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tests on low frequencies benchmark

D. Traore, J. De Leon, A. Glumineau and L. Loron

Abstract: Field-oriented speed control of induction motors (IMs) without mechanical sensors

(speed sensor and load torque sensor) are considered. The methodology is divided into two

parts. First, interconnected high-gain observers are designed to estimate the mechanical and mag-

netic variables from the only measurement of stator current. Secondly, the speed and flux esti-

mation are used by a controller to achieve the speed/flux tracking. The flux regulation problem

is simple and the traditional approach is followed by using proportional integral (PI) controller.

For the speed-regulation problem, it is stated that flux regulation quickly happens by using a high-

gain PI controller to regulate the q-axis current to its reference. Stability analysis based on

Lyapunov theory is proved to guarantee the ‘observer þ controller’ stability. To test and validate

the controller – observer by considering the sensorless control problem of IM at low frequency, a

significant benchmark is implemented. The trajectories of this benchmark are designed to validate

the controller and observer under three operating conditions: low speed, high speed and very low

speed. Furthermore, robustness tests with respect to parameter variations are given in order to show

the performance of the proposed observer – controller scheme.

state variable at low frequencies. Another difficulty is to

Because of its reliability, ruggedness and relatively low ensure the robustness against parameter variations. In the

cost, induction motor (IM) is the most widely used in indus- literature, several approaches have been proposed to esti-

trial applications. However, the IM presents a challenging mate the rotor velocity and load torque from the measure-

control problem. This is mainly due to the following four ments, such as the stator current or voltage, for example,

factors: [1– 8].

In [1], two types of observers are investigated. To increase

† The IM is a complex highly coupled nonlinear system. the robustness of the speed sensorless IM drives for high-

† Two of the state variables (rotor fluxes and mechanical performance application, the authors proposed a second obser-

speed) are not usually measurable. ver which is an adaptive uncertain observer. This observer is

† Because of heating, the rotor and stator resistances vary combined with an integral-proportional (IP) controller for

considerably with a significant impact on the system speed tracking. The direct torque control and space vector

dynamics. modulation schemes for the sensorless IM drives based on

† The load torque is generally unknown. input–output feedback linearisation control are addressed in

[8]. In [4], an algorithm for simultaneous estimation of

For direct field-oriented control of IM drives, for motor speed and rotor resistance is presented. This observer

example, the speed knowledge is crucial, and generally is combined with a state feedback controller which is load

sensors are used to measure it. The minimisation of the torque-adaptive. The sensorless control scheme and a rotor

number of sensors contributes to simplify the installation flux observer, which is adaptive with respect to rotor resistance

and decreases the cost of both control and maintenance. at constant rotor speed, have been proposed in [5].

Consequently, during the last decade, there has been a con- Field-oriented controller using a singular perturbation

siderable interest in IM drives without mechanical sensors approach with on-line stator resistance estimation for speed

sensorless has been addressed in [2]. A high-gain observer is

# The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2007 proposed in [3]. This observer is associated to field-oriented

doi:10.1049/iet-cta:20060453 feedback with PI controller. In [6] a speed sensorless control-

Paper first received 26th October 2006 and in revised form 11th June 2007 ler for IM, based on a high-gain speed observer, has been pro-

D. Traore and A. Glumineau are with IRCCyN: Institut de Recherche en posed. To improve the performance of the control law at low

Communications et Cybernétique de Nantes, Ecole Centrale de Nantes, BP speed, the authors add a stator resistance adaptation

92101, 1 Rue de la Noe, 44312 Nantes Cedex 3, France mechanism.

J. De Leon is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Universidad In the literature, the stability analysis for speed sensorless is

Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, PO Box 148-F, San Nicolas de Los Garza 66450, not available except in [7, 9]. In [9], the global exponential

N.L, Mexico

speed flux tracking was proved. The global asymptotic stab-

L. Loron is with IREENA: Institut de Recherche en Electronique et

Electrotechnique de Nantes Atlantique, Bd de l’université, BP 406, Saint- ility of the closed loop has been guaranteed in [7]. However,

Nazaire Cedex 44602, France the authors assume that the load torque and vector flux are

E-mail: dramane.traore@irccyn.ec-nantes.fr known which is not realistic in an industrial situation.

IET Control Theory Appl., 2007, 1, (6), pp. 1681 –1692 1681

Canudas et al. [10] and Ibarra-Rojas et al. [11], demon- windings, p the number of pole-pair, J the inertia of the

strate that the main conditions to lose the observability of system (motor and load) and fv the viscous damping

IM are: the excitation voltage frequency is zero and the coefficient.

rotor speed is constant. Yet, in the literature, the sensorless Furthermore, the operation domain D of IM is defined by

algorithms are usually tested and evaluated at high and low the set of values

speed [6, 9, 12]. However, a few studies have highlighted

this problem of unboservability [9]. In [9] the ‘observer þ

controller’ was tested on a ‘sensorless control benchmark’. D ¼ {X [ R6 jjfrd j Fmax max

d , jfrq j Fq

The trajectories of this benchmark are chosen to evaluate

the IM sensorless algorithm in observable and unobservable jisd j Idmax , jisq j Iqmax , jVj Vmax , Tl Tl max }

conditions. Unfortunately, when the load torque is .20% of

the nominal load torque the ‘observer þ controller’ where X ¼ (frd , frq , isd , isq , V, Tl), Fmax max max max

d , Fq , Id , Iq ,

becomes unstable. V max

and Tlmax

are the actual maximum values for the

The purpose of this paper is to propose a traditional

fluxes, currents, speed and torque load, respectively.

field-oriented control using an interconnected high-gain

The control inputs are the stator voltages. Only stator cur-

observer that achieves a good speed/flux tracking for IM

rents and stator voltages are measured.

control without mechanical sensors. Then to test and evalu-

ate the performance of our sensorless controller on a

specific benchmark defined in [9]. This benchmark is

called sensorless control benchmark. Three operating con-

ditions are considered in this benchmark: (1) low speed 3 Interconnected observers design

with nominal load, (2) high speed with nominal load, (3)

In this section, we propose the design of two interconnected

unobservable conditions (low frequencies). In this region

observers for the sensorless IM. Consider IM model (1)

(unobservable condition), we define the value of speed

rewritten in form (2)

and the stator pulsation by using the inobservability con-

ditions [10] of the IM. In our case, the value of the speed

is V ¼ 20.5 rad/s. The load torque in this region is the X x_ ¼ f (x) þ g(x)u

nominal torque (8 N m), so that the speed and the developed : (2)

NL

y ¼ h(x)

torque are in opposite directions.

The paper is organised as follows. Section 2 is devoted to

the description of the IM model. The interconnected obser- where x ¼ (isd isq frd frq V Tl)T, u ¼ (usd usq)T, y ¼ (h1 ,

vers design is introduced in Section 3. In Section 4, the h2)T ¼ (isd , isq)T

Lyapunov stability analysis of these observers is given.

The flux-oriented control is presented in Section 5. The

Lyapunov stability analysis of the observers þ controller 0 1

bafrd þ bpVfrq gisd þ vs isq

is given in Section 6. Experimental results are given and dis- B baf bpVf gi v i C

cussed in Section 7. B rq rd sq s sd C

B C

B afrd þ (vs pV)frq þ aMsr isd C

B C

2 IM model f (x) ¼ B af (v pV)f þ aM i C

B rq s rd sr sq C

B C

B 1 C

The IM model, described in this paper, is based on the motor @ m(frd isq frq isd ) cV Tl A

J

equation in a rotating frame d and q-axes [13]. The dynamic 0

equation can be described by 0 1

m1 0

0 1 0 baf þ bpVf gi þ v i 1 B 0 m C

isd rd rq sd s sq

B 1C

B i C B ba f bpV f g i v C

s isd C

B C

B sq C B B

rq rd sq

C B

and g(x) ¼ B 0 0 C C

B C

B ḟ rd C ¼ B

B

afrd þ (vs pV)frq þ aMsr isd C

C B

@ 0 0 A

C

B C

B ḟ C B B afrq (vs pV)frd þ aMsr isq C C

@ rq A @ A 0 0

_ 1

V m(frd isq frq isd ) cV Tl

J

0 1 In this paper, the unknown load torque is considered con-

m1 0

B C stant; thus, the IM model (2) may be seen as the intercon-

B 0 m1 C ! nection between subsystems (3) and (4). Then we suppose

B C usd

þB B 0 0 CC u (1) that each subsystem satisfies some required properties to

B C sq build an observer and we assume that, for each of this sep-

@ 0 0 A

arate observer, the state of the other is available

0 0

where isd , isq , frd , frq , usd , usq , V and Tl denote, respect- 0 1 0 0 bpf 1

0 0i 1

isd rq

sd

ively, the stator currents, the rotor fluxes, the stator B _ C B 1CCB C

voltage inputs, the angular speed and the load torque. The @VA¼B @ 0 0 A @ V A

J

subscripts s and r refer to the stator and rotor. The par- T_ l 0 0 0 T l

ameters a, b, c, g, s, m and m1 are defined by: a ¼ Rr/Lr , 0 1

b¼ Msr/sLsLr , c ¼ fv/J, g ¼ (L2r Rs þ M2srRr)/sLsL2r , gisd þ abfrd þ m1 usd þ vs isq

s ¼ 1 2 (M2sr/LsLr), m ¼ pMsr/JLr , m1 ¼ 1/sLs . Rs and þ@

B

m(frd isq frq isd ) cV

C

A (3)

Rr are the resistances, Ls and Lr the self-inductances, Msr

the mutual inductance between the stator and rotor 0

0 1 0 10 1

isq g bpVab isq In order to design an observer for system (5), we proceed

B ḟ C B CB C from the separate synthesis of the observer for each subsys-

@ rd A ¼ @ 0 apV A@ frd A

ḟ rq 0 pV a frq tem. Considering the two systems

(

0 1 X X_ ¼ A (v )X þ g (u, y, v , v )

vs isd þ m1 usq : 1 1 2 1 1 2 1

(6)

B v f þ aM i C y ¼ C X

þ @ s rq sr sd A (4) 1 1 1 1

(

vs frd þ aMsr isq X X_ ¼ A (v )X þ g (u, y, v , v )

2 2 1 2 2 1 2

: (7)

Then, it is possible to represent two subsystems, (3) and 2 y 2 ¼ C X

2 2

(4), in an interconnected form P

8 where v1 (respectively,

P v2) represents the states of 1

> X_1 ¼ A1 (X2 )X1 þ g1 (u, y, X2 , X1 ) (respectively, 2); then the coupleP (u, vi) [ U J is con-

X > <

y ¼ C1 X 1 sidered as input for subsystem i . For this observer syn-

: _1 (5) thesis, we assume that v1 and v2 are available. The

>

> X ¼ A2 (X1 )X2 þ g2 (u, y, X1 , X2 )

: 2 convergence proof of the interconnected observers will be

y2 ¼ C 2 X 2

shown in Section 4.

where Before designing interconnected observers for subsys-

0 1 tems (6) and (7), we make the following assumptions:

0 bpfrq 0

B 1C Assumption 1: Consider subsystems (6) and (7)Pwith (u,Pv2)

A1 (X2 ) ¼ B

@0 0 C A and (u, v1) are regularly persistent inputs for 1 and 2 ,

J

0 0 0 respectively.

0 1 The persistence of the input is associated to the observa-

g bpV ab bility [14]

P Pof system (2). The interconnected observers of

B C 1 and 2 are given by

A2 (X1 ) ¼ @ 0 a pV A

8

0 pV a >

> Z_ ¼ A1 (Z2 )Z1 þ g1 (u, y, Z2 , Z1 )

0 1 > 1

>

>

> þ (GS11 C1T þ B2 (Z2 ))(y1 y^ 1 )

gisd þ abfrd þ m1 usd þ vs isq <

B C O1 : þ (B1 (Z2 ) þ KC2T )(y2 y^ 2 ) (8)

g1 (u, y, X2 , X1 ) ¼ @ m(frd isq frq isd ) cV A >

>

>

0 >

> S_1 ¼ u1 S1 A1 (Z2 )S1 S1 A1 (Z2 ) þ C1 C1

T T

>

:

0 1 y^ 1 ¼ C1 Z1

vs isd þ m1 usq

8

B C > Z_ ¼ A2 (Z1 )Z2 þ g2 (u, y, Z1 , Z2 )

g2 (u, y, X1 , X2 ) ¼ @ vs frq þ aMsr isd A >

> 2

< þ S21 C2T (y2 y^ 2 )

vs frd þ aMsr isq O2 : (9)

>

>

> S_2 ¼ u2 S2 AT2 (Z1 )S2 S2 A2 (Z1 ) þ C2T C2

and X1 ¼ (isd , V, Tl)T, X2 ¼ (isq , frd , frq)T are the states, :

y^ 2 ¼ C2 Z2

u ¼ (usd , usq)T the inputs and T

y ¼ (isd, isq) the outputs of

the IM model. C1 ¼ C2 ¼ 1 0 0 : where Z1 ¼ (i^sd , V

^ , T^l)T and Z2 ¼ (i^sq , f^ rd , f^ rq)T are the esti-

mated states. u1 and u2 are the positive constants and S1 and

S2 the symmetric positive definite matrices [15].

Remark 1: For system (5), we assume that vs is known; B1(Z2) ¼ kmL1f̂rd , B2(Z2) ¼ kmL2f̂rq , L1 ¼ (0, 0, 1)T,

this assumption is necessary to build the interconnected L2 ¼ (0, 0, 21)T

observer. But, this assumption is not restrictive because 0 1 0 1

vs is provided by the control laws design (see more kc1 0 0 1 0 0

details in Section 5). K ¼ @ kc2 0 0 A, G ¼ @ 0 1 0 A

The inputs u are assumed to belong to some set U of mea- 0 0 0 0 0 a

surable and bounded functions. In other terms, u [ U the set

of admissible inputs, and we denote J the space of continu- where k, kc1 and kc2 are positive constants and 0 a 1.

ous functions from R þ to R ni, for i ¼ 1, 2, with ni the dimen- Note that GS21 T 21 T

1 C1 and S2 C2 are the gains of the obser-

sion of each subsystem. vers (8) and (9), respectively.

Remark 2: The choice of the variables of each subsystem Remark 4: B1(Z2)( y2 2 y^2) þ B2(Z2)( y1 2 y^1) ; k[m(f̂rd

has been considered in order to separate the mechanical isq 2 f̂rqisd) 2 m(frdi^sq 2 frqi^sd)] ; k(Te 2 T̃e), where Te

variables (V, Tl) from the magnetic variables (frd , frq). It and T̃e are, respectively, the ‘measured’ and ‘estimated’

is clear that other choice could be considered in order to rep- electromagnetic torque.

resent these subsystems, provided an observer could be

designed. This choice will be highlighted in Section 6.1. Assumption 2:

1. The states X1 and X2 are bounded,

Now, we present an observer design for the sensorless IM 2. A1 (X2 ) is globally Lipschitz with respect to X2 ,

that is based on the interconnection between several obser- 3. A2 (X1 ) is globally Lipschitz with respect to X1 ,

vers satisfying some required properties, particularly the 4. g1 (u, y, X2 , X1 ), g2 (u, y, X2 , X1 ) are globally Lipschitz

property of inputs persistency. with respect to X2 , X1 and uniformly with respect to (u, y).

From the definition, it is possible to calculate the Lipschitz

Remark 3: A regularly persistence input is an input that suf- constant; see the following example. We consider matrix

ficiently excites the system in order to guarantee its obser- A1 (X2 ), the norm of the Jacobian of A1 (X2 ) along X2 is:

vability [14]. k@A1 (X2 )=@X2 k ¼ bp.

IET Control Theory Appl., Vol. 1, No. 6, November 2007 1683

Then, assuming that Assumption 2 is verified, a nominal and u2 can be selected from (16). Furthermore, the

observer for interconnected systems (5) is given by estimation error converges asymptotically to zero if we

8 know exactly the motor parameters. Otherwise, the conver-

>

> Z_1 ¼ A1 (Z2 )Z1 þ g1 (u, y, Z2 , Z1 ) gence of the complete observer admits a small upper bound.

>

>

>

> þ(GS11 C1T þ B2 (Z2 ))(y1 y^ 1 )

>

>

>

> þ(B1 (Z2 ) þ KC2T )(y2 y^ 2 ) Remark 6: When the persistence condition is not satisfied

< _

S ¼ u1 S1 AT1 (Z2 )S1 S1 A1 (Z2 ) þ C1T C1 (in the unobservable area), we will prove the stability of

O: 1

>

> y^ ¼ C1 Z1 the observer in Section 6.1.

> _1

>

>

> Z ¼ A2 (Z1 )Z2 þ g2 (u, y, Z1 , Z2 ) þ S21 C2T (y2 y^ 2 )

> _2

> T T Proof: Let us define Vo ¼ V1 þ V2 a candidate Lyapunov

>

: S2 ¼ u2 S2 A2 (Z1 )S2 S2 A2 (Z1 ) þ C2 C2

> function where V1 and V2 are, respectively, the candidate

y^ 2 ¼ C2 Z2 Lyapunov function for each dynamics (11), (12) given by

(10) V1 ¼ eT1 S1 e1 and V2 ¼ eT2 S2 e2 . Next, taking the time deriva-

tive of Vo and replacing the suitable expressions, (13) and

Remark 5: It is worth noticing that kS1 k and kS2 k are (10) we have

bounded for u1 and u2 large enough due to the persistency

property of inputs; more details can be found in [9]. V_o ¼ eT1 u1 S1 (2S1 GS11 1)C1T C1 2S1 B02 e1

þ 2eT1 S1 A1 (X2 ) A1 (Z2 ) X1 þ 2eT1 S1 DA1 (X2 ) X1

4 Stability analysis of observer under

parameters uncertainties þ 2eT1 S1 g1 (u, y, X2 , X1 ) g1 (u, y, Z2 , Z1 )

Defining the estimation errors as þ 2eT1 S1 Dg1 (u, y, X2 , X1 ) þ eT2 u2 S2 C2T C2 e2

e1 ¼ X1 Z1 and e2 ¼ X2 Z2 þ 2eT2 S2 A2 (X1 ) A2 (Z1 ) X2 þ 2eT2 S2 DA2 (X1 ) X2

the estimation error dynamics is given by þ 2eT2 S2 g2 (u, y, X1 , X2 ) g2 (u, y, Z1 , Z2 )

e_1 ¼ [A1 (Z2 ) GS11 C1T C1 B2 (Z2 )C1 ]e1 þ 2eT2 S2 Dg2 (u, y, X1 , X2 ) 2eT1 S1 (B01 þ K 0 )e2

þ g1 (u, y, X2 , X1 ) g1 (u, y, Z2 , Z1 )

where B01 ¼ B1 (Z2 )C1 , B02 ¼ B2 (Z2 )C2 and K 0 ¼ KC2T C2 .

þ [A1 (X2 ) A1 (Z2 )]X1 From Assumption 2, the following inequalities hold

(B1 (Z2 )C2 þ KC2T C2 )e2 (11)

kS1 k k1 , kS2 k k5 , kX1 k k3 , kX2 k k7

k g1 (u, y, X2 , X1 ) g1 (u, y, Z2 , Z1 ) k k4 ke2k þ k9 ke1 k

e_2 ¼ [A2 (Z1 ) S21 C2T C2 ]e2 kA1 (X2 ) A1 (Z2 )k k2 ke2 k

þ [A2 (X1 ) A2 (Z1 )]X2 k A2 (X1) A2 (Z1 ) k k6 ke1 k

þ [g2 (u, y, X1 , X2 ) g2 (u, y, Z1 , Z2 )] (12) k g2 (u, y, X1 , X2 ) g2 (u, y, Z1 , Z2 ) k k8 ke1 k þ k10 ke2 k

kB01 k kB1 , kB02 k kB2 , kK 0 k kk 0

Now we consider that the motor parameters are known

with uncertainties. So (11) and (12) become Using the norm, from Assumptions 1 and 3, and by

regrouping with respect to ke1 k and ke2 k, the time deriva-

e_ 1 ¼ [A1 (Z2 ) GS11 C1T C1 B2 C1 ]e1 tive of Vo can be rewritten as follows

þ g1 (u, y, X2 , X1 ) þ Dg1 (u, y, X2 , X1 )

V_o (u1 þ 2kB1 2k1 k9 )eT1 S1 e1 þ 2m1 ke1 kke2 k

g1 (u, y, Z2 , Z1 ) þ [A1 (X2 ) þ DA1 (X2 ) A1 (Z2 )]X1

þ 2m2 ke1 kke2 k (u2 2k10 k5 )eT2 S2 e2

(B1 C2 þ KC2T C2 )e2 (13)

þ 2m3 ke2 kke1 k þ 2m4 ke2 kke1 k þ m5 ke1 k

e_ 2 ¼ [A2 (Z1 ) S21 C2T C2 ]e2 þ m6 ke2 k (14)

þ [A2 (X1 ) þ DA2 (X1 ) A2 (Z1 )]X2

þ g2 (u, y, X1 , X2 ) þ Dg2 (u, y, X1 , X2 ) where m1 ¼ k1 k2 k3 kB2 k1 kk 0 k1 , m2 ¼ k1 k4 , m3 ¼ k5 k6 k7 ,

m4 ¼ k5 k8 , m5 ¼ 2(k1 k3 r1 þ k1 r3 ) and m6 ¼ 2(k5 k7 r2 þ k5 r4 ):

g2 (u, y, Z1 , Z2 )

Now, consider that the following inequalities are satisfied

where the terms DA1 (X2 ), DA2 (X1 ), Dg1 (u, y, X2 , X1 ) and

Dg2 (u, y, X1 , X2 ) represent the uncertain terms of A1 (X2 ), lmin (Si )kei k2 kei k2Si lmax (Si )kei k2 , i ¼ 1, 2

A2 (X2 ), g1 (u, y, X2 , X1 ) and g2 (u, y, X1 , X2 ), respectively.

where lmin (Si ) and lmax (Si ) are minimal and maximal eigen-

Assumption 3: We assume that the uncertain terms satisfy values of Si independently to u

the following inequalities

kei k2Si ¼ eTi Si ei , i ¼ 1, 2

kDA1 (X2 )k r1 , kDA2 (X1 )k r2 , kDg1 (u, y, X2 , X1 )k r3

kDg2 (u, y, X1 , X2 )k r4 Inequality (14) can be rewritten in terms of functions V1

and V2

with ri . 0, for i ¼ 1, . . . , 4.

Theorem 1: Let us consider system (5) and assume that V_ o (u1 þ 2kB1 2k1 k9 )V1 (u2 2k10 k5 )V2

Assumptions 1 – 3 are satisfied. Then, system (10) is an pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃpﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

interconnected observer for system (5). The parameters u1 þ 2m̃ V1 V2 þ m5 ke1 k þ m6 ke2 k (15)

where IM is given by

X

4 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃpﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 0 1

mfrd isq cV

m̃ ¼ m̃ i , min (S) ¼ min (S1 ) min (S2 ) 0 1 B C

i¼0 _

V B afrd þ aMsr isd C

B C B M C

mi B ḟ rd C B pV þ a sr isq C

m̃ i ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

ﬃ, i ¼ 1, 2, 3, 4 B C B C

min (S) B ṙ C ¼ B frd C

B C B C

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃpﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ B C B Msr 2 C

Using the following inequality, V1 V2 (e=2)V1 þ @ isd A B B gisd þ abfrd þ pVisq þ a

i

frd sq

C

C

B C

(1=2e)V2 , 8e [ ]0, 1[ isq @ M A

gisq bpVfrd pVisd a sr isd isq

frd

V_ o (u1 þ 2kB1 2k1 k9 )V1 þ m̃eV1 0 1

1

þ

m̃

V (u2 2k10 k5 )V2 þ m5 ke1 k þ m6 ke2 k B 0 0 C

J 0 1

e 2 B C

B 0 0 0 C Vsd

B CB C

Consequently

þB 0 0 0 C @ Vsq A (20)

B C

B C

@ m1 0 0 A Tl

V_o (u1 þ 2kB1 2k1 k9 m̃e)V1

0 m1 0

m̃

u2 2k10 k5 V þ m5 ke1 k þ m6 ke2 k

e 2 where isd , isq and Vsd , Vsq are the stator currents and stator

voltages in axes of dq frame, respectively, and r the flux

with d ¼ min (d1 , d2 ) and m ¼ max (m5 , m6 ), where angle.

d1 ¼ u1 þ 2kB1 2k1 k9 m̃e . 0 and d2 ¼ u2 2k10 k5 Note that the electromagnetic torque is

m̃ =e . 0.

So that pMsr

Te ¼ f i (21)

Lr rd sq

m̃

u1 . 2k1 k9 þ m̃e 2kB1 , u2 . 2k10 k5 þ (16)

e

For the new model (20), by holding constant the magni-

Then it follows that tude of the rotor flux, there is a linear relationship

between isq and the speed dynamic.

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Moreover, to eliminate the nonlinear terms effect, a poss-

V_o d(V1 þ V2 ) þ m( V1 þ V2 ) dVo þ mc Vo

ible strategy is to force a current-control mode using high-

(17) gain feedback [13].

p pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ That is, one uses PI current loops of the form

where c . 0, such that c ðV1 þ V2 Þ . V1 þ V2 .

If the motor parameters are exactly known, then m ¼ 0 ðt

and V_o dVo . This system (10) is an exponential observer Vsd ¼ Kivd (isd isd ) dt þ Kpvd (isd isd ) (22)

for system (5). 0

Otherwise, if m = 0, inequality (17) can be rewritten as ðt

Vsq ¼ Kivq (isq isq ) dt þ Kpvq (isq isq ) (23)

0

V_o (1 6)dVo 6Vo þ mckek, 1.6.0 (18)

Finally, we have to force isd and isq to, respectively, track their corresponding

references isd and isq . The PI current loops result in fast

mc responses by using large feedback gain. As a result, isd

V_o (1 6)dVo , 8kek (19) and isq are considered as the new inputs and the system

6d

reads

By choosing u1 and u2 , inequality (19) shows that in spite 0 1

of perturbations due to motor parameters variations, the Tl

_

observation errors will converge to a small upper bound. V ¼ @ mfrd isq cV JA (24)

A ḟ rd afrd þ aMsr isd

Remark 7: Inequality (16) depends on the Lipschitz con-

stants introduced in Assumption 2. From Lipschitz con- and ṙ ¼ pV þ a(Msr =frd )isq .

stants, we can calculate the minimum value of u1 and u2 . Before carrying on the design of the controllers, let us first

Then we tune u1 and u2 in order to accelerate the conver- examine how to estimate the stator frequency (vs ). For the

gence of the observer. flux-oriented field frq ; 0, so that vs ¼ pV þa(Msr =frd )isq .

To avoid the uncertainties of IM parameters in the obser-

5 Flux-oriented control ver and achieve our goal (frq ; 0), we define

denote by V and f the smooth bounded reference ^ þ a Msr i (isq isq ) k

ṽ s ¼ pV (25)

sq vs

signals for the output variables to, respectively, control f^ rd b1 f^ rd

p

the speed V and the rotor flux modulus ðf2rd þ f2rq Þ.

Following

p the strategy of field-oriented control where ṽ s is an estimate stator frequency, b1 ¼ Msr =sLs Lr

(frd ¼ ðf2rd þ f2rq Þ, frq ¼ 0), the new dynamic model of and kvs . 0.

IET Control Theory Appl., Vol. 1, No. 6, November 2007 1685

5.1 Flux controller design the coefficients to calculate the IP regulator by the classical

symmetric optimum method.

The field-oriented control is

ðt Proposition 1: Let us consider IM model (24) and assume

that under the action of flux controller (26) and speed con-

isd ¼ Kifrd (f frd )(t) dt þ Kpfrd (f frd ) troller (31), the rotor speed and the flux track the desired

0

references. Then, the tracking errors converge to zero expo-

1 1 nentially as t tends to 1.

þ ḟ þ f (26)

aMsr Msr

Proof: Let us consider the following candidate Lyapunov

where the error flux tracking is ef ¼ f frd . function

In (24), we replace isd by (26), then the dynamic of ef is

ðt Vc ¼ xTf Pf xf þ xTV PV xV (35)

e_ f ¼ ( a aMsr Kpfrd )ef aMsr Kifrd ef (t) dt (27) By taking the time derivative of (35) and using (29) and

0

(34), yield

By choosing the change of coordinates

T T

Ð

T V_ c ¼ xTf (Pf A f þ A f Pf )xf þ xTV (PV A V þ A V PV )xV

t

xf ¼ Tf (ef ) ¼ 0 ef (t) dt, ef (28)

¼ xTf Qf xf xTV QV xV

(27) can be written, in a state-space representation, as

follows where Qf . 0, Pf . 0, QV . 0, PV . 0 such that Pf A f þ

T T

A f Pf ¼ Qf , PV A V þ A V PV ¼ QV .

ẋ f ¼ Āf xf (29)

This implies

0 1 V_ c hf xTf Pf xf hV xTV PV xV

where A f ¼ with a1f ¼ aMsr Kifrd and

a1f a2f

a2f ¼ a Msr Kpfrd . where hf ¼ lmin Qf =lmax Pf and hV ¼ lmin QV =lmax PV .

By taking dc ¼ min (hf , hV ), then

5.2 Speed controller design V_ c dc Vc

If the flux controller forces frd to its reference f and we It follows that the tracking error converges asymptoti-

assume that the flux is properly established in the motor, cally to zero. A

the electromagnetic torque (21) reads

Remark 9: The assumptions of input persistence and bound-

Te ¼ KT isq (30) ness of ‘inputs’ u(.) are only used for observer design. For

where KT is KT ¼ (pMsr =Lr )f . Thus, there is a linear the controller design, these assumptions are not required.

relationship between isq and V. We know that, u(.) becomes a function of the state for the

Considering that the reference current isq is given by ‘observer-based control’. Our controller is a classical a

high-gain PI controller with additional terms [(26) and

ðt

1 (31)]. This choice is made to improve the tracking errors

isq (t) ¼ [KiV (V V)(t) d t þ KpV (V V)] performance and to prove its convergence independently

KT 0

" # to the observer (Proposition 1). So that, the controller is a

1 ^l

T stabilising control and its purpose is to guarantee the bound-

þ V_ þ cV þ (31) edness of the state. Then, the assumption that the IM state is

mfrd J

bounded is not required for the closed-loop system.

the error speed tracking is eV (t) ¼ V V . In (24), we

replace isq by its expression (31), then the dynamic of eV 6 Stability analysis of the observer-controller

is given by scheme

ð

Kp Ki t For the IM sensorless control, the speed and the flux are

e_ V ¼ V eV V eV (t) dt (32) not measurable. The load torque is considered as an

J J 0

unknown perturbation. Thus, it is necessary to replace

Defining the following change of coordinates the speed and the flux measures by their estimations in

Ð

T controllers (26) and (31). Now, the new controllers are

xV ¼ TV (eV ) ¼ 0t eV (t) dt, eV (33) given by

ðt

It follows that (32) can be written in a state-space rep- isd ¼ Kifrd (f f^ rd )(t) dt þ Kpfrd (f f^ rd )

resentation as follows 0

1 1

ẋ V ¼ ĀV xV (34) þ ḟ þ f (36)

aMsr Msr

0 1

where A V ¼ with a1V ¼ ðKiV =J Þ and

a1V a2V ðt

a2f ¼ ðKpV =J Þ. 1 ^ t) dt þ Kp (V V)

^

isq (t) ¼ KiV (V V)( V

Ðt KT 0

Remark 8: [KiV 0 (V V)(t) dt þ KpV (V V)] is " #

equivalent to PI controller. For the simulation and exper- 1 T^ l

imental tests, the PI controller is replaced by an IP control- þ _ ^

V þ cV þ (37)

ler to limit transient phenomena. We defined wmax , and vq mf^ rd J

!

ef h e i

^ þ Tl KpV ef

The reduced model of IM (24) can be rewritten in closed G2 (ef ) ¼ V þ cV

f^ rd J J f^ rd

loop as !ð

0 1 Ki ef t

^ ^ Tl eV V e (t) dt

_ m f i ( V, f ) cV

V ¼@ rd sq rd

JA (38) J f^ rd 0 V

ḟ rd ^ ð

afrd þ aMsr isd (f rd ) ef KpV KiV t

G3 (eV , ef ) ¼ eV þ e (t) dt

Note that (38) is rewritten in the following form f^ rd J J 0 V

8

> _ T 0

>

> V ¼ mfrd isq (V, frd ) cV l Bf ¼ BV ¼

>

> J 1

< ^ ^

þ mfrd [isq (V, f rd ) isq (V, frd )] (39)

>

> With e1 ¼ e1 and e2 ¼ e2 , the error dynamics of the

>

>

> ḟ rd ¼ afrd þ aMsr isd (frd )

: observer – controller (13) and (41) is

þ aM [i (f^ ) i (f )]

sr sd rd sd rd

ẋ f ¼ Āf xf þ Bf Gf (ef )

ẋ V ¼ Ā0 V xV þ BV GV (eV )

Remark 10: In order to avoid a singularity problem in (37), ė 1 ¼ [A1 (Z2 ) S11 GC1T C1 B1 C1 ]e1 þ g1 (u, y, X2 )

we initialise the observer with a flux initial condition differ-

ent from zero, such that controller (37) is well defined. This þ Dg1 (u, y, X2 , X1 ) g1 (u, y, Z2 , Z1 ) þ [A1 (X2 )

condition is a physical condition of IM (no flux implies no þ DA1 (X2 ) A1 (Z2 )]X1 (B2 C2 þ KC2T C2 )e2

torque!) [16]. Moreover the flux controller (36) allows to

guarantee that frd reaches its reference f . Before the ė 2 ¼ [A2 (Z1 ) S21 C2T C2 ]e2 þ [A2 (X1 ) þ DA2 (X1 )

motor is fluxed, (i.e. frd ¼ f ) the speed reference is kept A2 (Z1 )]X2 þ g2 (u, y, X1 , X2 )

zero. We will prove that singularities of controller (37) þ Dg2 (u, y, X1 , X2 ) g2 (u, y, Z1 , Z2 ) (42)

are avoided for all t 0.

Considering (26), (31), (36), (37) and (39), [for more

details, isd (frd ) and isd (f^ rd ) are, respectively, given by Lemma 1: Consider (a) system (5) satisfying Assumptions

(26) and (36) and isq (V, frd ) and isq (V, ^ f^ ) are, respect- 1 – 3 for which an interconnected observer (10) can be

rd

designed and (b) system (24) controlled by (36) and (37).

ively, given by (31) and (37)], the tracking error dynamics Then, by using the speed and flux estimations given by

of flux and speed defined in (27) and (32) become observer (10), these controllers track the speed and the

8 flux to the desired references, that is, the tracking errors

> e_ f ¼ (a aMsr Kpfrd )ef

>

> Ðt of speed and flux converge asymptotically to zero.

>

> aM Ki e (t) dt

>

> sr f rd 0 f

>

> Ðt

>

> aMsr [Kifrd 0 ef (t) dt þ Kpfrd ef ]

>

> Proof: Let us define the Lyapunov function candidate for

>

> !

>

> KpV ef the overall error dynamics (42)

>

>

>

> e_ V ¼ 1þ eV

>

> J f̂ rd Voc ¼ Vo þ Vc

>

> !ð

>

>

>

< KiV ef t

1þ eV (t) dt ¼ eT1 S1 e1 þ eT2 S2 e2 þ xTf Pf xf þ xTV PV xV (43)

J f̂ rd 0 (40)

>

> " ! #

>

> From (19), with do ¼ (1 6)d, we know that

>

> KpV ef

>

> þ 1þ c eV V_ o (1 6)dVo do Vo .

>

> J

>

> f̂ rd Taking the time derivative of (43) and considering (42)

>

> !ð

>

> t yield

>

> KiV ef

>

> þ 1 þ eV (t) dt

>

> J f̂ rd 0 T

>

>

> V_ oc do Vo þ xTf (Pf A f þ A f Pf )xf þ 2xTf Pf Bf Gf (ef )

>

>

> ef h ^ þ Tl

e i

: þ V þ cV T

f̂ rd J þ xTV (PV A V þ A V PV )xV þ 2xTV PV BV GV (eV )

^ Using (28) and

where ef ¼ frd f^ rd and eV ¼ V V. or

(33), (40) becomes

V_ oc do kek2Su xTf Qf xf þ 2l1 kxf kPf kekSu

ẋ f ¼ A f xf þ Bf Gf (ef )

(41) xTV QV xV þ 2l2 kxV kPV kekSu

ẋ V ¼ A V xV þ BV GV (eV )

where where kGf (ef )k l1 kekSu , kGV (eV )k l2 kekSu , l1 . 0,

ðt l2 . 0:

Using the following inequalities

Gf (ef ) ¼ aMsr Kpfrd ef þ KI f ef (t) dt

0

j1 1

GV ¼ G1 (eV ) þ G2 (ef ) þ G3 (eV , ef ) kekSu kxf kPf kxf k2Pf þ kek2Su

2 2 j1

ð

KiV t KpV j2 1

G1 (eV ) ¼ e ( t) d t þ c eV kekSu kxV kPV kx k2 þ kek2Su

J 0 V J 2 V PV 2j2

8j1 , j2 [ ]0, 1[, we have Observer O1 is defined in (8), where

0 1

l 0 bpf^ rq 0

V_ oc do kek2Su hf kxf k2Pf þ l1 j1 kxf k2Pf þ 1 kek2Su B C

j1 A1 (Z2 ) ¼ @ 0 0 J1 A

l2 0 0 0

hV kxV k2PV þ l2 j2 kxV k2PV þ kek2Su 0 1

j2

gisd þ abf^ rd þ m1 usd þ ṽ s isq

B C

or g1 (u, y, Z2 , Z1 ) ¼ @ m(f^ rd isq f^ rq isd ) cV̂ A

0

l1 l2

V_ oc do kek2Su (hf l1 j1 )kxf k2Pf For flux-oriented control, we have frq ¼ 0. Let us define

j1 j2

e frq ¼ frq 2 f̂rq ) f̂rq ¼ 2e 2frq, e frd ¼ frd 2 f̂rd ) frd ¼

(hV l2 j2 )kxV k2PV frd ¼ frd 2 f̂rd ) frd ¼ e 2frd þ f̂rd ṽs ¼ 2e vs þ vs , e Tl ¼

Tl 2 T^ l , B2(Z2) ¼ 2kmL2e frq

Let us define q1 ¼ (hf l1 j1 ) . 0, q2 ¼ (hV Consequently, (11) becomes

l2 j2 ) . 0, q3 ¼ (d l1 =j1 l2 =j2 ) . 0 and take a1

q ¼ min(q1 , q2 , q3 ), it follows that ė isd ¼ geisd e þ kc1 eisq þ abefrd þ vs eisq

det (S1 ) isd

V_ oc qVoc þ evs isq þ bpVefrq

d1 1

Hence, the estimations and the tracking errors of the aug- ė V ¼ ceV e e þ kc1 eisq

mented overall system converge asymptotically to zero as t det (S1 ) isd J Tl

tends to 1. þ mefrd isq þ mf^ rd eisq þ mefrq isd

Proof that controller (37) are well defined for all t 0.

Our goal here is to prove that f^ rd is different to zero at ė Tl ¼

g1 a

e kmf^ rd eisq kmefrq eisd

t ! 1. Let us define det (S1 ) isd

(47)

ecomf ¼ f frd )frd ¼ f ecomf

The coefficients of Riccati equation (S1) defined in (8) are

eobsf ¼ frd f^ rd ) f^ rd ¼ frd eobsf solutions of

S_ 12 ¼ u1 S12 þ bpefrq S11

where ecomf and eobsf are flux tracking and estimation

errors. S

f^ rd ¼ 0 implies S_ 13 ¼ u1 S13 þ 12

J

_S 22 ¼ u1 S22 þ bpef S12 (48)

f ¼ ecomf þ eobsf (44) rq

S

S_ 23 ¼ u1 S23 þ 22 þ bpefrq S13

Equation (29) is the dynamic of flux tracking error, by J

choosing Kpfrd and Kifrd so that Āf is Hurwitz then 2S

e comf ! 0 at t ! 1. S_ 33 ¼ u1 S33 þ 23

J

Next,

p consider (17) and the following change of variable

v ¼ 2 Vo . The time derivative of v is given by So that a1 ¼ S22S33 2 S223, d1 ¼ S13S23 2 S12S33 , g1 ¼

S12S23 2 S13S22 and det(S1) ¼ S11 * a1 þ S12 * d1 þ S13 * g1 .

v_ dv þ cm (45) From (48), we note that S11 not tends to zero at t ! 1,

even if u1 . 0, ) det(S1) = 0. At t ) 1, the other coeffi-

where the solutions of (45) are cients (Sij) are very small because they depend to e frq . In

unobservability area, vs ¼ 0 and V is constant (V :¼ kV ,

cm in our case kV ¼ 20.5). Consequently, observer O1 (8)

v(t) v(t0 )ed(tt0 ) þ (1 ed(tt0 ) ) (46) may be seen as an estimator. Equation (47) becomes

d

ė isd ¼ geisd þ kc1 eisq þ abefrd þ evs isq þ bpkV efrq

By taking into account that the reference flux is

f ¼ 0.595, it follows that if e obsf = 0.595, then this 1

implies f̂ rd = 0 at all t . 0. A ė V ¼ ceV eTl þ kc1 eisq þ mefrd isq

J (49)

þ mf^ rd ei þ mef isd

sq rq

unobservability area ė Tl ¼ kmf^ rd eisq kmefrq eisd

Our goal here is to prove the stability of the observer þ From (1), with V constant, we have

controller when the inputs are not persistent (i.e. unobserva-

bility area). T e ¼ f v kV þ T l (50)

where Te ¼ Jmfrdisq ¼ Jm(f̂rd þ e 2frd)isq (frq ¼ 0). satisfy the equation

S_ 11 ¼ (2g u2 )S11 þ 1

fv kV þ T^ l eT

mf^ rd ¼ mefrd þ l (51)

Jisq Jisq S_ 12 ¼ (g þ a u2 )S12 bpeV S11 peV S13

S_ 13 ¼ (g þ a u2 )S13 þ abS11 þ peV S12

Using (51), (49) can be rewritten as

S_ 22 ¼ (2a u2 )S22 þ 2bpeV S12 2peV S23

ė isd ¼ geisd þ kc1 eisq þ abefrd þ evs isq þ bpkV efrq S_ 23 ¼ (2a u2 )S23 þ bpeV S13 peV S33 þ peV S22 abS12

ė V ¼ ceV eTl þ kc1 eisq þ mefrd isq

J (53)

^

þ mf rd ei þ mef isd

sq rq and (25) becomes

k eisq k eisq

ė Tl ¼ eTl (fv kV þ T^ l ) þ km(eisq efrd efrq eisd ) Msr eisq

Jisq Jisq v~ s ¼ peV þ a isq kvs (54)

f^rd b f^

1 rd

(52)

Equation (52) shows that the estimation errors dynamic is small. In this case, observer (9) can be seen as an estimator.

first-order stable dynamics with small excitation. We chose kvs so that ṽs = 0 to stabilise the observer.

The observer O2 is given by (9), where That is why we have defined ṽs by (25). A similar approach

is used in [16].

0 1

g ^

bpV ab

B ^C

A2 (Z1 ) ¼ @ 0 a pV A

^ 7 Experimental results

0 pV a

0 1 The experimental results of the observer þ controller,

v~ s isd þ m1 usq

B v~ f^ þ aM i C respectively, defined in Section 3 and 5 are now given.

g2 (u, y, Z1 , Z2 ) ¼ @ s rq sr sd A The motor parameters values of the set-up are as follows.

^

v~ f þ aM i s rd sr sq nominal rate power 1.5 kW

nominal angular speed 1430 rpm

number of pole pairs 2

If V = 0 (in unobservability area), then matrix A2(Z1) is

constant; thus, observer O2 is well defined and the error nominal voltage 220 V

dynamics (12) is stable. If V ¼ 0 and IM is in the unobser- nominal current 6.1 A

vability area, we have V̂ ¼ 2 e V , the coefficients of (S2)

The identified parameters values of the motor are as Kivd ¼ 0.03, Kpvd ¼ 15, Kivq ¼ 0.03, Kpvq ¼ 10,

follows. wmax ¼ p/3, vq ¼ 950, Kvs ¼ 200, u1 ¼ 3000 and

u2 ¼ 7000 to satisfy the convergence conditions.

Rs 1.47 V The experimental sampling time T is equal to 200 ms.

Rr 0.79 V For our experiment, to test robustness in hot conditions,

Ls 0.105 H we take Rs nominal þ30% for the design of the observer

Lr 0.094 H and the controller. For the experiment only, the stator cur-

Msr 0.094 H

rents are measured. The speed and the flux amplitude are

provided by the observer.

J 0.0077 kg m2

The experimental results of the nominal case for other

fv 0.0029 N m/rad/s parameters (except stator resistance) are shown in Fig. 1.

These figures show the good performance of both system

The parameters are chosen as follows: a ¼ 0.82, observer þ controller in trajectory tracking and perturbation

k ¼ 0.14, kc1 ¼ 300, kc2 ¼ 0.5, Kifrd ¼ 0.12, Kpfrd ¼ 200, rejection. In terms of trajectory tracking, we note that the

Fig. 4 Experimental result with rotor self-inductance variation (þ10%)

estimated motor speed (Fig. 1b) converges to the measured It appears a static error when the motor is under unobserva-

speed (Fig. 1a) near and under unobservable conditions. It is ble condition (between 7 and 9 s) (Figs. 2a and b). However,

the same conclusion for estimated flux (Fig. 1f) with respect the static error increases a little when the load torque is

to reference flux (Fig. 1e). The estimated load torque applied at time 1.5 and 5 s (Figs. 2a and b). In conclusion,

(Fig. 1d) converges to the measured load torque (Fig. 1c), we can say that the increase in the rotor resistance value

except under unobservable conditions (between 7 and 9 s). slightly affects the performance of the speed trajectories

Nevertheless, it appears a small static error when the tracking.

motor speed increases (between 3 and 6 s). In terms of per- A second test is made with a 250% variation on rotor

turbation rejection, we have noted that the load torque is resistance value. The experimental results are shown in

well rejected excepted at the time when it is applied Fig. 3. For the speed, flux and load torque estimation, the

((Fig. 1a, b, e and f ) at time 1.5 and 5 s) and when it is conclusion is the same as þ50% variation case (Fig. 2).

removed (Figs. 1a, b, e and f at time 2.5 s). But for this robustness test, the control induces noise.

The robustness of the observer þ controller is confirmed This can be seen on the measured torque (Fig. 3c).

by the result obtained with rotor resistance variation A new robustness test is made by a variation of þ10% on

(þ50%) applied to the observer and controller parameters rotor self-inductance value. The results of the test are shown

(Fig. 2). in Fig. 4. By analysing Fig. 4, we can see that the rotor self-

These figures display similar experimental results for the inductance variation does not affect the performances of the

rotor resistance nominal case under observable conditions. Control þ observer scheme. Nevertheless, it appears as a

IET Control Theory Appl., Vol. 1, No. 6, November 2007 1691

small oscillation when the load torque is applied (Figs. 4a 2 Guiseppe, G., and Hidetoshi, U.: ‘A novel stator resistance estimation

and b) at time 5 s. method for speed-sensorless induction motor drives‘’, IEEE Trans.

Ind. Appl., 2000, 36, (6), pp. 1619– 1627

A last robustness test is a þ10% variation of stator self- 3 Hassan, K.K., and Elias, G.S.: ‘Sensorless speed control of induction

inductance value. The results of this test are shown in Fig. 5. motors’. Proc. 2004 ACC, Boston, 30 June–July 2004,

Comparing this result with rotor self-inductance variation pp. 1127–1131

yields the same conclusion except that the oscillations 4 Kubota, H., and Matsuse, K.: ‘Speed sensorless filed-oriented control

of induction motor with rotor resistance adaptation‘’, IEEE Trans. Ind.

become important at time 5 s when the load torque is Appl., 1994, 30, (5), pp. 344– 348

applied (Figs. 5a and b). 5 Montanari, M., Peresada, S., Tilli, A., and Tonielli, A.: ‘Speed

sensorless control of induction motor based on indirect

field-orientation’. Conf. Record of the 2000 IEEE Industry

8 Conclusion Applications Conf., 2000, vol. 3, pp. 1858–1865

6 Montanari, M., and Tilli, A.: ‘Sensorless control of induction motors

This paper investigates the field-oriented control of IM based on high-gain Speed Estimation one-line stator resistance

adaptation’. The 32nd Annual Conf. IECON, Paris, 7– 10 November

without mechanical sensors (speed sensor, load torque 2006, pp. 1263– 1268

sensor). The first contribution of the paper is to design an 7 Marino, R., Tomei, P., and Verrelli, C.M.: ‘A global tracking control

interconnected observer that well estimates the load even for speed-sensorless induction motors’, Automatica, 2004, 40,

when nominal load torque is applied. The second contri- pp. 1071–1077

bution is to propose a complete field-oriented control with 8 Soltani, J., Arab Makadeh, G.R., and Hosseiny, S.H.: ‘A new adaptive

direct torque control (DTC) scheme based-on SVW for adjustable

high-gain PI controller that achieves a good speed and flux speed sensorless induction motor drive’. The 30th Annual Conf.

tracking for IM without mechanical sensorless. The third IEEE Industrial Electric Society, November 2004, pp. 1111– 1115

contribution is to test and evaluate our observers þ controller 9 Ghanes, M., Jesus, D.L., and Glumineau, A.: ‘Novel controller for

on experimental set-up with a significant sensorless control induction motor without mechanical sensor and experimental

validation’. Proc. 45th IEEE CDC, San Diego, 13–15 December

benchmark. The trajectories of this benchmark are defined 2006, pp. 4008– 4013

to include operation region where the speed and developed 10 Canudas, D.W.C., Youssef, A., Barbot, J.P., Martin, Ph., and Malrait,

torque are in opposite directions (generating). The stability F.: ‘Observability conditions of induction motors at low frequencies’.

of the controller þ observers scheme is proved by IEEE CDC, Sydney, December 2000

Lyapunov theory even on unobservable conditions. 11 Ibarra-Rojas, S., Moreno, J., and Espinosa, G.: ‘Global observability

analysis of sensorless induction motor’, Automatica, 2004, 40, (6),

The robustness of the controller and observer is con- pp. 1079–1085

firmed by significant parameter variations. To improve the 12 Gregor, E., and Karel, J.: ‘Low-speed sensorless control of induction

result, it will be interesting in the future to build a more machine’, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., 2006, 53, (1), pp. 120– 128

sophisticated control law such as sliding-mode controller 13 Chiasson, J.: ‘Non linear controllers for induction motors’. IFAC

Conf. System Structure and Control, Nantes, 5– 7 July 1995

or backstepping controller. 14 Besançon, G., and Hammouri, H.: ‘On observer design for

interconnected systems’, J. Math. Syst. Estim. Control, 1998, 8, (4),

pp. 377–397

9 References 15 Besançon, G., and Hammouri, H.: ‘Observer synthesis for class of

nonlinear control systems’, Eur. J. Control, 1996, 2, (3), pp. 176 –192

1 Faa, J.L., Rong, J.W., and Pao, C.L.: ‘Robust speed sensorless 16 Marino, R., Sergei, P., and Tomei, P.: ‘Global adaptive output

induction motor drive’, IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., 1999, feedback control of induction motors with uncertain rotor

35, (2), pp. 566–578 resistance’, IEEE Trans. Autom. Control, 1999, 44, (5), pp. 967 –983

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