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Induction Motor

A. Maamoun, A. M. Soliman A. M. Kheireldin

Electronics Research Institute Faculty of Engineering

El-Tahrir Street, Dokki, Cairo Ain Shams University

EGYPT Cairo

Postal Code: 12622, Fax: 202-3351631 EGYPT

maamoun(ieri.sci.eg

modulation (SVPWM) inverter feeding a small three-phase

induction motor. The SVPWM inverter enables to feed the

motor with a higher voltage with low harmonic distortions than

the conventional sinusoidal PWM inverter. The Vdc

control of induction motor with a reasonable degree of

accuracy. The performance of the proposed drive system is

simulated. The advantages of the proposed drive system are

confirmed by the simulation results.

motor phhases

I INTRODUCTION

The space-vector pulse width modulation (SVPWMI) technique Figure 1

Three-phase voltage source inverter diagram

has become a popular pulse width modulation technique for

three-phase voltage-source inverters in the control ofAC motors If the inverter operation starts by state (100) to be state

[1-6]. The SVPWMI voltage-source inverters for variable 1, it is possible to compute the voltage space vectors for

voltage variable frequency (VVVF) drives of small induction all inverter states which are shown in the complex space-

motors are widely used both in industrial and household

vector plane in Fig.2. The six active voltage space

applications [7, 8]. The SVPWMI inverter is used to offer 15% vectors are of equal magnitude and mutually phase

increase in the dc-link voltage utilization and low output

harmonic distortions compared with the conventional sinusoidal displaced by 600. The general expression for the eight

PWM inverter. The control strategy of the inverter is the voltage vectors is [5]:

voltage/frequency control method, which is based on the space-

vector modulation technique.

2Vdc exp Kj

Vs,kw= 13

k

31

)

The paper presents a SVPWM inverter feeding a small three- dc i

phase induction motor. The voltage/frequency control is used 0 where k= 0,7

for open loop speed control of induction motor with a

reasonable degree of accuracy.

The maximum fundamental phase voltage magnitude that

may be produced by the inverter for a given dc

link voltage

II SPACE-VECTOR MODULATION TECHNIQUE occurs under six-step operation, and is given by:

A diagram of the power circuit of a three-phase voltage

source inverter (VSI) is shown in Fig. 1, where Va, Vb, and 2

(2)

VI, six -step =-Vdc

Vc are the output voltages applied to the star-connected

motor windings, and where Vdc is the continuous inverter

input voltage. Qi through Q6 are the six power transistors On the other hand, the maximum achievable fundamental

those shape the output, which are controlled by a, a\, b, b\, c, phase voltage magnitude for conventional sinusoidal

and c. When an upper transistor is switched on (when a, b, modulation is [6]:

or c is 1), the corresponding lower transistor is switched off

(the corresponding a b\, or c\ is 0). There are eight different

(3)

,

(110), (010), (011), (001), (101), and (111). The first and last

states do not cause a current to flow to the motor, and hence,

From equations (2) and (3), only 78.5% of the inverter

the line - to - line voltages are zero. The other six states

can produce voltages to be applied to the motor terminals.

capacity is used.

1-4244-1184-X/07/$25.00©2007 IEEE 1

01 S \tor 3 Sector 1 V Re

Sector 4 Sector 6 S Ax

\ 9/Sector

(001)V \ \AV1o

Figure 2 Figure 3

Voltage space vectors for a three-phase voltage source inverter Synthesis of desired voltage space vector using realizable voltage vectors

.S ni v v X g x

The reference voltage space vector is given by: not produce the desired voltage directly. It is possible to

decompose it into two vectors, Vx and V , that lie on the

Vs =v exp (jmt) two active inverter vectors on either side of the reference

vector. Therefore, in space-vector notation:

M 2c exp jc m t ) (4)

Vs = vx + vy (8)

The modulation index M is defined as the ratio ofthe desired

peak fundamental phase voltage magnitude to halfthe dc link where the vectors, V. and V , are obtained by operating at

voltage (maximum achievable fundamental phase voltage

magnitude for conventional sinusoidal PWM). the relevant inverter states, Vsl and Vs2, for suitable

portions of the switching period, T,. In general, when

V1

M (5) operating in sector m, the reference vector may be

(Vdc I 2) decomposed according to [5]:

The largest possible phase voltage magnitude that may be

achieved using the space-vector modulation strategy

corresponds to the radius of the largest circle that can be (9)

TsVs,m Ts Vs,m+l

Vs +

inscribed within the hexagon of Fig.2. Thus, the maximum

fundamental phase voltage magnitude that may be achieved

is:

where Tm and Tm+i are the times spent at adjacent

active inverter states, Vs,m and Vs,m+l . The remainder

Visvpwm Xd (6)

of the switching cycle is subdivided between the zero

states:

which corresponds to a maximum modulation index

Mmax 1.15. From equations (2) and (6), about 90.6% ofthe Tzero =To+T7 =Ts -Tm-Tm+i (10)

inverter capacity is used. This represents 15% increase in

maximum voltage compared with the conventional Having computed the active and zero state times for a

sinusoidal modulation. particular modulation cycle, it is possible to produce the

switching signals, PWMa, PWMb, and PWMc to be applied

The desired voltage space vector at any particular instant to the inverter. The total zero time is most often divided

may be written in Cartesian co-ordinates as: equally between the two zero states. It is possible to satisfy

the above restrictions by the use of symmetrical pulses as

Fs =

Vsa + j(7) shown in Fig. 4. The cycle begins in state 0, (000) , with each

inverter pole being successively toggled until state 7, (111),

Consider the example depicted in Fig.3, in which the desired is obtained. The pattern is them reversed in order to complete

voltage is found to lie in Sector 1. Although, the inverter can the modulation cycle.

2

.T V

tI

1-

PWMA

1-

1-

Sec

(a)

V

Figure 4 200

120

MOTOR a80

switching control signals to be applied to the three-phase

inverter circuit given in Fig. 1. The SVPWM inverter is used

I1

So000 10000 iS 000 20000 Hz

to offer 15% increase in thee dc link voltage utilization and (b)

low output harmonic distortions compared with the

Figure 5

conventional sinusoidal PWM inverter. The control strategy Line voltage of the motor at fL=25 Hz and M=0.85

of the SVPWM inverter is the voltage/frequency control (a) voltage waveform

(b) voltage spectrum (rms)

method, which based on the space-vector modulation

technique. For constant torque output, the air gap flux in the

motor is maintained constant by operating on a constant

A

voltage/frequency supply. However, the analysis above , , | , ~~~~~~

l~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

1

significant compared with the induced voltage. This voltage ...

drop causes a reduction in the air gap flux and motor torque. .................. ............................................

The voltage/frequency control method is used for open loop (a)

speed control of induction motor with a reasonable degree of

accuracy.

A

IV SIMULATION RESULTS

The SVPWM inverter which feeding a small three-phase

induction motor is simulated using the Matlab software

package. The simulation is performed under the following

conditions: Vd,= 366V, switching frequency= 5kHz, and

three-phase induction motor (370W, 380V, 0.94A, 50Hz, 0 .2-

Lm=1.365H, J=0.003kg.m2, and P=1). Fig. 5 shows the motor O

I

SOOO00 10 0 b00 lS000 20000 Hz

line voltage at inverter frequency f0 =25 Hz and modulation (b)

index M =0.85. Also, the motor current at different loading

Figure 6

conditions is shown in Figures 6 and 7. The motor current Current ofthe motor at fL=25 Hz, M=0.85, and T1= 0.7 Nm

has low harmonic distortion. (a) current waveform

(b) current spectrum (rms)

3

v

V CONCLUSION

i, In this paper, a drive system consists of SVPWM inverter

and a small three-phase induction motor has been introduced.

The SVPWM inverter is used to offer 15% increase in the

output voltage and low output harmonic distortions

1 :-. compared with the conventional sinusoidal PWM inverter.

-1

The voltage/frequency control is used for open loop speed

... l.l ...

control of induction motor with a reasonable degree of

-2

accuracy. The advantages of the proposed drive system are

..j confirmed by the simulation results.

0.92 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.91 0.97 0.98 0.99 Sec

(a) REFERENCES

[1] H. W. van der broeck, H. C. Skudelny, "Analysis and realization of a

A pulse width modulator based on voltage space vectors," IEEE Trans.

1.0 Industry Applications, Vol. 24, pp. 142-150, January/February 1988.

[2] S. R. Bows, Y. S. Lai, "The relationship between space-vector

modulation and regular-sampled PWM," IEEE Trans. Industrial

Electronics, Vol. 44, pp. 670-679, October 1997.

[3] Y. Tzou, H. Hsu, "FPGA realization of space-vector PWM control IC

for three-phase PWM inverter," IEEE Trans. Power Electronics, Vol.

12, pp. 953-963, November 1997.

[4] F. Zare, G. Ledwich, "Space vector modulation technique with

reduced switching losses," Proc. Int. European Conf.: Power

Electronics and Applications (EPE'99), Switzerland, pp. 1-7,

September 1999.

[5] Analog Devices, "Space vector modulation," Technical Report,

September 1988.

[6] Texas Instruments, "Field orientated control of three-phase AC

motors," Application Report, February 1998.

Psooo 20000 Hz [7] M. Morimoto, K. Sumito, S. Sato, K. Oshitani, M. Ishida, S. Okuma,

"High efficiency, unity power factor VVVF drive system of an

(b) induction motor," IEEE Trans. Power Electronics, Vol. 6, pp. 498-

503, July 1991.

Figure 7 [8] A. Maamoun, A. M. Soliman, A. M. Kheireldin, "Near unity power

Current of the motor at fL=25 Hz, M=0.85, and Tl=l .18 Nm factor single-phase to three-phase converter feeding an induction

(a) current waveform motor," Proc. IASTED Int. Conf: Artificial Intelligence and

(b) current spectrum (rms) Applications, Innsbruck, Austria, pp. 131-135, February 2006.

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