structure control (VSC) employs a discontinuous

transient response. However, only exponential stability is

manifold called a sliding surface. VSC can make a controlled

guaranteed, and there is no estimation strategy for unknown

system robust to a certain degree with the help of switching

boundary values. In [4], actuator nonlinearities such as

control actions [4, 11]. However, VSC entails two well

dead-zones and back-lash are considered, and inertia and

known problems, a chattering phenomenon and unknown

joint flexibility terms are approximated using a NN based on

control gain. To date, numerous attempts to address these

back stepping and a VSC approach. However, the norm of

issues have been reported [1-8, 11, 12]. For the chattering

the unknown term is assumed to be bounded by a known

problem, practically efficient approaches have been reported

constant, and all variables are uniformly bounded rather than

including making use of a saturation function [15], and a soft

asymptotically stable. In [8], for a perturbed large scale

computing approach [12]. Control gain in VSC is an effective

system with a time-varying delay interconnection, an

element that influences control performance [1-8].

Power grid

v A , vB , vC

Z r
+ Proposed ROBUST

iqse
+ q-axis current

vqee
va PWM

Controller (II) - control 2/3 vb Signal

- Indirect

Zˆ r +

vdse
&

ej vc SVM Gate Matrix Converter

[13]

e
d-axis current Drives

i

ds - control

[13]

iq
Z sl+ Zˆ e Tˆ

³ dt

Wid +

iqse idse

+ ia , ib , ic

Zˆ r Reduced order 3/2

extended + + &

- -

Luenberger e-j

+

observer [13] 3 kW Induction

motor

iqcomp idcomp v A , vB , vC

ia , ib , ic

Non-linearity compensation

using PQR transformation [9]

Fig. 1: The proposed robust sensorless vector control for matrix converter drives.

adaptive algorithm for estimating an uncertain upper bound

based on a VSC frame was proposed. e1n k1n e1n k0 n e1n 0 (4)

In this paper, to achieve the speed sensorless process, or

speed estimation is completed by a conventional preferred

d ª e1n º ª 0 1 º ª e1n º

method proposed by the authors [13]. Adaptive sliding-mode « » «k » « » Aen e n (5)

control with a NN observer is presented to control the dt ¬e1n ¼ ¬ 0 n k1n ¼ ¬ e1n ¼

Induction motor drive, which includes parametric and Which means that the dynamic system (2) can be stable,

un-modeled uncertainties. Under the framework of MRAC,

lim ^e1n , e 2 n ` ^0, 0` with an appropriate design constant k n .

the actual dynamics of the induction motor drive are t of

As easily guess, the nominal controls are not perfect for the

controlled so as to follow the reference dynamics, which is a

practical model (1), and additional control is required.

nominal model.

Time varying uncertain parameters are approximated by In the next section, to cope with the composite

the NN in an on-line manner, and the sliding control is uncertainty U , NN observer and adaptive SMC based on

designed so as to compensate for the reconstruction error. MRAS are presented, and the stability issue will be detailed

Finally, the actual system robustly follows the nominal model described.

dynamics even under hard nonlinearity. NN weight vectors

B. Radial basis function network (RBFN)

and sliding mode control gains including unknown variation

bounds are adaptively updated with stabilizing adaptive laws The radial-basis function network (RBFN) is a kind of NN,

based on Lyapunov criterions. The proposed control scheme and is simply constructed with input, output, and hidden

of sensorless vector control for induction motor drives fed by layers of normalized Gaussian activation functions.

a matrix converter is shown in Fig. 1. Experimental results

are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed

system. o1 " " oj om

STRUCTURE - MODEL REFERENCE ADAPTIVE CONTROL wji

(VS-MRAC) w1i

wmi

z1 zi

A. System modeling using RBFN (Radial Basis Function

Network)

" " zl

dynamics, mechanical formulation of induction machines can

be described by state variable form with the set of as

follows: xrb1 " " xrbi xrbn

x2 f f c x2 g g c u hTL H (1)

f x2 g u U A schematic diagram of the RBFN is shown in Fig. 2. In

general, each of the hidden nodes has a normalized Gaussian

where f B J , g KT J and U f cx2 g cu hTL H activation function as follows [9]:

Without considering uncertainty U, nominal dynamics can 2

exp ª x rb m i / 2 Pi2 º

be rewritten with the nominal vector x n > x1n x2 n @T as follows: -i (x rb ) ¬ ¼ (6)

zi T i ( x) ' l l

2

¦-k (xrb ) ¦ exp ª x rb m k / 2 Pk2 º

x1n x2 n k 1 k 1

¬ ¼

(2)

x2 n fx2 n gun .

where z i is the ith RBFN of Z z1 , z2 , ! , zi , ! zl R l ,

Stabilizing computed torque controls for the nominal x rb xrb1 , xrb 2 , ! , xrbn R n is the input vector, mi R and

n

Pi R denote the center and width of the ith Gaussian

function, respectively.

un g 1 x2d fx2 n k Tn e n (3) Therefore, the hidden node zi gives a large response as the

input vector approaches m i . The output of the RBFN is

where kn > k0 n k1n @ ,

T

en

T

>e1n e1n @ >e1n e2 n @ , and

T

e1n x1d x1n , simply the weighted sum of the hidden layer output, and is

e2 n x x2 n .

d given in the following linear combination form:

2

as follows:

2424

l

with the notation of

W W W* as follows:

Rj ¦w

k 1

k zk

(7)

[ w j1 w j 2 ... w jl ][ z1 z2 ... zl ]T w Tj z U wT z U wT z wT * z G wT z G (11)

where w jk , (k 1, 2,......, l ) , is the weight between the kth

hidden node and the RBFN output , and wTj Rl is the vector where G means a reconstruction error of the neural network.

of w jk ’s. Using (11), original lumped uncertainty can be re-written

Finally, the output vector set is o o1 , o2 , ! , om R m . as

Some theorems reflect that the 3-layered RBFN is a universal

approximator like a fuzzy and multi-layered NN, if the U wT z wT z G (12)

activation functions used in the hidden layer are infinitely

differentiable and in polynomial forms [9, 10]. The RBFN To describe the theorem, the following assumption is

offers a viable alternative to the three-layered NNs in many required.

applications such as signal processing, pattern recognition, Assumption. The following inequality holds

control and functional approximation. To update the RBFN

parameters such as the weight vectors, and the center and G d] (13)

width of the Gaussian functions, some simple update laws of

delta-learning rules can be derived [10]. where ] is a positive definite constant.

Now, the main theorem will be described.

C.Variable Structure-Model Reference Adaptive Control

System (VS-MRAC) Theorem. Let the overall control input u un uc , and

As was shown in the previous section, nominal state vector

uc g 1 k1e1 uc1

based on known parameters can be controlled at will. In this

paper, nominal dynamics is concerned as a reference model §1 T O · (14)

¨ c A e e w z [ ¸ sgn S

T

uc1

for the actual dynamic model. © c2 c2 ¹

From (1) and (2) with additional controls uc

where u un uc , error dynamics of e1 x1n x1 can be where un is determined as (3), O is a strictly positive constant,

derived as follows: and [ is a control parameter which is to be updated by its

adaptive law.

e1

x1n

x1 f x1n x1 guc U

(8) By using RBFN, lumped uncertainty is to be approximated

k1e1 f e1 uc1 U as follows:

Error dynamics can be summarized as follows:

The update laws for the weight vector W and control gain

e Ae e B eMe (9) [ with [ * | ] are determined as

ªe1 º ª 0 1º ª0 º w J w c2 Sz

where e « » , Ae « k f » , B «1 » , and Me uc1 U (16)

¬e1 ¼ ¬ 1 ¼ ¬ ¼ [ J ks c2 S

In (8), f is a negative constant, and so, states of the

dynamic system (1) can follow those of the nominal models

Then, desired tracking performance S as well as all

(2) with additional control uc and appropriate design

parameters is to be asymptotically stable.

constant k1 .

Proof.

Now, with the error vector defined in (10), sliding surface For deriving the adaptive laws, we define a Lyapunov

and its derivative can be defined as follows: function as the following form.

S cT e 1 S 2 1 w w* T w w* 1 [ [ * 2

(10) Ve (t )

2 2J w

2J (17)

S T

c e c Ae e B eMe

T

k

c >c1 c2 @

In this paper, system uncertainty U is to be modeled by

neural network, and its modeling error U can be depicted

2425

1 T 1 has a robust characteristic against parameter variation. This

Ve SS w w

[[

Jw Jk superiority can also be seen in Fig. 5(a) and (b). There is an

1 1 abrupt load disturbance at 5 s. For the speed control with

S cT Ae e c2 uc1 c2 U wT w

[[ RBFN control, it takes about 0.5 s for the tracking error to be

Jw J ks

zero, but the speed control without the RBFN observer uses 2

§1 O · s. From these experimental results, the best speed control

d S cT Ae e c2 S ¨ cT Ae e wT z [ ¸ sgn S

c

© 2 c2 ¹ characteristics in the sensorless vector control system are

observable when the lumped disturbances exist. Especially,

1 T 1

c2 S U w w [[ the proposed control scheme has robust characteristics

Jw Jk

against parameter variation even though there is a negligible

O S c2 S w z c2[ S c2 S w T z w

T

Tz G external disturbance effect.

1 T 1

w

w [[

Jw Jw

d O S c2 S w T z c2[ S c2 S w T z c2 Sw

Tz

1 1

c2 S [ Tw

w [[

Jw Jk

1 1

O S

Jw

T w

w J w c2 Sz

Jk

[ [ J k c2 S

O S .

(18)

From (17) and (18), it is guaranteed that all signals e , W ,

and [ are bounded, and from (7), e is also bounded.

With integration of (18), 2³ f Ve (t ) d ³ f 1 S , the following

0 0 2

equation is true:

(a) speed and phase current

f

³ S d 2 Ve 0 Ve f (19)

0

³0 S is also bounded. By using Babalat’s lemma, S o 0 for

f

tof.

III. EXPERIMENT

To confirm the validity of the proposed control algorithm,

experiments are carried out. The low speed operation is

especially in focus during the experiments. The hardware (b) speed and phase current, A zoom of the zero crossing of speed from (a)

Fig. 3: Forward and reverse operation.

consists of a 3-phase, 380 V, 50 Hz, 4-pole, 3 kW induction

motor and power circuit with a matrix converter. The

modulation used a double-sided SVM algorithm with the

minimized number of commutations and the commutation of

the bi-directional switches was performed in a four-step way

depending on the output current sign [13].

Fig. 3(a) and (b) show the speed and phase current

responses of the proposed sensorless vector control system in

the forward and reverse operation. Fig. 3(b) shows a zoom of

the zero-crossing in the speed response. Fig. 3(a) and (b)

show the speed response for a ramp-speed reference with a

slope 200 rpm/s. It is noted here that a smooth and stable zero

crossing of speed is obtained. Fig. 4(a) and (b) show the

experimental results when the inertia value variation has

occurred abruptly. For speed control without RBFN

disturbance observer, 1 s is taken to overcome the affection

for the tracking error to be zero. (a) with IP controller

However, speed control with RBFN disturbance observer

2426

approximated by the radial basis function network. In

addition, control laws for stabilizing a controlled system and

adaptive laws for updating both the weights of RBFN and

unknown control parameters have been established.

Experimental results show that the proposed control

scheme can provide good performance at the low speed

region and robust and stable characteristics against parameter

variations and load disturbances.

REFERENCES

[1] C. W. Park and Y. W. Cho, “Adaptive tracking control of flexible joint

manipulator based on fuzzy model reference approach,” IEE Proc.

Control Theory Appl., 2004, vol. 150, no. 2, pp. 198-204, 2004.

[2] S. K. Tso, X. Xu, and H. Y. Shum, “Variable Structure Model

Reference Adaptive Control of Robot Manipulators,” Proc. of IEEE Int.

(b) with proposed controller

Conf. on Robot and Auto., pp.2148-2153, April 1991.

Fig. 4: Parameter variation at 500 rpm.

[3] L. Hsu, “Variable Structure Model-Reference Adaptive Control

(VS-MRAC) Using Only Input and Output Measurements: Part II,”

Proc. of IEEE 27th Conf. on Decision and Control., pp.2396-2400, Dec.

1988.

[4] R. J. Wai, ‘Total sliding-mode controller for PM synchronous servo

motor drive using recurrent fuzzy neural network’, IEEE Trans.

Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 5, pp.926-944, 2001.

[5] M. A. Demetriou, I. G. Rosen, “Variable structure model reference

adaptive control of parabolic distributed parameter systems,” Proc. of

the American Control Conference, pp. 4371-4376, May 2002.

[6] C. H. Tsai, H. Y. Chung, and F. M. Yu, “Neuro-sliding mode control

with its applications to seesaw systems,” IEEE Trans. Neural networks,

vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 124-134, 2004.

[7] R. J. Wai, “Total sliding-mode controller for PM synchronous servo

motor drive using recurrent fuzzy neural network,” IEEE Trans.

Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 926-944, 2001.

[8] C. H. Chou and C. C. Cheng, “A decentralized model reference

adaptive variable structure controller for large-scale time-varying delay

systems,” IEEE Trans. on Automatic Control, vol. 48, no. 7, pp.

1213-1217, 2003.

(a) with IP controller [9] K. B. Lee and F. Blaabjerg, “Improved Sensorless Vector Control for

Induction Motor Drives Fed by Matrix Converter Using Nonlinear

Modeling and Disturbance Observer,” IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion,

vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 52-59, Mar. 2006.

[10] C. T. Lin and C. S. Lee, ‘Neural fuzzy systems, Prentice Hall’ (Upper

Saddle River, NJ, 1996, pp.328-330)

[11] J. E. Slotine and W. Li, ‘Applied nonlinear control’ (Prentice Hall,

1991)

[12] H. X. Li, H. B. Gatland, and A. W. Green, “Fuzzy Variable Structure

Control,” IEEE Trans. System, Man, And Cyber.-Part B: Cyber., vol.

27, no. 2, pp.306-312, 1997.

[13] K. B. Lee and F. Blaabjerg, “Reduced Order Extended Luenberger

Observer Based Sensorless Vector Control Driven by Matrix Converter

With Non-Linearity Compensation,” IEEE Trans. Industrial

Electronics, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 66-75, Feb. 2006.

Fig. 5: Load disturbance at 500 rpm.

IV. CONCLUSION

In order to realize high performance control of induction

motor drives fed by matrix converter, a robust speed

controller using a VS-MRAC has been proposed in this

paper.

To achieve a robust control characteristic against

un-modeled disturbances such as parameter variations and

load disturbances, the un-modeled disturbances have been

2427

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