You are on page 1of 4

Proceedings of International Conference on Mechatronics TuAl -C-3

Kumamoto Japan, 8-10 May 2007

Space-Vector PWM Inverter Feeding a Small


Induction Motor
A. Maamoun, A. M. Soliman A. M. Kheireldin
Electronics Research Institute Faculty of Engineering
El-Tahrir Street, Dokki, Cairo Ain Shams University
EGYPT Cairo
Postal Code: 12622, Fax: 202-3351631 EGYPT
maamoun(ieri.sci.eg

Abstract - The paper presents a space-vector pulse width


modulation (SVPWM) inverter feeding a small three-phase
induction motor. The SVPWM inverter enables to feed the
motor with a higher voltage with low harmonic distortions than
the conventional sinusoidal PWM inverter. The Vdc

voltage/frequency control method is used for open loop speed


control of induction motor with a reasonable degree of
accuracy. The performance of the proposed drive system is
simulated. The advantages of the proposed drive system are
confirmed by the simulation results.

motor phhases
I INTRODUCTION
The space-vector pulse width modulation (SVPWMI) technique Figure 1
Three-phase voltage source inverter diagram
has become a popular pulse width modulation technique for
three-phase voltage-source inverters in the control ofAC motors If the inverter operation starts by state (100) to be state
[1-6]. The SVPWMI voltage-source inverters for variable 1, it is possible to compute the voltage space vectors for
voltage variable frequency (VVVF) drives of small induction all inverter states which are shown in the complex space-
motors are widely used both in industrial and household
vector plane in Fig.2. The six active voltage space
applications [7, 8]. The SVPWMI inverter is used to offer 15% vectors are of equal magnitude and mutually phase
increase in the dc-link voltage utilization and low output
harmonic distortions compared with the conventional sinusoidal displaced by 600. The general expression for the eight
PWM inverter. The control strategy of the inverter is the voltage vectors is [5]:
voltage/frequency control method, which is based on the space-
vector modulation technique.
2Vdc exp Kj
Vs,kw= 13
k

31
)

where k =1,61>6 (1)


The paper presents a SVPWM inverter feeding a small three- dc i
phase induction motor. The voltage/frequency control is used 0 where k= 0,7
for open loop speed control of induction motor with a
reasonable degree of accuracy.
The maximum fundamental phase voltage magnitude that
may be produced by the inverter for a given dc
link voltage
II SPACE-VECTOR MODULATION TECHNIQUE occurs under six-step operation, and is given by:
A diagram of the power circuit of a three-phase voltage
source inverter (VSI) is shown in Fig. 1, where Va, Vb, and 2
(2)
VI, six -step =-Vdc
Vc are the output voltages applied to the star-connected
motor windings, and where Vdc is the continuous inverter
input voltage. Qi through Q6 are the six power transistors On the other hand, the maximum achievable fundamental
those shape the output, which are controlled by a, a\, b, b\, c, phase voltage magnitude for conventional sinusoidal
and c. When an upper transistor is switched on (when a, b, modulation is [6]:
or c is 1), the corresponding lower transistor is switched off
(the corresponding a b\, or c\ is 0). There are eight different
(3)
,

combinations of switching states as follows (000), (100), Isin -pwm 2


(110), (010), (011), (001), (101), and (111). The first and last
states do not cause a current to flow to the motor, and hence,
From equations (2) and (3), only 78.5% of the inverter
the line - to - line voltages are zero. The other six states
can produce voltages to be applied to the motor terminals.
capacity is used.

1-4244-1184-X/07/$25.00©2007 IEEE 1
01 S \tor 3 Sector 1 V Re
Sector 4 Sector 6 S Ax

\ 9/Sector
(001)V \ \AV1o

Figure 2 Figure 3
Voltage space vectors for a three-phase voltage source inverter Synthesis of desired voltage space vector using realizable voltage vectors
.S ni v v X g x

The reference voltage space vector is given by: not produce the desired voltage directly. It is possible to
decompose it into two vectors, Vx and V , that lie on the
Vs =v exp (jmt) two active inverter vectors on either side of the reference
vector. Therefore, in space-vector notation:
M 2c exp jc m t ) (4)
Vs = vx + vy (8)
The modulation index M is defined as the ratio ofthe desired
peak fundamental phase voltage magnitude to halfthe dc link where the vectors, V. and V , are obtained by operating at
voltage (maximum achievable fundamental phase voltage
magnitude for conventional sinusoidal PWM). the relevant inverter states, Vsl and Vs2, for suitable
portions of the switching period, T,. In general, when
V1
M (5) operating in sector m, the reference vector may be
(Vdc I 2) decomposed according to [5]:
The largest possible phase voltage magnitude that may be
achieved using the space-vector modulation strategy
corresponds to the radius of the largest circle that can be (9)
TsVs,m Ts Vs,m+l
Vs +
inscribed within the hexagon of Fig.2. Thus, the maximum
fundamental phase voltage magnitude that may be achieved
is:
where Tm and Tm+i are the times spent at adjacent
active inverter states, Vs,m and Vs,m+l . The remainder
Visvpwm Xd (6)
of the switching cycle is subdivided between the zero
states:
which corresponds to a maximum modulation index
Mmax 1.15. From equations (2) and (6), about 90.6% ofthe Tzero =To+T7 =Ts -Tm-Tm+i (10)
inverter capacity is used. This represents 15% increase in
maximum voltage compared with the conventional Having computed the active and zero state times for a
sinusoidal modulation. particular modulation cycle, it is possible to produce the
switching signals, PWMa, PWMb, and PWMc to be applied
The desired voltage space vector at any particular instant to the inverter. The total zero time is most often divided
may be written in Cartesian co-ordinates as: equally between the two zero states. It is possible to satisfy
the above restrictions by the use of symmetrical pulses as
Fs =
Vsa + j(7) shown in Fig. 4. The cycle begins in state 0, (000) , with each
inverter pole being successively toggled until state 7, (111),
Consider the example depicted in Fig.3, in which the desired is obtained. The pattern is them reversed in order to complete
voltage is found to lie in Sector 1. Although, the inverter can the modulation cycle.

2
.T V
tI
1-
PWMA

1-

1-

Sec
(a)
V

Figure 4 200

Inverter switching signals for SVM in Sector 1

120

III SVPWM INVERTER FEEDING AN INDUCTION


MOTOR a80

The space-vector PWM technique is used to produce the


switching control signals to be applied to the three-phase
inverter circuit given in Fig. 1. The SVPWM inverter is used
I1
So000 10000 iS 000 20000 Hz
to offer 15% increase in thee dc link voltage utilization and (b)
low output harmonic distortions compared with the
Figure 5
conventional sinusoidal PWM inverter. The control strategy Line voltage of the motor at fL=25 Hz and M=0.85
of the SVPWM inverter is the voltage/frequency control (a) voltage waveform
(b) voltage spectrum (rms)
method, which based on the space-vector modulation
technique. For constant torque output, the air gap flux in the
motor is maintained constant by operating on a constant
A
voltage/frequency supply. However, the analysis above , , | , ~~~~~~
l~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

assumes negligible winding resistance, whereas, in practice, 2

at low frequencies the resistive voltage drop becomes


1
significant compared with the induced voltage. This voltage ...

drop causes a reduction in the air gap flux and motor torque. .................. ............................................

In order to maintain the low-speed torque, the .2

voltage/frequency ratio must be increased at low frequencies. ..

092 093 034 095 096 0.97 0.38 0.99 Sec


The voltage/frequency control method is used for open loop (a)
speed control of induction motor with a reasonable degree of
accuracy.
A

IV SIMULATION RESULTS
The SVPWM inverter which feeding a small three-phase
induction motor is simulated using the Matlab software
package. The simulation is performed under the following
conditions: Vd,= 366V, switching frequency= 5kHz, and
three-phase induction motor (370W, 380V, 0.94A, 50Hz, 0 .2-

2750 rpm, R,=35Q, R,=19Q, LS=1.396H, Lr=1.396H,


Lm=1.365H, J=0.003kg.m2, and P=1). Fig. 5 shows the motor O
I
SOOO00 10 0 b00 lS000 20000 Hz
line voltage at inverter frequency f0 =25 Hz and modulation (b)
index M =0.85. Also, the motor current at different loading
Figure 6
conditions is shown in Figures 6 and 7. The motor current Current ofthe motor at fL=25 Hz, M=0.85, and T1= 0.7 Nm
has low harmonic distortion. (a) current waveform
(b) current spectrum (rms)

3
v
V CONCLUSION
i, In this paper, a drive system consists of SVPWM inverter
and a small three-phase induction motor has been introduced.
The SVPWM inverter is used to offer 15% increase in the
output voltage and low output harmonic distortions
1 :-. compared with the conventional sinusoidal PWM inverter.
-1
The voltage/frequency control is used for open loop speed
... l.l ...
control of induction motor with a reasonable degree of
-2
accuracy. The advantages of the proposed drive system are
..j confirmed by the simulation results.
0.92 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.91 0.97 0.98 0.99 Sec
(a) REFERENCES
[1] H. W. van der broeck, H. C. Skudelny, "Analysis and realization of a
A pulse width modulator based on voltage space vectors," IEEE Trans.
1.0 Industry Applications, Vol. 24, pp. 142-150, January/February 1988.
[2] S. R. Bows, Y. S. Lai, "The relationship between space-vector
modulation and regular-sampled PWM," IEEE Trans. Industrial
Electronics, Vol. 44, pp. 670-679, October 1997.
[3] Y. Tzou, H. Hsu, "FPGA realization of space-vector PWM control IC
for three-phase PWM inverter," IEEE Trans. Power Electronics, Vol.
12, pp. 953-963, November 1997.
[4] F. Zare, G. Ledwich, "Space vector modulation technique with
reduced switching losses," Proc. Int. European Conf.: Power
Electronics and Applications (EPE'99), Switzerland, pp. 1-7,
September 1999.
[5] Analog Devices, "Space vector modulation," Technical Report,
September 1988.
[6] Texas Instruments, "Field orientated control of three-phase AC
motors," Application Report, February 1998.
Psooo 20000 Hz [7] M. Morimoto, K. Sumito, S. Sato, K. Oshitani, M. Ishida, S. Okuma,
"High efficiency, unity power factor VVVF drive system of an
(b) induction motor," IEEE Trans. Power Electronics, Vol. 6, pp. 498-
503, July 1991.
Figure 7 [8] A. Maamoun, A. M. Soliman, A. M. Kheireldin, "Near unity power
Current of the motor at fL=25 Hz, M=0.85, and Tl=l .18 Nm factor single-phase to three-phase converter feeding an induction
(a) current waveform motor," Proc. IASTED Int. Conf: Artificial Intelligence and
(b) current spectrum (rms) Applications, Innsbruck, Austria, pp. 131-135, February 2006.