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TKK Dissertations 100

Espoo 2007

SENSORLESS CONTROL OF AC DRIVES EQUIPPED


WITH AN INVERTER OUTPUT FILTER
Doctoral Dissertation

Janne Salomäki

Helsinki University of Technology


Department of Electrical and Communications Engineering
Power Electronics Laboratory
TKK Dissertations 100
Espoo 2007

SENSORLESS CONTROL OF AC DRIVES EQUIPPED


WITH AN INVERTER OUTPUT FILTER
Doctoral Dissertation

Janne Salomäki

Dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Science in Technology to be presented with due permission
of the Department of Electrical and Communications Engineering for public examination and debate
in Auditorium S4 at Helsinki University of Technology (Espoo, Finland) on the 21st of December,
2007, at 12 noon.

Helsinki University of Technology


Department of Electrical and Communications Engineering
Power Electronics Laboratory

Teknillinen korkeakoulu
Sähkö- ja tietoliikennetekniikan osasto
Tehoelektroniikan laboratorio
Distribution:
Helsinki University of Technology
Department of Electrical and Communications Engineering
Power Electronics Laboratory
P.O. Box 3000
FI - 02015 TKK
FINLAND
URL: http://powerelectronics.tkk.fi/
Tel. +358-9-451 2431
Fax +358-9-451 2432
E-mail: janne.salomaki@konecranes.com

© 2007 Janne Salomäki

ISBN 978-951-22-9129-8
ISBN 978-951-22-9130-4 (PDF)
ISSN 1795-2239
ISSN 1795-4584 (PDF)
URL: http://lib.tkk.fi/Diss/2007/isbn9789512291304/

TKK-DISS-2400

Multiprint Oy
Espoo 2007
AB AB
ABSTRACT OF DOCTORAL DISSERTATION HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACT OF DOCTORAL DISSERTATION HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
P. O. BOX 1000, FI-02015 TKK P. O. BOX 1000, FI-02015 TKK
http://www.tkk.fi http://www.tkk.fi
Author Janne Salomäki Author Janne Salomäki
Name of the dissertation Name of the dissertation
Sensorless Control of AC Drives Equipped With an Inverter Output Filter Sensorless Control of AC Drives Equipped With an Inverter Output Filter

Manuscript submitted 2.7.2007 Manuscript revised 1.11.2007 Manuscript submitted 2.7.2007 Manuscript revised 1.11.2007
Date of the defence 21.12.2007 Date of the defence 21.12.2007
Monograph x Article dissertation (summary + original articles) Monograph x Article dissertation (summary + original articles)
Department Department of Electrical and Communications Engineering Department Department of Electrical and Communications Engineering
Laboratory Power Electronics Laboratory Laboratory Power Electronics Laboratory
Field of research Electrical engineering Field of research Electrical engineering
Opponent(s) Prof. Ralph Kennel Opponent(s) Prof. Ralph Kennel
Supervisor Prof. Jorma Luomi Supervisor Prof. Jorma Luomi
Instructor Instructor
Abstract Abstract
In this thesis, new sensorless control methods are developed for AC motor drives equipped with an inverter output In this thesis, new sensorless control methods are developed for AC motor drives equipped with an inverter output
filter. A three-phase LC filter with a cut-off frequency well below the switching frequency of the inverter enables filter. A three-phase LC filter with a cut-off frequency well below the switching frequency of the inverter enables
nearly sinusoidal supply voltage for the motor. Induction motors and permanent magnet synchronous motors are nearly sinusoidal supply voltage for the motor. Induction motors and permanent magnet synchronous motors are
typically connected directly to the frequency converter. In some applications, however, it is necessary to add a filter typically connected directly to the frequency converter. In some applications, however, it is necessary to add a filter
between the inverter and the motor in order to mitigate the harmful effects of the pulse-width modulated (PWM) between the inverter and the motor in order to mitigate the harmful effects of the pulse-width modulated (PWM)
voltage. The control methods proposed in this thesis take an LC filter into account. Besides the conventional stator voltage. The control methods proposed in this thesis take an LC filter into account. Besides the conventional stator
current control, two nested control loops are added to control the stator voltage and the inverter output current. A current control, two nested control loops are added to control the stator voltage and the inverter output current. A
full-order observer of the motor dynamics is augmented with the filter dynamics. The observer enables the vector full-order observer of the motor dynamics is augmented with the filter dynamics. The observer enables the vector
control without any additional current or voltage measurements. Furthermore, the drive should preferably work control without any additional current or voltage measurements. Furthermore, the drive should preferably work
without a speed sensor. A speed adaptation mechanism is added to the observer enabling the speed-sensorless without a speed sensor. A speed adaptation mechanism is added to the observer enabling the speed-sensorless
operation. The selection of the observer gain and adaptation parameters is based on the linearization analysis of the operation. The selection of the observer gain and adaptation parameters is based on the linearization analysis of the
system. Speed-sensorless control methods are known to have stability problems at low speeds. Similar problems occur system. Speed-sensorless control methods are known to have stability problems at low speeds. Similar problems occur
when the inverter output filter is used. To enhance the stability at low speeds, the speed-adaptive observer is augmented when the inverter output filter is used. To enhance the stability at low speeds, the speed-adaptive observer is augmented
with a high-frequency signal injection method for permanent magnet synchronous motor drives equipped with an LC with a high-frequency signal injection method for permanent magnet synchronous motor drives equipped with an LC
filter. The signal injection enables sustained operation even at zero speed under load changes. Field-weakening filter. The signal injection enables sustained operation even at zero speed under load changes. Field-weakening
methods are also developed for AC motor drives equipped with an inverter output filter. Computer simulations and methods are also developed for AC motor drives equipped with an inverter output filter. Computer simulations and
experiments validate the performance of the proposed control methods in wide speed and load ranges. In addition, the experiments validate the performance of the proposed control methods in wide speed and load ranges. In addition, the
influence of the inverter output filter on the selection of the PWM method is investigated. If a common-mode filter is influence of the inverter output filter on the selection of the PWM method is investigated. If a common-mode filter is
used, discontinuous PWM methods may cause excessive vibration in the common-mode current. A conventional space used, discontinuous PWM methods may cause excessive vibration in the common-mode current. A conventional space
vector PWM is suitable method, because it does not generate significant harmonics near the resonance frequency of the vector PWM is suitable method, because it does not generate significant harmonics near the resonance frequency of the
common-mode filter. The cost-effective filter design is also considered. Filtering requirements and the limitation common-mode filter. The cost-effective filter design is also considered. Filtering requirements and the limitation
caused by the vector control are taken into account in the filter design. caused by the vector control are taken into account in the filter design.

Keywords Inverter output filter, induction motor, permanent magnet synchronous motor, sensorless control Keywords Inverter output filter, induction motor, permanent magnet synchronous motor, sensorless control
ISBN (printed) 978-951-22-9129-8 ISSN (printed) 1795-2239 ISBN (printed) 978-951-22-9129-8 ISSN (printed) 1795-2239
ISBN (pdf) 978-951-22-9130-4 ISSN (pdf) 1795-4584 ISBN (pdf) 978-951-22-9130-4 ISSN (pdf) 1795-4584
Language English Number of pages 143 Language English Number of pages 143
Publisher Multiprint Oy Publisher Multiprint Oy
Print distribution Power Electronics Laboratory Print distribution Power Electronics Laboratory
x The dissertation can be read at http://lib.tkk.fi/Diss/2007/isbn9789512291304/ x The dissertation can be read at http://lib.tkk.fi/Diss/2007/isbn9789512291304/
AB AB
VÄITÖSKIRJAN TIIVISTELMÄ TEKNILLINEN KORKEAKOULU VÄITÖSKIRJAN TIIVISTELMÄ TEKNILLINEN KORKEAKOULU
PL 1000, 02015 TKK PL 1000, 02015 TKK
http://www.tkk.fi http://www.tkk.fi
Tekijä Janne Salomäki Tekijä Janne Salomäki
Väitöskirjan nimi Väitöskirjan nimi
Taajuusmuuttajan lähtösuodattimella varustettujen vaihtovirtakäyttöjen anturiton ohjaus Taajuusmuuttajan lähtösuodattimella varustettujen vaihtovirtakäyttöjen anturiton ohjaus

Käsikirjoituksen päivämäärä 2.7.2007 Korjatun käsikirjoituksen päivämäärä 1.11.2007 Käsikirjoituksen päivämäärä 2.7.2007 Korjatun käsikirjoituksen päivämäärä 1.11.2007
Väitöstilaisuuden ajankohta 21.12.2007 Väitöstilaisuuden ajankohta 21.12.2007
Monografia x Yhdistelmäväitöskirja (yhteenveto + erillisartikkelit) Monografia x Yhdistelmäväitöskirja (yhteenveto + erillisartikkelit)
Osasto Sähkö- ja tietoliikennetekniikan osasto Osasto Sähkö- ja tietoliikennetekniikan osasto
Laboratorio Tehoelektroniikan laboratorio Laboratorio Tehoelektroniikan laboratorio
Tutkimusala Sähkötekniikka Tutkimusala Sähkötekniikka
Vastaväittäjä(t) Prof. Ralph Kennel Vastaväittäjä(t) Prof. Ralph Kennel
Työn valvoja Prof. Jorma Luomi Työn valvoja Prof. Jorma Luomi
Työn ohjaaja Työn ohjaaja
Tiivistelmä Tiivistelmä
Väitöskirjassa kehitetään uusia anturittomia säätömenetelmiä vaihtovirtamoottoreille, kun taajuusmuuttajan Väitöskirjassa kehitetään uusia anturittomia säätömenetelmiä vaihtovirtamoottoreille, kun taajuusmuuttajan
lähtöjännitettä parannetaan suodattimella. Kolmivaiheinen LC-suodatin, jonka rajataajuus on pienempi kuin lähtöjännitettä parannetaan suodattimella. Kolmivaiheinen LC-suodatin, jonka rajataajuus on pienempi kuin
taajuusmuuttajan kytkentätaajuus, mahdollistaa lähes sinimuotoisen moottorin syöttöjännitteen. Oikosulkumoottorit ja taajuusmuuttajan kytkentätaajuus, mahdollistaa lähes sinimuotoisen moottorin syöttöjännitteen. Oikosulkumoottorit ja
kestomagneettitahtimoottorit kytketään tavallisesti suoraan taajuusmuuttajan lähtöön. Joissakin tapauksissa on kestomagneettitahtimoottorit kytketään tavallisesti suoraan taajuusmuuttajan lähtöön. Joissakin tapauksissa on
kuitenkin välttämätöntä käyttää suodatinta taajuusmuuttajan ja moottorin välissä, jotta päästäisiin eroon kuitenkin välttämätöntä käyttää suodatinta taajuusmuuttajan ja moottorin välissä, jotta päästäisiin eroon
pulssinleveysmoduloidun jännitteen aiheuttamista haitallisista ilmiöistä. Väitöskirjassa ehdotetut säätömenetelmät pulssinleveysmoduloidun jännitteen aiheuttamista haitallisista ilmiöistä. Väitöskirjassa ehdotetut säätömenetelmät
ottavat LC-suodattimen huomioon. Staattorin virtasäätöön lisätään kaksi sisäkkäistä säätösilmukkaa staattorin ottavat LC-suodattimen huomioon. Staattorin virtasäätöön lisätään kaksi sisäkkäistä säätösilmukkaa staattorin
jännitteelle ja vaihtosuuntaajan lähtövirralle. Moottorin täyden kertaluvun tilahavaitsijaan lisätään suodattimen jännitteelle ja vaihtosuuntaajan lähtövirralle. Moottorin täyden kertaluvun tilahavaitsijaan lisätään suodattimen
dynaaminen malli, jolloin vektorisäätö on mahdollista ilman lisämittauksia järjestelmän virroista tai jännitteistä. dynaaminen malli, jolloin vektorisäätö on mahdollista ilman lisämittauksia järjestelmän virroista tai jännitteistä.
Käytön pitäisi toimia myös ilman nopeusanturia. Kun tilahavaitsijaan lisätään nopeuden adaptointi, liikeanturiton säätö Käytön pitäisi toimia myös ilman nopeusanturia. Kun tilahavaitsijaan lisätään nopeuden adaptointi, liikeanturiton säätö
on mahdollista. Tilahavaitsijan ja adaptoinnin parametrit voidaan valita käyttäen apuna järjestelmän on mahdollista. Tilahavaitsijan ja adaptoinnin parametrit voidaan valita käyttäen apuna järjestelmän
linearisointianalyysiä. Nopeusanturittomilla säätömenetelmillä on tunnetusti stabiiliusongelmia pienillä nopeuksilla. linearisointianalyysiä. Nopeusanturittomilla säätömenetelmillä on tunnetusti stabiiliusongelmia pienillä nopeuksilla.
Samanlaisia ongelmia esiintyy myös lähtösuodattimella varustetuissa käytöissä. Kestomagneettitahtimoottoreiden Samanlaisia ongelmia esiintyy myös lähtösuodattimella varustetuissa käytöissä. Kestomagneettitahtimoottoreiden
tapauksessa adaptointimekanismiin liitetään suurtaajuussignaali-injektiomenetelmä, joka mahdollistaa stabiilin tapauksessa adaptointimekanismiin liitetään suurtaajuussignaali-injektiomenetelmä, joka mahdollistaa stabiilin
toiminnan jopa nollanopeudella kuormamomentin vaihdellessa. Myös kentänheikennysmenetelmiä kehitetään toiminnan jopa nollanopeudella kuormamomentin vaihdellessa. Myös kentänheikennysmenetelmiä kehitetään
lähtösuodattimella varustetuille käytöille. Tietokonesimuloinnit ja laboratoriokokeet osoittavat ehdotettujen lähtösuodattimella varustetuille käytöille. Tietokonesimuloinnit ja laboratoriokokeet osoittavat ehdotettujen
menetelmien suorituskyvyn laajalla toiminta-alueella nopeuden ja kuormituksen vaihdellessa. Lisäksi tutkitaan menetelmien suorituskyvyn laajalla toiminta-alueella nopeuden ja kuormituksen vaihdellessa. Lisäksi tutkitaan
lähtösuodattimen vaikutusta modulointimenetelmän valintaan. Jos käytetään yhteismuotosuodatinta, lähtösuodattimen vaikutusta modulointimenetelmän valintaan. Jos käytetään yhteismuotosuodatinta,
kaksivaihemodulointimenetelmät voivat aiheuttaa liiallista yhteismuotovirran värähtelyä. Tavallinen symmetrinen kaksivaihemodulointimenetelmät voivat aiheuttaa liiallista yhteismuotovirran värähtelyä. Tavallinen symmetrinen
modulointimenetelmä on sopiva, koska se ei tuota merkittäviä jännitteen yliaaltoja yhteismuotosuodattimen modulointimenetelmä on sopiva, koska se ei tuota merkittäviä jännitteen yliaaltoja yhteismuotosuodattimen
resonanssitaajuuden lähellä. Väitöskirjassa käsitellään myös suodatinsuunnittelua. LC-suodattimen hinta pyritään resonanssitaajuuden lähellä. Väitöskirjassa käsitellään myös suodatinsuunnittelua. LC-suodattimen hinta pyritään
minimoimaan siten, että suodatusvaatimukset toteutuvat ja liikeanturiton vektorisäätö toimii. minimoimaan siten, että suodatusvaatimukset toteutuvat ja liikeanturiton vektorisäätö toimii.

Asiasanat Taajuusmuuttajan lähtösuodatin, oikosulkumoottori, kestomagneettitahtimoottori, anturiton säätö Asiasanat Taajuusmuuttajan lähtösuodatin, oikosulkumoottori, kestomagneettitahtimoottori, anturiton säätö
ISBN (painettu) 978-951-22-9129-8 ISSN (painettu) 1795-2239 ISBN (painettu) 978-951-22-9129-8 ISSN (painettu) 1795-2239
ISBN (pdf) 978-951-22-9130-4 ISSN (pdf) 1795-4584 ISBN (pdf) 978-951-22-9130-4 ISSN (pdf) 1795-4584
Kieli englanti Sivumäärä 143 Kieli englanti Sivumäärä 143
Julkaisija Multiprint Oy Julkaisija Multiprint Oy
Painetun väitöskirjan jakelu Tehoelektroniikan laboratorio Painetun väitöskirjan jakelu Tehoelektroniikan laboratorio
x Luettavissa verkossa osoitteessa http://lib.tkk.fi/Diss/2007/isbn9789512291304/ x Luettavissa verkossa osoitteessa http://lib.tkk.fi/Diss/2007/isbn9789512291304/
Preface Preface

The research work for this thesis was carried out in the Power Electronics Laboratory at The research work for this thesis was carried out in the Power Electronics Laboratory at
Helsinki University of Technology. The work was started in October 2003 as a part of Helsinki University of Technology. The work was started in October 2003 as a part of
a research project dealing with sensorless control of AC motor drives. The project was a research project dealing with sensorless control of AC motor drives. The project was
financed by ABB Oy. financed by ABB Oy.
Many people have helped me to complete this thesis. First of all, I would like to thank Many people have helped me to complete this thesis. First of all, I would like to thank
Prof. Jorma Luomi for his excellent supervision and sincere support. Working with him Prof. Jorma Luomi for his excellent supervision and sincere support. Working with him
has taught me about many aspects of academic research and proper English spelling. I has taught me about many aspects of academic research and proper English spelling. I
would also like to thank Prof. Marko Hinkkanen for his kind guidance and encouragement would also like to thank Prof. Marko Hinkkanen for his kind guidance and encouragement
during this work. during this work.
I have greatly enjoyed working with colleagues like Mr. Antti Piippo, Dr. Petri Mäki- I have greatly enjoyed working with colleagues like Mr. Antti Piippo, Dr. Petri Mäki-
Ontto, Mr. Henri Kinnunen, Mrs. Mikaela Ranta, Mr. Konstantin Kostov, and Mr. Toni Ontto, Mr. Henri Kinnunen, Mrs. Mikaela Ranta, Mr. Konstantin Kostov, and Mr. Toni
Tuovinen. Thank you all for creating an inspiring and comfortable research atmosphere. I Tuovinen. Thank you all for creating an inspiring and comfortable research atmosphere. I
would also like to thank other members of the laboratory staff: Prof. Jorma Kyyrä, Prof. would also like to thank other members of the laboratory staff: Prof. Jorma Kyyrä, Prof.
Seppo Ovaska, Mr. Ilkka Hanhivaara, and Mrs. Anja Meuronen. Seppo Ovaska, Mr. Ilkka Hanhivaara, and Mrs. Anja Meuronen.
I wish also to express my gratitude to people at ABB Oy. The discussions with Mr. I wish also to express my gratitude to people at ABB Oy. The discussions with Mr.
Matti Kauhanen, Mr. Mikko Korpinen, Mr. Samuli Heikkilä, Mr. Tuomas Multala, Mr. Matti Kauhanen, Mr. Mikko Korpinen, Mr. Samuli Heikkilä, Mr. Tuomas Multala, Mr.
Matti Mustonen, Mr. Kalle Suomela, Mr. Mikko Vertanen, and Mr. Kari Kovanen helped Matti Mustonen, Mr. Kalle Suomela, Mr. Mikko Vertanen, and Mr. Kari Kovanen helped
me to complete this work. me to complete this work.
The additional financial support given by the Walter Ahlström Foundation, the Finnish The additional financial support given by the Walter Ahlström Foundation, the Finnish
Foundation of Technology, and the KAUTE Foundation is gratefully acknowledged. Foundation of Technology, and the KAUTE Foundation is gratefully acknowledged.
Finally, I would like to thank my parents, Pirjo and Hannu Salomäki, for their contin- Finally, I would like to thank my parents, Pirjo and Hannu Salomäki, for their contin-
uous support throughout my many years of studies. And last, but not least, I would like to uous support throughout my many years of studies. And last, but not least, I would like to
express my warmest thanks to my girlfriend, Satu, for her love and support during these express my warmest thanks to my girlfriend, Satu, for her love and support during these
years. years.

Hyvinkää, October 2007 Hyvinkää, October 2007

Janne Salomäki Janne Salomäki

7 7
8 8
Contents Contents

List of Publications 11 List of Publications 11

Symbols and Abbreviations 13 Symbols and Abbreviations 13

1 Introduction 17 1 Introduction 17

2 Voltage-Source Converter and Output Filters 21 2 Voltage-Source Converter and Output Filters 21
2.1 Voltage-Source Converter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.1 Voltage-Source Converter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.2 Output Inductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2.2 Output Inductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.3 LC Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2.3 LC Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.4 Design Aspects of Sinusoidal Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 2.4 Design Aspects of Sinusoidal Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

3 Control of IM Drives Equipped With an LC Filter 33 3 Control of IM Drives Equipped With an LC Filter 33
3.1 System Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 3.1 System Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3.2 Control Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 3.2 Control Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
3.3 Proposed Control Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 3.3 Proposed Control Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3.4 Performance Comparison With and Without an LC Filter . . . . . . . . . 39 3.4 Performance Comparison With and Without an LC Filter . . . . . . . . . 39

4 Control of PMSM Drives Equipped With an LC Filter 43 4 Control of PMSM Drives Equipped With an LC Filter 43
4.1 System Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 4.1 System Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
4.2 Control Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 4.2 Control Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
4.3 Proposed Control Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 4.3 Proposed Control Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

5 Experimental Setup 49 5 Experimental Setup 49

6 Summary of Publications 55 6 Summary of Publications 55


6.1 Abstracts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 6.1 Abstracts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
6.2 Contribution of the Thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 6.2 Contribution of the Thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

7 Conclusions 59 7 Conclusions 59

Bibliography 61 Bibliography 61

9 9
10 10
List of Publications List of Publications

This thesis consists of an overview and the following publications: This thesis consists of an overview and the following publications:

I Salomäki, J. and Luomi, J. (2006). “Vector control of an induction motor fed by I Salomäki, J. and Luomi, J. (2006). “Vector control of an induction motor fed by
a PWM inverter with output LC filter.” European Power Electronics and Drives a PWM inverter with output LC filter.” European Power Electronics and Drives
Association Journal, 16(1), pp. 37–43. Association Journal, 16(1), pp. 37–43.
II Salomäki, J., Hinkkanen, M., and Luomi, J. (2006). “Sensorless vector control of an II Salomäki, J., Hinkkanen, M., and Luomi, J. (2006). “Sensorless vector control of an
induction motor fed by a PWM inverter through an output LC filter.” IEEJ Transac- induction motor fed by a PWM inverter through an output LC filter.” IEEJ Transac-
tions on Industry Applications, 126(4), pp. 430–437. tions on Industry Applications, 126(4), pp. 430–437.
III Salomäki, J., Hinkkanen, M., and Luomi, J. (2006). “Sensorless control of induction III Salomäki, J., Hinkkanen, M., and Luomi, J. (2006). “Sensorless control of induction
motor drives equipped with inverter output filter.” IEEE Transactions on Industrial motor drives equipped with inverter output filter.” IEEE Transactions on Industrial
Electronics, 53(4), pp. 1188–1197. Electronics, 53(4), pp. 1188–1197.
IV Salomäki, J., Hinkkanen, M., and Luomi, J. (2006). “Influence of inverter output IV Salomäki, J., Hinkkanen, M., and Luomi, J. (2006). “Influence of inverter output
filter on the selection of PWM technique.” In Proc. IEEE-ISIE2006 International filter on the selection of PWM technique.” In Proc. IEEE-ISIE2006 International
Symposium on Industrial Electronics, pp. 1052–1057, Montreal, Canada. Symposium on Industrial Electronics, pp. 1052–1057, Montreal, Canada.
V Salomäki, J., Piippo A., Hinkkanen, M., and Luomi, J. (2006). “Sensorless vector V Salomäki, J., Piippo A., Hinkkanen, M., and Luomi, J. (2006). “Sensorless vector
control of PMSM drives equipped with inverter output filter.” In Proc. 32nd Annual control of PMSM drives equipped with inverter output filter.” In Proc. 32nd Annual
Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON’06), pp. 1059–1064, Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON’06), pp. 1059–1064,
Paris, France. Paris, France.
VI Salomäki, J., Hinkkanen, M., and Luomi, J. (2008). “Influence of inverter output fil- VI Salomäki, J., Hinkkanen, M., and Luomi, J. (2008). “Influence of inverter output fil-
ter on maximum torque and speed of PMSM drives.” IEEE Transactions on Industry ter on maximum torque and speed of PMSM drives.” IEEE Transactions on Industry
Applications, 44(1). (In press) Applications, 44(1). (In press)
VII Piippo A., Salomäki, J., and Luomi, J. (2007). “Signal injection in sensorless PMSM VII Piippo A., Salomäki, J., and Luomi, J. (2007). “Signal injection in sensorless PMSM
drives equipped with inverter output filter.” In Proc. Fourth Power Conversion Con- drives equipped with inverter output filter.” In Proc. Fourth Power Conversion Con-
ference (PCC Nagoya 2007), pp. 1105–1110, Nagoya, Japan. ference (PCC Nagoya 2007), pp. 1105–1110, Nagoya, Japan.
VIII Salomäki, J., Hinkkanen, M., and Luomi, J. (2007). “Cost-effective design of in- VIII Salomäki, J., Hinkkanen, M., and Luomi, J. (2007). “Cost-effective design of in-
verter output filters for AC drives.” In Proc. 33rd Annual Conference of the IEEE verter output filters for AC drives.” In Proc. 33rd Annual Conference of the IEEE
Industrial Electronics Society (IECON’07), pp. 1220–1226, Taipei, Taiwan. Industrial Electronics Society (IECON’07), pp. 1220–1226, Taipei, Taiwan.

The author has written Publications I – VI and VIII with the help and guidance of The author has written Publications I – VI and VIII with the help and guidance of
Prof. Luomi and Prof. Hinkkanen. The author is responsible for the design, analysis, sim- Prof. Luomi and Prof. Hinkkanen. The author is responsible for the design, analysis, sim-
ulations, and experiments. In Publication V, Mr. Piippo helped with the construction of the ulations, and experiments. In Publication V, Mr. Piippo helped with the construction of the
system model, with the linearization analysis, and with the experimental setup. system model, with the linearization analysis, and with the experimental setup.
Publication VII has been mainly written by Mr. Piippo. The author is responsible Publication VII has been mainly written by Mr. Piippo. The author is responsible
for the literature review, the cascade control structure, and partly for the design of the for the literature review, the cascade control structure, and partly for the design of the
full-order observer. Mr. Piippo combined the full-order observer and the signal injection full-order observer. Mr. Piippo combined the full-order observer and the signal injection
method, analyzed the frequency response of the system, and performed the simulations method, analyzed the frequency response of the system, and performed the simulations
and experiments. and experiments.

11 11
Earlier versions of Publications I – III and VI were presented at conferences (Salomäki Earlier versions of Publications I – III and VI were presented at conferences (Salomäki
and Luomi, 2004), (Salomäki et al., 2005b), (Salomäki et al., 2005a), (Salomäki et al., and Luomi, 2004), (Salomäki et al., 2005b), (Salomäki et al., 2005a), (Salomäki et al.,
2007). 2007).

12 12
Symbols and Abbreviations Symbols and Abbreviations

Symbols Symbols
A System matrix of state-space representation A System matrix of state-space representation
A System matrix of state-space representation for PMSM drives A System matrix of state-space representation for PMSM drives
B System matrix B System matrix
C System matrix C System matrix
Cf Capacitance of the filter Cf Capacitance of the filter
iA Inverter output current space vector iA Inverter output current space vector
iA Inverter output current vector for PMSM drives iA Inverter output current vector for PMSM drives
iAd , iAq Real and imaginary components of iA or direct- and quadrature- iAd , iAq Real and imaginary components of iA or direct- and quadrature-
axis components of iA axis components of iA
iR Rotor current space vector iR Rotor current space vector
is Stator current space vector is Stator current space vector
is Stator current vector for PMSM drives is Stator current vector for PMSM drives
isd , isq Real and imaginary components of is or direct- and quadrature- isd , isq Real and imaginary components of is or direct- and quadrature-
axis components of is axis components of is
j Imaginary unit j Imaginary unit
J Rotational matrix J Rotational matrix
K Observer gain K Observer gain
K Observer gain for PMSM drives K Observer gain for PMSM drives
Kp Adaptation proportional gain Kp Adaptation proportional gain
Ki Adaptation integral gain Ki Adaptation integral gain
Ld Direct-axis stator inductance Ld Direct-axis stator inductance
Lf Inductance of the filter inductor Lf Inductance of the filter inductor
LM Magnetizing inductance LM Magnetizing inductance
Lq Quadrature-axis stator inductance Lq Quadrature-axis stator inductance
L′s Stator transient inductance L′s Stator transient inductance
Ls Stator inductance matrix Ls Stator inductance matrix
p Number of pole pairs p Number of pole pairs

13 13
Q Quality factor Q Quality factor
RLf Series resistance of the filter inductor RLf Series resistance of the filter inductor
RR Rotor resistance RR Rotor resistance
Rs Stator resistance Rs Stator resistance
s Laplace variable s Laplace variable
u Voltage u Voltage
ua , ub , uc Phase voltages ua , ub , uc Phase voltages
uA Inverter output voltage space vector uA Inverter output voltage space vector
uA Inverter output voltage for PMSM drives uA Inverter output voltage for PMSM drives
u′A,ref Magnitude of the unlimited inverter output voltage reference u′A,ref Magnitude of the unlimited inverter output voltage reference
uAd , uAq Real and imaginary components of uA or direct- and quadrature- uAd , uAq Real and imaginary components of uA or direct- and quadrature-
axis components of uA axis components of uA
ûc Amplitude of a carrier excitation signal ûc Amplitude of a carrier excitation signal
ucm Common-mode voltage ucm Common-mode voltage
udc DC-link voltage udc DC-link voltage
us Stator voltage space vector us Stator voltage space vector
us Stator voltage vector for PMSM drives us Stator voltage vector for PMSM drives
usd , usq Real and imaginary components of us or direct- and quadrature- usd , usq Real and imaginary components of us or direct- and quadrature-
axis components of us axis components of us
t Time t Time
Te Electromagnetic torque Te Electromagnetic torque
x State vector of state-space representation x State vector of state-space representation
x State vector of state-space representation for PMSM drives x State vector of state-space representation for PMSM drives
s s
x Space vector in the stationary reference frame x Space vector in the stationary reference frame
xa , xb , xc General phase quantities xa , xb , xc General phase quantities
xα , xβ Real and imaginary parts of xs xα , xβ Real and imaginary parts of xs
x0 Zero-sequence component x0 Zero-sequence component
γf Gain for the field-weakening control γf Gain for the field-weakening control
γp , γi Proportional and integral gains for the signal injection method γp , γi Proportional and integral gains for the signal injection method
ε Error signal for the signal injection method ε Error signal for the signal injection method
θs Angle of the rotor flux linkage θs Angle of the rotor flux linkage
τr Rotor time constant τr Rotor time constant
τσ′ Time constant τσ′ Time constant
φ Angle that changes the direction of the error projection φ Angle that changes the direction of the error projection
ψpm Permanent magnet flux linkage ψpm Permanent magnet flux linkage
ψ pm Permanent magnet flux linkage vector ψ pm Permanent magnet flux linkage vector

14 14
ψR Rotor flux linkage space vector ψR Rotor flux linkage space vector
ψs Stator flux linkage space vector ψs Stator flux linkage space vector
ψs Stator flux linkage vector for PMSM drives ψs Stator flux linkage vector for PMSM drives
ωc Angular frequency of a carrier excitation signal ωc Angular frequency of a carrier excitation signal
ωk Angular frequency of an arbitrary reference frame ωk Angular frequency of an arbitrary reference frame
ωm Electrical angular speed of the rotor ωm Electrical angular speed of the rotor
ωs Angular frequency of the rotor flux linkage ωs Angular frequency of the rotor flux linkage

Complex-valued variables are underlined and complex conjugates are marked by the sym- Complex-valued variables are underlined and complex conjugates are marked by the sym-
bol ∗ . Vectors and matrices are denoted by bold letters and matrix transposes are marked bol ∗ . Vectors and matrices are denoted by bold letters and matrix transposes are marked
by the symbol T . Estimates are marked by the symbol ˆ. Reference values are marked by by the symbol T . Estimates are marked by the symbol ˆ. Reference values are marked by
the subscript ref. the subscript ref.

Abbreviations Abbreviations
AC Alternating current AC Alternating current
A/D Analog-to-digital (converter) A/D Analog-to-digital (converter)
BR Breaking resistor BR Breaking resistor
CM Common mode CM Common mode
DC Direct current DC Direct current
DPWM Discontinuous pulse-width modulation DPWM Discontinuous pulse-width modulation
du/dt Rate of change of voltage du/dt Rate of change of voltage
DM Differential mode DM Differential mode
DTC Direct torque control DTC Direct torque control
FW Field weakening FW Field weakening
IGBT Insulated gate bipolar transistor IGBT Insulated gate bipolar transistor
IM Induction motor IM Induction motor
IPMSM Interior permanent magnet synchronous motor IPMSM Interior permanent magnet synchronous motor
LC Inductance-capacitance (filter) LC Inductance-capacitance (filter)
LCR Inductance-capacitance-resistance (filter) LCR Inductance-capacitance-resistance (filter)
MTPA Maximum torque-per-ampere MTPA Maximum torque-per-ampere
PMSM Permanent magnet synchronous motor PMSM Permanent magnet synchronous motor
PWM Pulse-width modulation PWM Pulse-width modulation
SPWM Sinusoidal pulse-width modulation SPWM Sinusoidal pulse-width modulation
SVPWM Space vector pulse-width modulation SVPWM Space vector pulse-width modulation
THD Total harmonic distortion THD Total harmonic distortion
VSD Variable-speed drive VSD Variable-speed drive

15 15
16 16
Chapter 1 Chapter 1

Introduction Introduction

Electric motors consume more than half of all electric energy used in Europe. Most of the Electric motors consume more than half of all electric energy used in Europe. Most of the
motors are alternating current (AC) motors. In particular, three-phase induction motors motors are alternating current (AC) motors. In particular, three-phase induction motors
(IMs) are commonly used in industry, because they are simple in design, reliable, and in- (IMs) are commonly used in industry, because they are simple in design, reliable, and in-
expensive. Permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) are increasing in popularity expensive. Permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) are increasing in popularity
due to their high efficiency and power density. In many motor drive applications, pre- due to their high efficiency and power density. In many motor drive applications, pre-
cise speed or torque control is needed, which is possible by using a frequency converter cise speed or torque control is needed, which is possible by using a frequency converter
between the mains and the motor. Electric energy can also be saved if the motor speed between the mains and the motor. Electric energy can also be saved if the motor speed
is adjustable. Variable-speed drives (VSDs) are today standard technology in elevators, is adjustable. Variable-speed drives (VSDs) are today standard technology in elevators,
cranes, conveyors, paper machines, and electrically driven vehicles. Despite the wide use cranes, conveyors, paper machines, and electrically driven vehicles. Despite the wide use
of VSDs in some fields, there is still plenty of potential for energy savings by means of of VSDs in some fields, there is still plenty of potential for energy savings by means of
replacing fixed-speed drives with VSDs (de Almeida et al., 2005). replacing fixed-speed drives with VSDs (de Almeida et al., 2005).
A typical frequency converter consists of a rectifier, a DC link, and an inverter. Voltage- A typical frequency converter consists of a rectifier, a DC link, and an inverter. Voltage-
source converters, which have an energy storage capacitor in the DC link, are widely used source converters, which have an energy storage capacitor in the DC link, are widely used
particularly in commercial VSDs. The output voltage of the inverter is controlled accord- particularly in commercial VSDs. The output voltage of the inverter is controlled accord-
ing to pulse-width modulation (PWM). In converter-fed motors, however, problems may ing to pulse-width modulation (PWM). In converter-fed motors, however, problems may
appear due to the pulse-width modulated voltage. The sharp-edged voltage pulses produce appear due to the pulse-width modulated voltage. The sharp-edged voltage pulses produce
high voltage stresses in the motor insulations, which may cause winding breakdowns. high voltage stresses in the motor insulations, which may cause winding breakdowns.
High voltage peaks are likely to occur, especially in drives with a long motor cable (Pers- High voltage peaks are likely to occur, especially in drives with a long motor cable (Pers-
son, 1992). Lower-order harmonics may cause excessive heating and acoustic noise inside son, 1992). Lower-order harmonics may cause excessive heating and acoustic noise inside
the motor. The three-phase inverter inherently produces a common-mode (CM) voltage, the motor. The three-phase inverter inherently produces a common-mode (CM) voltage,
which may cause leakage currents to the ground. Bearing currents may also occur, which which may cause leakage currents to the ground. Bearing currents may also occur, which
are a common reason for premature bearing failures (Chen et al., 1995). These harmful are a common reason for premature bearing failures (Chen et al., 1995). These harmful
phenomena can be avoided, or at least their impact can be reduced, by adding a filter to phenomena can be avoided, or at least their impact can be reduced, by adding a filter to
the output of the inverter. The filtering enhances the efficiency of the motor, mitigates the the output of the inverter. The filtering enhances the efficiency of the motor, mitigates the
voltage reflections in the motor cable, and reduces the acoustic noise of the motor. Major voltage reflections in the motor cable, and reduces the acoustic noise of the motor. Major
disadvantages of adding output filtering are extra cost, added mounting space, and losses disadvantages of adding output filtering are extra cost, added mounting space, and losses
in the filter. in the filter.
Inverter output filters can be divided into du/dt filters and sinusoidal filters. The cut- Inverter output filters can be divided into du/dt filters and sinusoidal filters. The cut-
off frequency of du/dt filters is above the switching frequency of the inverter, and they off frequency of du/dt filters is above the switching frequency of the inverter, and they
just reduce the rate of change of the voltage. These filters do not affect the motor con- just reduce the rate of change of the voltage. These filters do not affect the motor con-
trol. The cut-off frequency of sinusoidal filters is below the switching frequency, which trol. The cut-off frequency of sinusoidal filters is below the switching frequency, which
results in nearly sinusoidal output voltage. A typical topology is a three-phase inductance- results in nearly sinusoidal output voltage. A typical topology is a three-phase inductance-
capacitance (LC) filter, which mainly filters the differential-mode (DM) voltage. Fig. 1.1 capacitance (LC) filter, which mainly filters the differential-mode (DM) voltage. Fig. 1.1
shows an example of phase to phase voltages before and after a sinusoidal filter. shows an example of phase to phase voltages before and after a sinusoidal filter.
The addition of a sinusoidal output filter to a VSD makes the motor control more dif- The addition of a sinusoidal output filter to a VSD makes the motor control more dif-

17 17
Voltage

Voltage
Time Time

Figure 1.1. Phase to phase voltage before and after sinusoidal filter. Figure 1.1. Phase to phase voltage before and after sinusoidal filter.

ficult. When an LC filter is used, a simple open-loop method, known as scalar control or ficult. When an LC filter is used, a simple open-loop method, known as scalar control or
constant voltage-per-hertz control, is usually chosen. More sophisticated closed-loop con- constant voltage-per-hertz control, is usually chosen. More sophisticated closed-loop con-
trol methods, vector control and direct torque control (DTC), are problematic to imple- trol methods, vector control and direct torque control (DTC), are problematic to imple-
ment because of the filter resonance, the difference between inverter and stator currents, ment because of the filter resonance, the difference between inverter and stator currents,
and the voltage drop in the filter inductor. When designing vector control, the filter dy- and the voltage drop in the filter inductor. When designing vector control, the filter dy-
namics should be taken into account in addition to the motor dynamics. The vector control namics should be taken into account in addition to the motor dynamics. The vector control
needs information about instantaneous values of the stator voltage and the stator current. needs information about instantaneous values of the stator voltage and the stator current.
Therefore, extra measurements may be required because of the filter. Current transducers Therefore, extra measurements may be required because of the filter. Current transducers
are typically located at the inverter output. If a filter is connected between the inverter and are typically located at the inverter output. If a filter is connected between the inverter and
the motor, the current and voltage measurements from the motor side of the filter require the motor, the current and voltage measurements from the motor side of the filter require
additional sensors, wiring, and analog-to-digital (A/D) converters. In the literature, vector additional sensors, wiring, and analog-to-digital (A/D) converters. In the literature, vector
control of VSDs equipped with a sinusoidal filter has not been investigated much. Some control of VSDs equipped with a sinusoidal filter has not been investigated much. Some
control methods that take the inverter output filter into consideration have been proposed control methods that take the inverter output filter into consideration have been proposed
(Zimmermann, 1988; Rapp and Haag, 1997; Nabae et al., 1992; Kojima et al., 2004). In (Zimmermann, 1988; Rapp and Haag, 1997; Nabae et al., 1992; Kojima et al., 2004). In
these methods, extra current or voltage sensors have to be used because of the filter. these methods, extra current or voltage sensors have to be used because of the filter.
Sensorless control methods have been a hot topic in the field of VSDs during the latest Sensorless control methods have been a hot topic in the field of VSDs during the latest
two decades. In this context, the term sensorless means that no speed or position sensor two decades. In this context, the term sensorless means that no speed or position sensor
is used. Advantages of sensorless drives are reduced hardware complexity, lower cost, in- is used. Advantages of sensorless drives are reduced hardware complexity, lower cost, in-
creased reliability, and less maintenance requirements (Holtz, 2002). There is a vast variety creased reliability, and less maintenance requirements (Holtz, 2002). There is a vast variety
of different sensorless control methods for both IM and PMSM drives (Hinkkanen, 2004b; of different sensorless control methods for both IM and PMSM drives (Hinkkanen, 2004b;
Eskola, 2006). Among the most promising methods are adaptive full-order observers de- Eskola, 2006). Among the most promising methods are adaptive full-order observers de-
veloped by Kubota et al. (1993) and Yang and Chin (1993) for IM drives and by Yang veloped by Kubota et al. (1993) and Yang and Chin (1993) for IM drives and by Yang
et al. (1993) for PMSM drives. If it were possible to control AC drives equipped with an et al. (1993) for PMSM drives. If it were possible to control AC drives equipped with an
inverter output filter with sensorless methods, the above-mentioned advantages would also inverter output filter with sensorless methods, the above-mentioned advantages would also
apply to these drives. apply to these drives.
A three-phase voltage-source inverter produces phase voltages with an instantaneous A three-phase voltage-source inverter produces phase voltages with an instantaneous
sum that is not zero, i.e. a CM voltage is generated. The CM voltage at the inverter output sum that is not zero, i.e. a CM voltage is generated. The CM voltage at the inverter output
can be reduced by means of a CM filter. The CM filter is usually built so that the star point can be reduced by means of a CM filter. The CM filter is usually built so that the star point
of the capacitors of the differential-mode LC filter is connected to the DC link. In addition, of the capacitors of the differential-mode LC filter is connected to the DC link. In addition,
the CM filter typically includes a CM inductor and a damping resistor. CM filtering does the CM filter typically includes a CM inductor and a damping resistor. CM filtering does
not affect the vector control of the motor because the control is based on DM quantities. not affect the vector control of the motor because the control is based on DM quantities.

18 18
However, the CM filter may cause a high CM current if the CM inductor saturates (Akagi However, the CM filter may cause a high CM current if the CM inductor saturates (Akagi
et al., 2004). Akagi investigated CM filtering using only one PWM method. The saturation et al., 2004). Akagi investigated CM filtering using only one PWM method. The saturation
of the CM inductor is likely to occur if the CM filter resonance is excited by the PWM. The of the CM inductor is likely to occur if the CM filter resonance is excited by the PWM. The
influence of different PWM techniques on the CM filtering has not yet been investigated. influence of different PWM techniques on the CM filtering has not yet been investigated.
The cost of an inverter output filter is not negligible as compared to the total cost of The cost of an inverter output filter is not negligible as compared to the total cost of
the AC drive (Finlayson, 1998). Thus, the cost-effective design of the filter is important. the AC drive (Finlayson, 1998). Thus, the cost-effective design of the filter is important.
The filtering performance can be improved if the resonance frequency of an LC filter The filtering performance can be improved if the resonance frequency of an LC filter
is decreased. However, the cost of the filter is approximately inversely proportional to is decreased. However, the cost of the filter is approximately inversely proportional to
the resonance frequency. The filtering requirements are usually determined by the total the resonance frequency. The filtering requirements are usually determined by the total
harmonic distortion (THD) of the stator voltage, the THD of the inverter output current, harmonic distortion (THD) of the stator voltage, the THD of the inverter output current,
and the voltage drop in the filter inductor. Vector control may also set requirements for the and the voltage drop in the filter inductor. Vector control may also set requirements for the
filter design. In the literature, the filter design has not been considered from the control filter design. In the literature, the filter design has not been considered from the control
point of view. point of view.
The main aim of the thesis is to develop sensorless vector control methods for IM The main aim of the thesis is to develop sensorless vector control methods for IM
and PMSM drives that are equipped with an LC filter at the inverter output. The control and PMSM drives that are equipped with an LC filter at the inverter output. The control
methods should meet the following requirements: methods should meet the following requirements:
• No extra measurements should be applied due to the filter, thus enabling the use of • No extra measurements should be applied due to the filter, thus enabling the use of
the filter in a standard frequency converter without any hardware modifications. the filter in a standard frequency converter without any hardware modifications.
• The performance of the developed control methods should be close to that of drives • The performance of the developed control methods should be close to that of drives
without the filter. without the filter.
• The control methods should include field weakening for high speed operation. • The control methods should include field weakening for high speed operation.
Additional objectives of the thesis are: Additional objectives of the thesis are:
• to find a suitable topology for CM filtering and investigate possible problems caused • to find a suitable topology for CM filtering and investigate possible problems caused
by the CM filter. by the CM filter.
• to minimize the filter cost so that the filtering requirements are fulfilled and the • to minimize the filter cost so that the filtering requirements are fulfilled and the
vector control is workable. vector control is workable.
The thesis consists of this overview and eight publications. In Chapter 2, a description The thesis consists of this overview and eight publications. In Chapter 2, a description
of the system is presented and problems caused by the PWM are discussed. Then a short of the system is presented and problems caused by the PWM are discussed. Then a short
review of inverter output filters is presented. The chapter concludes with design aspects of review of inverter output filters is presented. The chapter concludes with design aspects of
sinusoidal filters. sinusoidal filters.
In Chapter 3, the control of IM drives equipped with an LC filter is considered. The In Chapter 3, the control of IM drives equipped with an LC filter is considered. The
system model is presented, after which state-of-the-art control methods are reviewed. The system model is presented, after which state-of-the-art control methods are reviewed. The
chapter continues with presenting a cascade control structure and a full-order observer. chapter continues with presenting a cascade control structure and a full-order observer.
The observer is augmented with a speed-adaptation mechanism resulting in the proposed The observer is augmented with a speed-adaptation mechanism resulting in the proposed
speed-sensorless control method. Finally, an experimental comparison of the control per- speed-sensorless control method. Finally, an experimental comparison of the control per-
formance with and without an LC filter is shown. formance with and without an LC filter is shown.
Chapter 4 deals with the control of permanent magnet synchronous motor drives Chapter 4 deals with the control of permanent magnet synchronous motor drives
equipped with an LC filter. The system model is introduced, after which state-of-the-art equipped with an LC filter. The system model is introduced, after which state-of-the-art
control methods are reviewed. A cascade control structure similar to one used for the IM control methods are reviewed. A cascade control structure similar to one used for the IM
drive is presented. The proposed speed-adaptive full-order observer is introduced and, fi- drive is presented. The proposed speed-adaptive full-order observer is introduced and, fi-
nally, the addition of a signal-injection method is discussed. nally, the addition of a signal-injection method is discussed.
Chapter 5 describes the experimental setup used in this work. Technical data and de- Chapter 5 describes the experimental setup used in this work. Technical data and de-
scriptions of the hardware and software are given. Chapter 6 summarizes the publications scriptions of the hardware and software are given. Chapter 6 summarizes the publications
and describes the scientific contribution of the thesis. Chapter 7 concludes the thesis. and describes the scientific contribution of the thesis. Chapter 7 concludes the thesis.

19 19
20 20
Chapter 2 Chapter 2

Voltage-Source Converter and Output Voltage-Source Converter and Output


Filters Filters

In this chapter, a three-phase voltage-source converter and output filters are introduced. In this chapter, a three-phase voltage-source converter and output filters are introduced.
After showing the converter topology, the most important PWM methods are reviewed After showing the converter topology, the most important PWM methods are reviewed
and the problems caused by the PWM are dealt with. The influence of an inverter output and the problems caused by the PWM are dealt with. The influence of an inverter output
filter on the required measurements in an AC drive is discussed. Then, a review of pas- filter on the required measurements in an AC drive is discussed. Then, a review of pas-
sive inverter output filters is presented. Different filter topologies are shown, after which sive inverter output filters is presented. Different filter topologies are shown, after which
the design aspects of differential-mode (DM) and common-mode (CM) LC filters are dis- the design aspects of differential-mode (DM) and common-mode (CM) LC filters are dis-
cussed. cussed.

2.1 Voltage-Source Converter 2.1 Voltage-Source Converter


Fig. 2.1 shows a circuit diagram of a three-phase voltage-source converter (Mohan et al., Fig. 2.1 shows a circuit diagram of a three-phase voltage-source converter (Mohan et al.,
1995). A diode bridge rectifies the AC mains voltage to a DC voltage. A DC-link capaci- 1995). A diode bridge rectifies the AC mains voltage to a DC voltage. A DC-link capaci-
tor provides an energy storage for reducing the ripple in the rectified voltage. A two-level tor provides an energy storage for reducing the ripple in the rectified voltage. A two-level
inverter converts the DC voltage to an adjustable AC voltage for the motor. The inverter inverter converts the DC voltage to an adjustable AC voltage for the motor. The inverter
consists of power electronic switches, which are usually insulated gate bipolar transistors consists of power electronic switches, which are usually insulated gate bipolar transistors
(IGBTs). An output filter is useful if the adverse effects of the inverter must be attenu- (IGBTs). An output filter is useful if the adverse effects of the inverter must be attenu-
ated. Alternatives to the voltage-source converter are current-source converters and matrix ated. Alternatives to the voltage-source converter are current-source converters and matrix
converters. converters.
Each output phase of the inverter can be switched either to the positive or negative Each output phase of the inverter can be switched either to the positive or negative

Output Output
Grid

Grid
Motor Motor
filter filter

Diode bridge DC link Two-level inverter Diode bridge DC link Two-level inverter

Figure 2.1. Circuit diagram of voltage-source converter equipped with inverter output filter. Figure 2.1. Circuit diagram of voltage-source converter equipped with inverter output filter.

21 21
bus of the DC link. There are a total of eight possible combinations of switching states. bus of the DC link. There are a total of eight possible combinations of switching states.
Switching states correspond to six active space vectors and two zero space vectors for the Switching states correspond to six active space vectors and two zero space vectors for the
inverter output voltage. A desired output voltage is obtained by combining the switching inverter output voltage. A desired output voltage is obtained by combining the switching
states using PWM. A wide variety of different modulation techniques have been proposed. states using PWM. A wide variety of different modulation techniques have been proposed.
The most used ones are reviewed in the following. The most used ones are reviewed in the following.

Pulse-Width Modulation Techniques Pulse-Width Modulation Techniques


Schönung and Stemmler (1964) presented the classical sinusoidal pulse-width modulation Schönung and Stemmler (1964) presented the classical sinusoidal pulse-width modulation
(SPWM) method, in which a triangular carrier signal is compared with a sinusoidal refer- (SPWM) method, in which a triangular carrier signal is compared with a sinusoidal refer-
ence signal in each phase. This method is the basis for state-of-the-art PWM techniques. ence signal in each phase. This method is the basis for state-of-the-art PWM techniques.
A disadvantage of the SPWM method is the limited linear output voltage range. A disadvantage of the SPWM method is the limited linear output voltage range.
The addition of a zero-sequence component to the voltage references was an important The addition of a zero-sequence component to the voltage references was an important
improvement, because the linear voltage range can be increased. The modulation method improvement, because the linear voltage range can be increased. The modulation method
developed by King (1974) has later been implemented more effectively and called the developed by King (1974) has later been implemented more effectively and called the
symmetrical suboscillation method by Svensson (1988) or space vector PWM (SVPWM) symmetrical suboscillation method by Svensson (1988) or space vector PWM (SVPWM)
by van der Broeck et al. (1988). The method produces equal on-times for both zero vectors by van der Broeck et al. (1988). The method produces equal on-times for both zero vectors
during a switching period. The SVPWM maximizes the linear output voltage range. The during a switching period. The SVPWM maximizes the linear output voltage range. The
method based on the injection of a third harmonic (Houldsworth and Grant, 1984) has also method based on the injection of a third harmonic (Houldsworth and Grant, 1984) has also
gained popularity, but its linear voltage range is not as high as that of the SVPWM method. gained popularity, but its linear voltage range is not as high as that of the SVPWM method.
Two-phase modulation methods, also known as discontinuous PWM (DPWM) (De- Two-phase modulation methods, also known as discontinuous PWM (DPWM) (De-
penbrock, 1977; Ogasawara et al., 1989; Kolar et al., 1991; Hava, 1998), have been de- penbrock, 1977; Ogasawara et al., 1989; Kolar et al., 1991; Hava, 1998), have been de-
veloped to reduce the switching losses in the inverter. The switching losses are reduced, veloped to reduce the switching losses in the inverter. The switching losses are reduced,
because one phase is kept unswitched during a switching period. These methods usually because one phase is kept unswitched during a switching period. These methods usually
have the same linear voltage range as the SVPWM method. The DPWM methods cause have the same linear voltage range as the SVPWM method. The DPWM methods cause
high lower-order harmonics in the CM voltage. high lower-order harmonics in the CM voltage.
Pulse-width modulation techniques that reduce the CM voltage have also been pro- Pulse-width modulation techniques that reduce the CM voltage have also been pro-
posed (Cacciato et al., 1999; Lai, 1999; Lai and Shyu, 2004). These methods are usually posed (Cacciato et al., 1999; Lai, 1999; Lai and Shyu, 2004). These methods are usually
based on the replacement of the zero vectors by active vectors, which causes an increased based on the replacement of the zero vectors by active vectors, which causes an increased
current ripple. current ripple.

Problems Caused by PWM Voltage Problems Caused by PWM Voltage


Modern voltage-source inverters with IGBT switches generate steep voltage pulses. The Modern voltage-source inverters with IGBT switches generate steep voltage pulses. The
rate of change of the voltage (du/dt) is typically between 1 kV/µs and 5 kV/µs. The high rate of change of the voltage (du/dt) is typically between 1 kV/µs and 5 kV/µs. The high
du/dt enables lower switching losses, and thus a higher switching frequency can be used. du/dt enables lower switching losses, and thus a higher switching frequency can be used.
However, sudden alterations of the inverter output voltage can cause high-frequency oscil- However, sudden alterations of the inverter output voltage can cause high-frequency oscil-
lations and voltage overshoots (Persson, 1992; von Jouanne et al., 1995). The high du/dt lations and voltage overshoots (Persson, 1992; von Jouanne et al., 1995). The high du/dt
of the inverter output voltage can be hazardous, especially, if a long motor cable is used of the inverter output voltage can be hazardous, especially, if a long motor cable is used
between the inverter and the motor. The amplitude of the voltage overshoot at motor ter- between the inverter and the motor. The amplitude of the voltage overshoot at motor ter-
minals may be nearly two times the DC-link voltage. In particular, windings of old mo- minals may be nearly two times the DC-link voltage. In particular, windings of old mo-
tors that are not designed for a converter supply can be damaged due to the high voltage tors that are not designed for a converter supply can be damaged due to the high voltage
stresses. stresses.
The common-mode voltage (i.e. zero-sequence component of the voltage) is defined The common-mode voltage (i.e. zero-sequence component of the voltage) is defined
as as
1 1
ucm = (ua + ub + uc ) (2.1) ucm = (ua + ub + uc ) (2.1)
3 3
The sum of the phase to neutral voltages ua , ub , and uc at the inverter output is always The sum of the phase to neutral voltages ua , ub , and uc at the inverter output is always

22 22
different from zero. Thus, the three-phase inverter inherently produces a CM voltage. The different from zero. Thus, the three-phase inverter inherently produces a CM voltage. The
CM voltage and CM currents through parasitic capacitances in the motor are major causes CM voltage and CM currents through parasitic capacitances in the motor are major causes
of bearing currents. Capacitive bearing currents are generated due to the high du/dt of of bearing currents. Capacitive bearing currents are generated due to the high du/dt of
the inverter output voltage. These harmless bearing currents flow through the parasitic the inverter output voltage. These harmless bearing currents flow through the parasitic
capacitances of the bearings. More severe discharge mode bearing currents occur when capacitances of the bearings. More severe discharge mode bearing currents occur when
the voltage across the inner and outer race of the bearing exceeds its threshold value and the voltage across the inner and outer race of the bearing exceeds its threshold value and
results in a discharge through the lubricant film (Chen et al., 1995). The discharge mode results in a discharge through the lubricant film (Chen et al., 1995). The discharge mode
bearing currents are a concern especially in small motors (Muetze and Binder, 2005). bearing currents are a concern especially in small motors (Muetze and Binder, 2005).
Circulating bearing currents have been reported by Chen et al. (1996) and in more detail Circulating bearing currents have been reported by Chen et al. (1996) and in more detail
explained by Mäki-Ontto (2006). They are caused by a shaft voltage which is induced by explained by Mäki-Ontto (2006). They are caused by a shaft voltage which is induced by
a magnetic flux encircling the shaft. The magnetic flux is excited by the high-frequency a magnetic flux encircling the shaft. The magnetic flux is excited by the high-frequency
CM current. Circulating bearing currents cause problems mainly in big motors, typically CM current. Circulating bearing currents cause problems mainly in big motors, typically
above 100 kW (Muetze and Binder, 2005). Ollila et al. (1997) have presented a bearing above 100 kW (Muetze and Binder, 2005). Ollila et al. (1997) have presented a bearing
current type which may occur if the rotor is connected to the ground with a significantly current type which may occur if the rotor is connected to the ground with a significantly
lower impedance path than the stator housing. lower impedance path than the stator housing.
The additional losses due to the PWM may cause overheating inside the motor. The The additional losses due to the PWM may cause overheating inside the motor. The
iron losses can be even 50% higher in the inverter-supplied motor than in the grid-supplied iron losses can be even 50% higher in the inverter-supplied motor than in the grid-supplied
motor (Green et al., 2003). The audible noise level of the motor is clearly increased due to motor (Green et al., 2003). The audible noise level of the motor is clearly increased due to
the inverter supply. As stated by Belmans et al. (1987), high noise levels may be expected the inverter supply. As stated by Belmans et al. (1987), high noise levels may be expected
when the inverter output voltage contains harmonics at the natural frequency of the stator. when the inverter output voltage contains harmonics at the natural frequency of the stator.
In order to mitigate the harmful effects of the PWM, filters can be used at the inverter In order to mitigate the harmful effects of the PWM, filters can be used at the inverter
output. Different passive filter topologies are reviewed in Sections 2.2 and 2.3. output. Different passive filter topologies are reviewed in Sections 2.2 and 2.3.

Measurements in AC Drives Measurements in AC Drives


Feedback from the system is needed in order to have precise control over the torque and Feedback from the system is needed in order to have precise control over the torque and
speed of the motor. Fig. 2.2 shows an AC drive in which an output filter is connected speed of the motor. Fig. 2.2 shows an AC drive in which an output filter is connected
between the inverter and the motor. The drive is equipped with measurements from the between the inverter and the motor. The drive is equipped with measurements from the
DC-link voltage udc , the inverter output current iA , inverter output voltage uA , the stator DC-link voltage udc , the inverter output current iA , inverter output voltage uA , the stator
current is , the stator voltage us , and the rotor speed ωm . This amount of measurements current is , the stator voltage us , and the rotor speed ωm . This amount of measurements
would require many sensors, A/D converters, and signal wires to be connected to the fre- would require many sensors, A/D converters, and signal wires to be connected to the fre-
quency converter. A reduction in the number of measurements is highly desirable. quency converter. A reduction in the number of measurements is highly desirable.
A standard frequency converter, which is designed to be used without an inverter output A standard frequency converter, which is designed to be used without an inverter output
filter, contains only the inverter output current measurement and possibly the DC-link filter, contains only the inverter output current measurement and possibly the DC-link

Control Control
udc uA is us ωm udc uA is us ωm
iA iA

M M

Output filter Output filter


Diode bridge Inverter Diode bridge Inverter

Figure 2.2. Possible measurements in AC drive when inverter output filter is used. Double lines Figure 2.2. Possible measurements in AC drive when inverter output filter is used. Double lines
indicate complex quantities (space vectors) whereas single lines indicate real quantities (scalars) indicate complex quantities (space vectors) whereas single lines indicate real quantities (scalars)

23 23
voltage and the rotor speed measurements. Typically, the vector control of AC motors voltage and the rotor speed measurements. Typically, the vector control of AC motors
needs feedback from the stator current, the stator voltage, and the rotor speed (or position). needs feedback from the stator current, the stator voltage, and the rotor speed (or position).
If an output filter is not used, the inverter output current equals the stator current (with the If an output filter is not used, the inverter output current equals the stator current (with the
exception of high-frequency phenomena due to parasitic capacitances of the motor cable). exception of high-frequency phenomena due to parasitic capacitances of the motor cable).
The feedback for the stator current control is provided by current sensors at the inverter The feedback for the stator current control is provided by current sensors at the inverter
output. On the other hand, if an output filter is used, the inverter output current differs output. On the other hand, if an output filter is used, the inverter output current differs
from the stator current. Therefore, current sensors at the inverter output do not directly from the stator current. Therefore, current sensors at the inverter output do not directly
provide a feedback for the stator current control. Adding current sensors to the motor side provide a feedback for the stator current control. Adding current sensors to the motor side
of the filter is one possible solution, but it would require additional hardware (wiring, A/D of the filter is one possible solution, but it would require additional hardware (wiring, A/D
converters, etc.) to a standard frequency converter. converters, etc.) to a standard frequency converter.
If an inverter output filter is not used, the direct measurement of the stator voltage is If an inverter output filter is not used, the direct measurement of the stator voltage is
problematic because of the PWM output voltage. Filtering of the measured stator voltage problematic because of the PWM output voltage. Filtering of the measured stator voltage
causes a harmful delay in the control. Typically, the stator voltage is calculated from the causes a harmful delay in the control. Typically, the stator voltage is calculated from the
DC-link voltage and the inverter switching states. The DC-link voltage is ideally constant, DC-link voltage and the inverter switching states. The DC-link voltage is ideally constant,
but in practice it depends on the mains voltage and load conditions. The DC voltage ripple but in practice it depends on the mains voltage and load conditions. The DC voltage ripple
may cause torque and speed variations in the motor. The ripple is usually compensated may cause torque and speed variations in the motor. The ripple is usually compensated
by measuring the DC-link voltage (Pedersen et al., 1993). The calculated stator voltage by measuring the DC-link voltage (Pedersen et al., 1993). The calculated stator voltage
may also be inaccurate because of the inverter nonidealities. Inverter nonidealities include may also be inaccurate because of the inverter nonidealities. Inverter nonidealities include
dead-time effect (Murai et al., 1987), minimum pulse width limitation, changes in the slope dead-time effect (Murai et al., 1987), minimum pulse width limitation, changes in the slope
of the rising and falling edges of the inverter output voltage due to parasitic capacitances of the rising and falling edges of the inverter output voltage due to parasitic capacitances
of the semiconductors (Sepe and Lang, 1994), zero-current clamping during the dead time of the semiconductors (Sepe and Lang, 1994), zero-current clamping during the dead time
(Murai et al., 1992b; Choi and Sul, 1995), and voltage drops in the semiconductors. In (Murai et al., 1992b; Choi and Sul, 1995), and voltage drops in the semiconductors. In
this thesis, simple current feedforward compensation for dead times and semiconductor this thesis, simple current feedforward compensation for dead times and semiconductor
voltage drops was used in a fashion similar to Pedersen et al. (1993). voltage drops was used in a fashion similar to Pedersen et al. (1993).
If a sinusoidal filter is used at the inverter output, the stator voltage does not contain If a sinusoidal filter is used at the inverter output, the stator voltage does not contain
a significant amount of harmonics, and the direct measurement of the stator voltage is a significant amount of harmonics, and the direct measurement of the stator voltage is
possible. Nevertheless, the stator voltage measurement would require additional hardware possible. Nevertheless, the stator voltage measurement would require additional hardware
to a standard frequency converter. to a standard frequency converter.
Information about the rotor speed is necessary for the speed control and it is useful Information about the rotor speed is necessary for the speed control and it is useful
in estimating the magnetic flux for the vector control. In synchronous motor drives, rotor in estimating the magnetic flux for the vector control. In synchronous motor drives, rotor
position information is essential for the vector control. The rotor speed or position can position information is essential for the vector control. The rotor speed or position can
be measured using a motion sensor that is mounted on the motor shaft. Alternatively, the be measured using a motion sensor that is mounted on the motor shaft. Alternatively, the
rotor speed or position can be estimated using sensorless control techniques. rotor speed or position can be estimated using sensorless control techniques.
If an inverter output filter is used, the ideal solution for the vector control would be a If an inverter output filter is used, the ideal solution for the vector control would be a
method that does not need any additional measurement. If the vector control is possible method that does not need any additional measurement. If the vector control is possible
measuring only the inverter output current and the DC-link voltage, an output filter can be measuring only the inverter output current and the DC-link voltage, an output filter can be
added to a standard frequency converter without any hardware modifications. added to a standard frequency converter without any hardware modifications.

2.2 Output Inductors 2.2 Output Inductors


A simple and low-cost method for low-pass filtering of the inverter output voltage is to A simple and low-cost method for low-pass filtering of the inverter output voltage is to
use output inductors as shown in Fig. 2.3. Output inductors are also known as output use output inductors as shown in Fig. 2.3. Output inductors are also known as output
chokes, motor chokes, or series reactors. The topology provides an additional inductance chokes, motor chokes, or series reactors. The topology provides an additional inductance
to the system, which results in a lower du/dt at the motor terminals. Output inductors are to the system, which results in a lower du/dt at the motor terminals. Output inductors are
mainly used to reduce motor insulation stress. They have limited effect on the induced mainly used to reduce motor insulation stress. They have limited effect on the induced
shaft voltage and EMI (von Jouanne et al., 1998). According to Hanigovszki et al. (2003), shaft voltage and EMI (von Jouanne et al., 1998). According to Hanigovszki et al. (2003),
output inductors increase the CM oscillations when a long cable is used. Output inductors output inductors increase the CM oscillations when a long cable is used. Output inductors

24 24
Motor

Motor
Grid

Grid
Figure 2.3. Output inductors. Figure 2.3. Output inductors.

(a) (b) (a) (b)

Figure 2.4. (a) Common-mode inductor, (b) common-mode transformer. Figure 2.4. (a) Common-mode inductor, (b) common-mode transformer.

are usually built on a three-legged laminated steel core, but also three separate cores can are usually built on a three-legged laminated steel core, but also three separate cores can
be used. Acoustic noise due to the magnetostriction can be reduced by using iron powder be used. Acoustic noise due to the magnetostriction can be reduced by using iron powder
pot cores (Hanigovszki et al., 2003). pot cores (Hanigovszki et al., 2003).
A means to reduce the CM current is to add a CM inductor to the inverter output as A means to reduce the CM current is to add a CM inductor to the inverter output as
illustrated in Fig. 2.4(a). Either wound or feed-through toroidal CM chokes can be used illustrated in Fig. 2.4(a). Either wound or feed-through toroidal CM chokes can be used
(Muetze, 2005). Since the CM inductor should maintain its inductive characteristics up to (Muetze, 2005). Since the CM inductor should maintain its inductive characteristics up to
a few MHz, the core material is usually ferrite. Low-loss ferrite cores may cause extended a few MHz, the core material is usually ferrite. Low-loss ferrite cores may cause extended
ringing due to a low damping factor (Finlayson, 1998). Thus, additional damping is usually ringing due to a low damping factor (Finlayson, 1998). Thus, additional damping is usually
needed. Fig. 2.4(b) shows one solution developed by Ogasawara and Akagi (1996). A needed. Fig. 2.4(b) shows one solution developed by Ogasawara and Akagi (1996). A
damping resistor is connected to the terminals of an additional winding. According to damping resistor is connected to the terminals of an additional winding. According to
Ogasawara and Akagi, the size of this CM transformer is one third of the conventional Ogasawara and Akagi, the size of this CM transformer is one third of the conventional
CM inductor. CM inductor.

2.3 LC Filters 2.3 LC Filters


Output inductors are not always sufficient to mitigate high frequencies from the inverter Output inductors are not always sufficient to mitigate high frequencies from the inverter
output voltage. LC filters are more effective than output inductors. A basic LC filter topol- output voltage. LC filters are more effective than output inductors. A basic LC filter topol-
ogy is shown in Fig. 2.5(a). It consists of three inductors and three capacitors. Many mod- ogy is shown in Fig. 2.5(a). It consists of three inductors and three capacitors. Many mod-
ifications of this topology have been presented. Depending on the cut-off frequency, the ifications of this topology have been presented. Depending on the cut-off frequency, the
filters can be divided into du/dt filters and sinusoidal filters. The cut-off frequency of the filters can be divided into du/dt filters and sinusoidal filters. The cut-off frequency of the
du/dt filter is above the switching frequency of the inverter, whereas the cut-off frequency du/dt filter is above the switching frequency of the inverter, whereas the cut-off frequency
of the sinusoidal filter is below the switching frequency. Fig. 2.6 shows an example of the of the sinusoidal filter is below the switching frequency. Fig. 2.6 shows an example of the
magnitude response from the inverter output voltage to the stator voltage, when an LC filter magnitude response from the inverter output voltage to the stator voltage, when an LC filter
is connected to an IM drive. The cut-off frequency of the system, i.e. the frequency where is connected to an IM drive. The cut-off frequency of the system, i.e. the frequency where
the magnitude response is −3 dB, is approximately 1.8 kHz. If the switching frequency is, the magnitude response is −3 dB, is approximately 1.8 kHz. If the switching frequency is,
for example, 5 kHz, the filter attenuates the switching noise effectively. for example, 5 kHz, the filter attenuates the switching noise effectively.

25 25
(a) (b) (a) (b)

Figure 2.5. (a) Three-phase LC filter, (b) three-phase LCR filter. Figure 2.5. (a) Three-phase LC filter, (b) three-phase LCR filter.

50 50
Magnitude (dB)

Magnitude (dB)
0 0

-50 -50

-100 -100
100 101 102 103 104 105 100 101 102 103 104 105
Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz)

Figure 2.6. Magnitude response from inverter output voltage to stator voltage in IM drive equipped Figure 2.6. Magnitude response from inverter output voltage to stator voltage in IM drive equipped
with LC filter. with LC filter.

du/dt Filters du/dt Filters

An LCR filter, shown in Fig. 2.5(b), has been used to decrease the differential-mode du/dt An LCR filter, shown in Fig. 2.5(b), has been used to decrease the differential-mode du/dt
of the inverter output voltage (von Jouanne and Enjeti, 1997). Filter resistors are used to of the inverter output voltage (von Jouanne and Enjeti, 1997). Filter resistors are used to
obtain an overdamped circuit and to absorb the reflected energy. The filter effectively re- obtain an overdamped circuit and to absorb the reflected energy. The filter effectively re-
duces motor terminal overvoltages. Another du/dt filter topology, proposed by Rendusara duces motor terminal overvoltages. Another du/dt filter topology, proposed by Rendusara
and Enjeti (1998), is shown in Fig. 2.7. The star point of the LCR filter capacitors is and Enjeti (1998), is shown in Fig. 2.7. The star point of the LCR filter capacitors is
connected to the DC-link midpoint. This topology reduces both DM and CM du/dt. Sig- connected to the DC-link midpoint. This topology reduces both DM and CM du/dt. Sig-
nificant reductions in motor terminal overvoltages, high-frequency leakage currents, and nificant reductions in motor terminal overvoltages, high-frequency leakage currents, and
induced shaft voltages can be obtained. If the DC-link midpoint is not available, the filter induced shaft voltages can be obtained. If the DC-link midpoint is not available, the filter
topology presented by Palma and Enjeti (2002) can be used. Two neutral points obtained topology presented by Palma and Enjeti (2002) can be used. Two neutral points obtained
by using six resistors and six capacitors are connected to the positive and negative DC by using six resistors and six capacitors are connected to the positive and negative DC
buses, respectively. buses, respectively.
Kim and Sul (1997d) proposed a clamping filter shown in Fig. 2.8. Six clamping diodes Kim and Sul (1997d) proposed a clamping filter shown in Fig. 2.8. Six clamping diodes
are used to connect each phase to both positive and negative DC buses. The topology are used to connect each phase to both positive and negative DC buses. The topology
decreases the du/dt at the motor terminals and, in addition, removes the voltage peaks decreases the du/dt at the motor terminals and, in addition, removes the voltage peaks
due to ringing. The advantages of this topology compared to the LCR filter are smaller due to ringing. The advantages of this topology compared to the LCR filter are smaller
size and smaller power losses. In another clamping filter, presented by Hanigovszki et al. size and smaller power losses. In another clamping filter, presented by Hanigovszki et al.
(2004), the star point of the filter capacitors is connected to the DC link using only two (2004), the star point of the filter capacitors is connected to the DC link using only two
diodes as shown in Fig. 2.9. This topology also reduces motor terminal voltage overshoot diodes as shown in Fig. 2.9. This topology also reduces motor terminal voltage overshoot
significantly. significantly.

26 26
Motor

Motor
Grid

Grid
Figure 2.7. LCR filter with connection to DC-link midpoint (Rendusara and Enjeti, 1998). Figure 2.7. LCR filter with connection to DC-link midpoint (Rendusara and Enjeti, 1998).

Motor

Motor
Grid

Grid
Figure 2.8. Clamping filter with six diodes (Kim and Sul, 1997d). Figure 2.8. Clamping filter with six diodes (Kim and Sul, 1997d).
Motor

Motor
Grid

Grid
Figure 2.9. Clamping filter with two diodes (Hanigovszki et al., 2004). Figure 2.9. Clamping filter with two diodes (Hanigovszki et al., 2004).

27 27
Sinusoidal Filters Sinusoidal Filters
An LC filter, shown in Fig. 2.5(a), is the basic filtering device when close to a sinusoidal An LC filter, shown in Fig. 2.5(a), is the basic filtering device when close to a sinusoidal
voltage waveform is needed. The sinusoidal LC filter does not require an additional resis- voltage waveform is needed. The sinusoidal LC filter does not require an additional resis-
tor if the inverter output voltage does not include significant harmonics near the system tor if the inverter output voltage does not include significant harmonics near the system
resonance frequency. Usually, the internal resistance of the inductor is sufficient. A weak- resonance frequency. Usually, the internal resistance of the inductor is sufficient. A weak-
ness of this topology is that it does not filter the CM voltage. Various sinusoidal filters ness of this topology is that it does not filter the CM voltage. Various sinusoidal filters
reducing both DM and CM voltages have been proposed. Murai et al. (1992a) connected reducing both DM and CM voltages have been proposed. Murai et al. (1992a) connected
the star point of the LC filter capacitors to the negative DC bus in order to provide a route the star point of the LC filter capacitors to the negative DC bus in order to provide a route
for a CM current (Fig. 2.10). The six diodes are only optional; they are not needed if the for a CM current (Fig. 2.10). The six diodes are only optional; they are not needed if the
switching frequency is high. The filter substantially suppresses the leakage currents of the switching frequency is high. The filter substantially suppresses the leakage currents of the
motor. motor.
The topology shown in Fig. 2.11 was proposed by Akagi et al. (2004). A separate CM The topology shown in Fig. 2.11 was proposed by Akagi et al. (2004). A separate CM
inductor is added in front of an LCR filter, and the star point of the filter capacitors is inductor is added in front of an LCR filter, and the star point of the filter capacitors is
connected to the negative DC bus through a series connected capacitor and resistor. An connected to the negative DC bus through a series connected capacitor and resistor. An
advantage of this topology is that the DM and CM filters can be designed separately. advantage of this topology is that the DM and CM filters can be designed separately.
Fig. 2.12 shows an “all-cure filter” introduced by Hanigovszki (2005). The filter con- Fig. 2.12 shows an “all-cure filter” introduced by Hanigovszki (2005). The filter con-
sists of separate DM and CM filters with DC link connections to both negative and positive sists of separate DM and CM filters with DC link connections to both negative and positive
DC buses. The left-hand side CM inductor is meant to filter the frequencies in the range DC buses. The left-hand side CM inductor is meant to filter the frequencies in the range
of the switching frequency. The right-hand side CM inductor is added in order to filter of the switching frequency. The right-hand side CM inductor is added in order to filter
frequencies above 150 kHz. According to Hanigovszki, the filter reduces motor insulation frequencies above 150 kHz. According to Hanigovszki, the filter reduces motor insulation
and bearing stress, acoustic switching noise, and high-frequency emissions to the mains. and bearing stress, acoustic switching noise, and high-frequency emissions to the mains.
Furthermore, when using the filter, the motor cable length does not need to be limited. Furthermore, when using the filter, the motor cable length does not need to be limited.
Several output filter topologies that are based on the CM transformer have been pre- Several output filter topologies that are based on the CM transformer have been pre-
sented (Murai et al., 1992a; Swamy et al., 2001; Chen et al., 2007). Fig. 2.13 shows the sented (Murai et al., 1992a; Swamy et al., 2001; Chen et al., 2007). Fig. 2.13 shows the
topology of a “potential-type suppression circuit” proposed by Murai et al. (1992a). The topology of a “potential-type suppression circuit” proposed by Murai et al. (1992a). The
Y-connected resistors and capacitors provide an artificial neutral point, which is connected Y-connected resistors and capacitors provide an artificial neutral point, which is connected
to the ground through an additional winding of the CM transformer. The CM voltage at to the ground through an additional winding of the CM transformer. The CM voltage at
the artificial neutral point generates a CM current through an additional winding of the the artificial neutral point generates a CM current through an additional winding of the
CM transformer. The CM current induces a voltage, equal to the CM voltage, across the CM transformer. The CM current induces a voltage, equal to the CM voltage, across the
other windings of the CM transformer and cancels the CM voltage at the motor terminals. other windings of the CM transformer and cancels the CM voltage at the motor terminals.
The output filter in Fig. 2.14 is a combination of a differential-mode LCR filter and a CM The output filter in Fig. 2.14 is a combination of a differential-mode LCR filter and a CM
transformer with one winding connected to the DC-link midpoint (Chen et al., 2007). As transformer with one winding connected to the DC-link midpoint (Chen et al., 2007). As
compared to the topology in Fig. 2.11, the filter by Chen et al. needs one capacitor less, compared to the topology in Fig. 2.11, the filter by Chen et al. needs one capacitor less,
but it requires one winding more in the CM transformer. The analysis of the CM circuit is but it requires one winding more in the CM transformer. The analysis of the CM circuit is
more complicated for the filter by Chen et al. than for the filter by Akagi et al. (2004). more complicated for the filter by Chen et al. than for the filter by Akagi et al. (2004).

Selection of Filter Selection of Filter


A three-phase LC filter shown in Fig. 2.5(a) was selected in this thesis, because it is a A three-phase LC filter shown in Fig. 2.5(a) was selected in this thesis, because it is a
widely used topology for DM sinusoidal filters. An LC filter was used in Publications widely used topology for DM sinusoidal filters. An LC filter was used in Publications
I–III and V–VIII. A slightly modified version of the topology shown in Fig. 2.11 was I–III and V–VIII. A slightly modified version of the topology shown in Fig. 2.11 was
selected in Publication IV to investigate the suitability of different PWM methods. The selected in Publication IV to investigate the suitability of different PWM methods. The
modification was that the three-phase LCR filter was replaced by a three-phase LC filter. modification was that the three-phase LCR filter was replaced by a three-phase LC filter.
The topology was selected because it filters both DM and CM voltages effectively, and the The topology was selected because it filters both DM and CM voltages effectively, and the
CM circuit is simple to analyze. It also has well-documented design rules by Akagi et al. CM circuit is simple to analyze. It also has well-documented design rules by Akagi et al.
(2004). (2004).

28 28
Motor

Motor
Grid

Grid
Figure 2.10. Sinusoidal filter with clamp circuit and connection to negative DC bus (Murai et al., Figure 2.10. Sinusoidal filter with clamp circuit and connection to negative DC bus (Murai et al.,
1992a). 1992a).

Motor

Motor
Grid

Grid
Figure 2.11. Sinusoidal filter with connection to negative DC bus (Akagi et al., 2004). Figure 2.11. Sinusoidal filter with connection to negative DC bus (Akagi et al., 2004).
Motor

Motor
Grid

Grid

Figure 2.12. “All-cure filter” (Hanigovszki, 2005). Figure 2.12. “All-cure filter” (Hanigovszki, 2005).

29 29
Motor

Motor
Grid

Grid
Figure 2.13. CM filter with artificial neutral point connected to ground through CM transformer Figure 2.13. CM filter with artificial neutral point connected to ground through CM transformer
(Murai et al., 1992a). (Murai et al., 1992a).

Motor

Motor
Grid

Grid
Figure 2.14. Differential and CM filter with CM transformer (Chen et al., 2007). Figure 2.14. Differential and CM filter with CM transformer (Chen et al., 2007).

2.4 Design Aspects of Sinusoidal Filters 2.4 Design Aspects of Sinusoidal Filters
The inverter output filter can be designed basing on different design criteria. These criteria The inverter output filter can be designed basing on different design criteria. These criteria
may include filtering performance, filter size and cost, losses in the filter, losses in the may include filtering performance, filter size and cost, losses in the filter, losses in the
whole drive, influence on the load capability, and influence on the control. Usually, the whole drive, influence on the load capability, and influence on the control. Usually, the
design is a compromise between the filtering performance and the cost. In this section, the design is a compromise between the filtering performance and the cost. In this section, the
design aspects of both DM and CM sinusoidal output filters are reviewed. design aspects of both DM and CM sinusoidal output filters are reviewed.

Differential-Mode Filter Design Differential-Mode Filter Design


Sinusoidal filters are usually second-order low-pass filters, meaning that the topology is Sinusoidal filters are usually second-order low-pass filters, meaning that the topology is
either LC or LCR. The selection of the resonance frequency1 is important, because it de- either LC or LCR. The selection of the resonance frequency1 is important, because it de-
termines the width of the pass band. In the stop band, the voltage attenuation slope is termines the width of the pass band. In the stop band, the voltage attenuation slope is
40 dB/decade as shown in Fig. 2.6. van der Broeck and Loef (1995) chose the resonance 40 dB/decade as shown in Fig. 2.6. van der Broeck and Loef (1995) chose the resonance
frequency to be one tenth of the switching frequency in order to have the total distortion frequency to be one tenth of the switching frequency in order to have the total distortion
factor2 of the stator voltage less than 1%. Xiyou et al. (2002) proposed a design method factor2 of the stator voltage less than 1%. Xiyou et al. (2002) proposed a design method
where the THD of the motor voltage is preferably less than 5%, resulting in the resonance where the THD of the motor voltage is preferably less than 5%, resulting in the resonance
frequency that is 30% of the switching frequency. Hanigovszki (2005) introduced a con- frequency that is 30% of the switching frequency. Hanigovszki (2005) introduced a con-
dition for the cut-off frequency of the filter: the cut-off frequency should be at least ten dition for the cut-off frequency of the filter: the cut-off frequency should be at least ten
times higher than the highest fundamental frequency and less than half of the switching times higher than the highest fundamental frequency and less than half of the switching
frequency. frequency.
1 1
The resonance frequency is defined as fres = 2π√1LC . The resonance frequency is defined as fres = 2π√1LC .
2 2
The RMS of the harmonics divided by the RMS of the signal The RMS of the harmonics divided by the RMS of the signal

30 30
Another design criterion is the voltage drop in the filter inductor at the nominal oper- Another design criterion is the voltage drop in the filter inductor at the nominal oper-
ating point of the motor. If the fundamental frequency is high, the voltage drop may rise ating point of the motor. If the fundamental frequency is high, the voltage drop may rise
to unacceptable values. Xiyou et al. (2002) required the voltage drop to be less than 5% of to unacceptable values. Xiyou et al. (2002) required the voltage drop to be less than 5% of
the rated output voltage at the nominal speed. the rated output voltage at the nominal speed.
The filter capacitors provide a low-impedance route for high-frequency currents. These The filter capacitors provide a low-impedance route for high-frequency currents. These
currents are limited mainly by the filter inductor. In some filter design papers, a limit is currents are limited mainly by the filter inductor. In some filter design papers, a limit is
specified for the harmonic content of the inverter output current. Xiyou et al. (2002) limited specified for the harmonic content of the inverter output current. Xiyou et al. (2002) limited
the harmonic content to be less than 20% of the rated current capacity of the drive. Akagi the harmonic content to be less than 20% of the rated current capacity of the drive. Akagi
et al. (2004) set the limit to 10%. et al. (2004) set the limit to 10%.
The cost of the inverter output filter may be significant, and thus the component prices The cost of the inverter output filter may be significant, and thus the component prices
should be taken into account in the filter design. Seguier and Labrique (1993) simply used should be taken into account in the filter design. Seguier and Labrique (1993) simply used
the product of the inductance and the capacitance to estimate the filter price. A more so- the product of the inductance and the capacitance to estimate the filter price. A more so-
phisticated approximation was used by Wheeler and Grant (1997) and Xiyou et al. (2002). phisticated approximation was used by Wheeler and Grant (1997) and Xiyou et al. (2002).
The cost of the inductor and capacitor was approximated by a linear function of the power The cost of the inductor and capacitor was approximated by a linear function of the power
rating of the component. In addition to the component prices, the cost of the filter is com- rating of the component. In addition to the component prices, the cost of the filter is com-
posed of the enclosure cost, the manufacturing cost, and the possible cooling cost. These posed of the enclosure cost, the manufacturing cost, and the possible cooling cost. These
costs are difficult to be included in the filter design and, therefore, they are not taken into costs are difficult to be included in the filter design and, therefore, they are not taken into
account. account.
In Publication VIII, the THD of the stator voltage is limited to 4%, the THD of the In Publication VIII, the THD of the stator voltage is limited to 4%, the THD of the
inverter output current is limited to 20%, and the voltage drop in the filter inductor is inverter output current is limited to 20%, and the voltage drop in the filter inductor is
limited to 3% in the nominal operating point. The resonance frequency of the system is limited to 3% in the nominal operating point. The resonance frequency of the system is
suggested to be less than 25% of the sampling frequency in order to have workable vector suggested to be less than 25% of the sampling frequency in order to have workable vector
control. Filter component costs are taken into account in a fashion similar to Xiyou et al. control. Filter component costs are taken into account in a fashion similar to Xiyou et al.
(2002). Furthermore, the inverter cost is taken into account in order to find an optimum (2002). Furthermore, the inverter cost is taken into account in order to find an optimum
switching frequency that minimizes the total cost of the filter and the inverter power stage. switching frequency that minimizes the total cost of the filter and the inverter power stage.
According to the results in Publication VIII, the filter designed according to the proposed According to the results in Publication VIII, the filter designed according to the proposed
design procedure fulfils the filtering requirements and the vector control works properly. design procedure fulfils the filtering requirements and the vector control works properly.

Common-Mode Filter Design Common-Mode Filter Design


The CM filter design is affected by the DM filter, because DM filter components are a part The CM filter design is affected by the DM filter, because DM filter components are a part
of the CM circuit. For example, the filter in Fig. 2.11 has all DM filter components in the of the CM circuit. For example, the filter in Fig. 2.11 has all DM filter components in the
CM circuit. Therefore, the CM filter should be designed after the DM filter. CM circuit. Therefore, the CM filter should be designed after the DM filter.
The CM inductor design is an important part of the CM filter design. The inductor The CM inductor design is an important part of the CM filter design. The inductor
should be designed so that the core does not saturate, because the saturation may lead should be designed so that the core does not saturate, because the saturation may lead
to excessive CM currents. Akagi et al. (2004) have designed the CM inductor such that to excessive CM currents. Akagi et al. (2004) have designed the CM inductor such that
the maximum flux density inside the CM inductor core, at the fundamental frequency the maximum flux density inside the CM inductor core, at the fundamental frequency
of 40 Hz, is half of the saturation flux density of the core material. Akagi et al. have of 40 Hz, is half of the saturation flux density of the core material. Akagi et al. have
shown that the CM inductor core does not saturate in the worst operation point, i.e. in shown that the CM inductor core does not saturate in the worst operation point, i.e. in
the operation point where the reference of the inverter output voltage is zero. A more the operation point where the reference of the inverter output voltage is zero. A more
straightforward way to design the CM inductor would be to limit the maximum flux density straightforward way to design the CM inductor would be to limit the maximum flux density
below the saturation flux density directly in the worst operation point. Hanigovszki (2005) below the saturation flux density directly in the worst operation point. Hanigovszki (2005)
has limited the CM current to be less than 25% of the nominal current of the drive. Due to has limited the CM current to be less than 25% of the nominal current of the drive. Due to
this limitation, a high CM inductance is needed in low-power drives (less than 0.75 kW) this limitation, a high CM inductance is needed in low-power drives (less than 0.75 kW)
at a typical switching frequency of 5 kHz. at a typical switching frequency of 5 kHz.
After the CM inductance is determined, the capacitance of the CM filter is selected so After the CM inductance is determined, the capacitance of the CM filter is selected so
that the desired resonance frequency of the CM filter is obtained. Akagi et al. (2004) have that the desired resonance frequency of the CM filter is obtained. Akagi et al. (2004) have
set the resonance frequency to 1/10 . . . 1/6 times the switching frequency. The resistor of set the resonance frequency to 1/10 . . . 1/6 times the switching frequency. The resistor of

31 31
the CM filter is selected so that the quality factor3 of the filter is between 5 and 8. the CM filter is selected so that the quality factor3 of the filter is between 5 and 8.
Chen et al. (2007) have presented a design method for a CM filter based on the CM Chen et al. (2007) have presented a design method for a CM filter based on the CM
transformer. All self and mutual inductances of the CM transformer are set equal at a value transformer. All self and mutual inductances of the CM transformer are set equal at a value
that is 2 . . . 3 times the inductance of the DM filter. The resistor of the CM filter is selected that is 2 . . . 3 times the inductance of the DM filter. The resistor of the CM filter is selected
so that the quality factor is between 1 and 5. so that the quality factor is between 1 and 5.
Common-mode filtering may cause problems when certain PWM methods are used. Common-mode filtering may cause problems when certain PWM methods are used.
According to Publication IV, two-phase modulation methods (also known as discontinu- According to Publication IV, two-phase modulation methods (also known as discontinu-
ous PWM methods) are not suitable when a sinusoidal CM filter is used. The avoidance ous PWM methods) are not suitable when a sinusoidal CM filter is used. The avoidance
of the two-phase PWM schemes has already been advised by van der Broeck and Loef of the two-phase PWM schemes has already been advised by van der Broeck and Loef
(1995), but no analysis or results were presented. Two-phase modulation methods gen- (1995), but no analysis or results were presented. Two-phase modulation methods gen-
erate significant zero-sequence components close to the resonance frequency of the CM erate significant zero-sequence components close to the resonance frequency of the CM
filter. The excitation of the filter resonance causes a high CM current, which saturates the filter. The excitation of the filter resonance causes a high CM current, which saturates the
CM inductor. Three-phase modulation methods, e.g. SPWM and SVPWM, do not gener- CM inductor. Three-phase modulation methods, e.g. SPWM and SVPWM, do not gener-
ate notable zero-sequence components close to the resonance frequency of the CM filter, ate notable zero-sequence components close to the resonance frequency of the CM filter,
therefore they are recommended to be used with a sinusoidal CM filter. The starting of therefore they are recommended to be used with a sinusoidal CM filter. The starting of
the modulation may also cause problems, but they can be solved by modifying the on- the modulation may also cause problems, but they can be solved by modifying the on-
durations of the zero vectors as proposed in Publication IV. durations of the zero vectors as proposed in Publication IV.

q q
3 1 L 3 1 L
The quality factor is defined as Q = R C The quality factor is defined as Q = R C

32 32
Chapter 3 Chapter 3

Control of IM Drives Equipped With an Control of IM Drives Equipped With an


LC Filter LC Filter

In this chapter, a system model is presented for a three-phase LC filter and an induc- In this chapter, a system model is presented for a three-phase LC filter and an induc-
tion motor (IM). State-of-the-art control methods are reviewed for such a system. Then, tion motor (IM). State-of-the-art control methods are reviewed for such a system. Then,
the cascade control structure, full-order observer, and the speed adaptation mechanism the cascade control structure, full-order observer, and the speed adaptation mechanism
proposed in this thesis are presented. Finally, an experimental comparison of the control proposed in this thesis are presented. Finally, an experimental comparison of the control
performance with and without an LC filter is shown. performance with and without an LC filter is shown.

3.1 System Model 3.1 System Model


Space Vectors Space Vectors
Space vectors are useful in the modeling of three-phase systems. They were originally Space vectors are useful in the modeling of three-phase systems. They were originally
developed by Kovács and Rácz (1959). The space vector represents a three-phase quantity developed by Kovács and Rácz (1959). The space vector represents a three-phase quantity
such as current or voltage as a complex quantity xs defined by such as current or voltage as a complex quantity xs defined by
2  2 
xs = xa + xb ej2π/3 + xc ej4π/3 (3.1) xs = xa + xb ej2π/3 + xc ej4π/3 (3.1)
3 3
where xa , xb , and xc are the phase quantities that may vary in time. The superscript s where xa , xb , and xc are the phase quantities that may vary in time. The superscript s
indicates that the space vector is expressed in the stationary reference frame. The space indicates that the space vector is expressed in the stationary reference frame. The space
vector can be divided into real and imaginary parts: xs = xα + jxβ . vector can be divided into real and imaginary parts: xs = xα + jxβ .
The space vectors can be expressed in different reference frames. Coordinate transfor- The space vectors can be expressed in different reference frames. Coordinate transfor-
mation between a general reference frame and the stationary reference frame is mation between a general reference frame and the stationary reference frame is

xk = xs e−jθk (3.2) xk = xs e−jθk (3.2)

where θk is the angle of the general reference frame with respect to the stationary reference where θk is the angle of the general reference frame with respect to the stationary reference
frame. The space vector expressed in the general reference frame can be divided into real frame. The space vector expressed in the general reference frame can be divided into real
and imaginary parts as xk = xd + jxq . and imaginary parts as xk = xd + jxq .
The zero-sequence component of the phase quantities is not included in space vectors. The zero-sequence component of the phase quantities is not included in space vectors.
If zero-sequence components are needed, they can be treated separately. The definition of If zero-sequence components are needed, they can be treated separately. The definition of
the zero-sequence component is the zero-sequence component is
1 1
x0 = (xa + xb + xc ) (3.3) x0 = (xa + xb + xc ) (3.3)
3 3

33 33
ωm,ref ωm,ref
iA iA
Control Control
udc Lf udc Lf
us is us is
Grid

Grid
IM IM

uA uA
Diode bridge Inverter Cf Diode bridge Inverter Cf

Figure 3.1. Induction motor (IM) drive equipped with three-phase LC filter. Figure 3.1. Induction motor (IM) drive equipped with three-phase LC filter.

LC Filter and Induction Motor LC Filter and Induction Motor


Fig. 3.1 shows a drive system consisting of a frequency converter, LC filter, and induction Fig. 3.1 shows a drive system consisting of a frequency converter, LC filter, and induction
motor. The inverter output voltage uA is filtered by an LC filter, and the induction motor motor. The inverter output voltage uA is filtered by an LC filter, and the induction motor
is fed by the filtered voltage us . The inverter output current and the stator current are is fed by the filtered voltage us . The inverter output current and the stator current are
denoted by iA and is , respectively. In a reference frame rotating at angular frequency ωk , denoted by iA and is , respectively. In a reference frame rotating at angular frequency ωk ,
the equations of the LC filter are the equations of the LC filter are

diA RLf 1 diA RLf 1


=− iA − jωk iA + (u − us ) (3.4) =− iA − jωk iA + (u − us ) (3.4)
dt Lf Lf A dt Lf Lf A
dus 1 dus 1
= −jωk us + (i − is ), (3.5) = −jωk us + (i − is ), (3.5)
dt Cf A dt Cf A

where Lf is the inductance and RLf the series resistance of the inductor, and Cf is the where Lf is the inductance and RLf the series resistance of the inductor, and Cf is the
capacitance of the filter. capacitance of the filter.
The inverse-Γ model of the induction motor (Slemon, 1989) is used, because it is well The inverse-Γ model of the induction motor (Slemon, 1989) is used, because it is well
suited for control purposes. The model contains only two inductances instead of the three suited for control purposes. The model contains only two inductances instead of the three
inductances of the conventional T model. The leakage inductance is located at the stator inductances of the conventional T model. The leakage inductance is located at the stator
side. The stator and rotor voltage equations are side. The stator and rotor voltage equations are

dψs dψs
us = Rs is + + jωk ψ s (3.6) us = Rs is + + jωk ψ s (3.6)
dt dt
dψ R dψ R
0 = RR iR + + j(ωk − ωm )ψ R , (3.7) 0 = RR iR + + j(ωk − ωm )ψ R , (3.7)
dt dt
respectively, where Rs and RR are the stator and rotor resistances, respectively, iR is the respectively, where Rs and RR are the stator and rotor resistances, respectively, iR is the
rotor current, and ωm is the electrical angular speed of the rotor. The stator and rotor flux rotor current, and ωm is the electrical angular speed of the rotor. The stator and rotor flux
linkages are linkages are

ψ s = (L′s + LM )is + LM iR (3.8) ψ s = (L′s + LM )is + LM iR (3.8)


ψ R = LM (is + iR ), (3.9) ψ R = LM (is + iR ), (3.9)

respectively, where L′s denotes the stator transient inductance and LM is the magnetizing respectively, where L′s denotes the stator transient inductance and LM is the magnetizing
inductance. Fig. 3.2 shows a space vector equivalent circuit for an LC filter and induction inductance. Fig. 3.2 shows a space vector equivalent circuit for an LC filter and induction
motor in the stationary reference frame. motor in the stationary reference frame.

34 34
LC filter Induction motor LC filter Induction motor

isA RLf Lf iss Rs L′s isR RR isA RLf Lf iss Rs L′s isR RR

usA Cf uss LM jωm ψsR usA Cf uss LM jωm ψsR

Figure 3.2. Space vector equivalent circuit for LC filter and induction motor in stationary reference Figure 3.2. Space vector equivalent circuit for LC filter and induction motor in stationary reference
frame (ωk = 0). frame (ωk = 0).

State-Space Representation State-Space Representation


Based on Eqs. (3.4)–(3.9), a state-space representation of the system can be written as Based on Eqs. (3.4)–(3.9), a state-space representation of the system can be written as
   
RLf 1 RLf 1
− − jωk − 0 0   − − jωk − 0 0  
 Lf Lf  1  Lf Lf  1
 1 1   1 1 
   Lf     Lf 
 −jωk − 0   −jωk − 0 
dx  Cf Cf  
  dx  Cf Cf  
 
=  0  uA (3.10)
x +  =  0  uA (3.10)
x + 
   
dt  1 1 1 1   0  dt  1 1 1 1   0 
 0 − ′ − jωk − jωm   0 − ′ − jωk − jωm 
 L′s τσ L′s τr  0  L′s τσ L′s τr  0
 1   1 
0 0 RR − − j(ωk − ωm ) | {z } 0 0 RR − − j(ωk − ωm ) | {z }
τr B τr B
| {z } | {z }
A A
   
iA = 1 0 0 0 x (3.11) iA = 1 0 0 0 x (3.11)
| {z } | {z }
C C

 T  T
The state vector is x = iA us is ψ R , and the two time constants are defined as The state vector is x = iA us is ψ R , and the two time constants are defined as
τσ′ = L′s /(Rs + RR ) and τr = LM /RR . The inverter output current is selected as a state τσ′ = L′s /(Rs + RR ) and τr = LM /RR . The inverter output current is selected as a state
variable because it is measured. The stator current is selected as a state variable because variable because it is measured. The stator current is selected as a state variable because
its d and q axis components in the rotor-flux-oriented reference frame are proportional to its d and q axis components in the rotor-flux-oriented reference frame are proportional to
the rotor flux linkage and electromagnetic torque, respectively. The inverter output voltage the rotor flux linkage and electromagnetic torque, respectively. The inverter output voltage
is the input of the system. is the input of the system.

3.2 Control Structures 3.2 Control Structures


In the literature, the vector control methods of AC drives equipped with a sinusoidal LC In the literature, the vector control methods of AC drives equipped with a sinusoidal LC
filter are mostly based on cascaded controllers. Zimmermann (1988) has supplemented a filter are mostly based on cascaded controllers. Zimmermann (1988) has supplemented a
field-oriented stator current control with a P control for the stator voltage and a bang-bang field-oriented stator current control with a P control for the stator voltage and a bang-bang
control for the filter capacitor current. These two innermost controllers are implemented control for the filter capacitor current. These two innermost controllers are implemented
in the stationary reference frame. The measured feedback signals are the stator current, the in the stationary reference frame. The measured feedback signals are the stator current, the
stator voltage, the capacitor current, and the rotor speed. stator voltage, the capacitor current, and the rotor speed.
A similar bang-bang control of the capacitor current has been used by Rapp and Haag A similar bang-bang control of the capacitor current has been used by Rapp and Haag
(1997) for a high-speed IM with an LC filter. The stator current is controlled using a state (1997) for a high-speed IM with an LC filter. The stator current is controlled using a state

35 35
controller enhanced with an integral action. The measured feedback signals are the stator controller enhanced with an integral action. The measured feedback signals are the stator
current, the stator voltage, the capacitor current, and the rotor speed. current, the stator voltage, the capacitor current, and the rotor speed.
A speed-sensorless control method for an IM drive with an LC filter has been proposed A speed-sensorless control method for an IM drive with an LC filter has been proposed
by Petkovšek et al. (2000). The innermost control loop is a bang-bang control for the filter by Petkovšek et al. (2000). The innermost control loop is a bang-bang control for the filter
capacitor current. In the next control loop, the stator voltage is regulated by means of a PI capacitor current. In the next control loop, the stator voltage is regulated by means of a PI
controller with a cross-coupling compensation. The rotor speed estimate is based on the controller with a cross-coupling compensation. The rotor speed estimate is based on the
motor model and on the feedback from the stator voltage and current. motor model and on the feedback from the stator voltage and current.
Nabae et al. (1992) have compensated for the oscillation due to the LC filter using a Nabae et al. (1992) have compensated for the oscillation due to the LC filter using a
voltage feedback circuit. The reference of the inverter output current is modified on the voltage feedback circuit. The reference of the inverter output current is modified on the
grounds of a high-pass filtered stator voltage in the stationary coordinate system. The re- grounds of a high-pass filtered stator voltage in the stationary coordinate system. The re-
sulting field-oriented vector control requires measurements of the inverter output current, sulting field-oriented vector control requires measurements of the inverter output current,
the stator voltage, and the rotor speed. The method has been later improved by imple- the stator voltage, and the rotor speed. The method has been later improved by imple-
menting the high-pass filter in a rotating reference frame (Nabae et al., 1994). The results menting the high-pass filter in a rotating reference frame (Nabae et al., 1994). The results
presented in the publication have been obtained without any load connected to the filter presented in the publication have been obtained without any load connected to the filter
output. Jalili et al. (2005) have used a similar high-pass filtered stator voltage feedback output. Jalili et al. (2005) have used a similar high-pass filtered stator voltage feedback
for a high-speed IM with an LC filter. The feedback is applied to modify the inverter for a high-speed IM with an LC filter. The feedback is applied to modify the inverter
output voltage reference. The basic problem with these methods is that they ignore the output voltage reference. The basic problem with these methods is that they ignore the
fundamental-wave component of the capacitor current. This simplification causes incor- fundamental-wave component of the capacitor current. This simplification causes incor-
rect field orientation especially at high speeds. rect field orientation especially at high speeds.
Kojima et al. (2004) have used a field-oriented vector control augmented with a dead- Kojima et al. (2004) have used a field-oriented vector control augmented with a dead-
beat controller for the inverter output current and the stator voltage. The advantage of the beat controller for the inverter output current and the stator voltage. The advantage of the
deadbeat control is the fast response of the LC filter output voltage. The control parame- deadbeat control is the fast response of the LC filter output voltage. The control parame-
ters vary with the fundamental frequency, and they are stored in the memory of a digital ters vary with the fundamental frequency, and they are stored in the memory of a digital
signal processor (DSP). The method needs measurements of the inverter output current, signal processor (DSP). The method needs measurements of the inverter output current,
the stator voltage, the stator current, and the rotor speed. the stator voltage, the stator current, and the rotor speed.
The control method proposed in Publication I consists of cascaded controllers and a The control method proposed in Publication I consists of cascaded controllers and a
full-order observer. The system states are estimated using the observer, and no additional full-order observer. The system states are estimated using the observer, and no additional
stator current or stator voltage measurements are needed. The feedback for the control stator current or stator voltage measurements are needed. The feedback for the control
is from the inverter output current, the DC-link voltage, and the rotor speed. The control is from the inverter output current, the DC-link voltage, and the rotor speed. The control
method is further developed to obtain a speed-sensorless control method in Publications II method is further developed to obtain a speed-sensorless control method in Publications II
and III. A speed-adaptation mechanism is proposed to be used with a full-order observer. and III. A speed-adaptation mechanism is proposed to be used with a full-order observer.
The speed adaptation is based on the estimation error of the inverter output current. The The speed adaptation is based on the estimation error of the inverter output current. The
adaptation law and the observer gain can be designed using a quasi-steady-state analysis adaptation law and the observer gain can be designed using a quasi-steady-state analysis
and a linearization analysis. In Publication III, a field-weakening control method is pro- and a linearization analysis. In Publication III, a field-weakening control method is pro-
posed to enable operation at high speeds. When an LC filter is used, the maximum inverter posed to enable operation at high speeds. When an LC filter is used, the maximum inverter
output current and the maximum stator current are defined separately. These current limits output current and the maximum stator current are defined separately. These current limits
and the voltage capability of the inverter are taken into account in field weakening. The and the voltage capability of the inverter are taken into account in field weakening. The
control methods used in Publications I−III are explained in more detail in the following control methods used in Publications I−III are explained in more detail in the following
section. section.

3.3 Proposed Control Methods 3.3 Proposed Control Methods


Cascade Control Cascade Control
Fig. 3.3 shows a simplified block diagram of the control system, which is proposed in Fig. 3.3 shows a simplified block diagram of the control system, which is proposed in
Publication II. The estimated quantities are marked by the symbol ˆ. The angle of the Publication II. The estimated quantities are marked by the symbol ˆ. The angle of the
estimated rotor flux, denoted by θ̂s , is obtained by integrating the angular frequency ω̂s of estimated rotor flux, denoted by θ̂s , is obtained by integrating the angular frequency ω̂s of

36 36
Estimated rotor flux Stationary Estimated rotor flux Stationary
ψR,ref reference frame reference frame ψR,ref reference frame reference frame
Flux is,ref Flux is,ref
control us,ref control us,ref
ωm,ref iA,ref ωm,ref iA,ref
Stator udc Stator udc
Speed current uA,ref Speed current uA,ref
Stator Stator
control control voltage Inverter control control voltage Inverter
control current ej θ̂s PWM control current ej θ̂s PWM
control control

iA iA
e−j θ̂s e−j θ̂s
ûs ûs
îs Adaptive îs Adaptive
ω̂m full-order ω̂m full-order
ψ̂R observer θ̂s ψ̂R observer θ̂s
IM IM

Figure 3.3. Simplified block diagram of cascade control system. Space vectors on the left-hand side Figure 3.3. Simplified block diagram of cascade control system. Space vectors on the left-hand side
of coordinate transformations are in the estimated rotor flux reference frame and on the right-hand of coordinate transformations are in the estimated rotor flux reference frame and on the right-hand
side in the stationary reference frame. Double lines indicate complex quantities (space vectors) side in the stationary reference frame. Double lines indicate complex quantities (space vectors)
whereas single lines indicate real quantities (scalars). whereas single lines indicate real quantities (scalars).

the estimated rotor flux. The cascade control and the speed-adaptive full-order observer the estimated rotor flux. The cascade control and the speed-adaptive full-order observer
are implemented in the estimated rotor flux reference frame, where ωk = ω̂s and ψ̂ R = are implemented in the estimated rotor flux reference frame, where ωk = ω̂s and ψ̂ R =
ψ̂R + j0. ψ̂R + j0.

The innermost control loop in Fig. 3.3 governs the inverter output current iA by means The innermost control loop in Fig. 3.3 governs the inverter output current iA by means
of a PI controller. The stator voltage us is governed by a P or PI controller in the next of a PI controller. The stator voltage us is governed by a P or PI controller in the next
control loop. The P controller was used in Publications I and II, but to avoid a steady-state control loop. The P controller was used in Publications I and II, but to avoid a steady-state
error in the stator voltage, the PI controller was used in Publication III. error in the stator voltage, the PI controller was used in Publication III.

The motor control forms the outermost control loops: the stator current and the rotor The motor control forms the outermost control loops: the stator current and the rotor
speed are controlled by PI controllers. The output of the speed controller is the q-axis stator speed are controlled by PI controllers. The output of the speed controller is the q-axis stator
current reference. The rotor flux is controlled by a PI controller in Publications I and II. current reference. The rotor flux is controlled by a PI controller in Publications I and II.
The estimated rotor flux is compared to the rotor flux reference, and the output of the The estimated rotor flux is compared to the rotor flux reference, and the output of the
controller is the d-axis stator current reference. Field weakening can be implemented by controller is the d-axis stator current reference. Field weakening can be implemented by
controlling the rotor flux inversely proportional to the rotor speed. Alternatively, the rotor controlling the rotor flux inversely proportional to the rotor speed. Alternatively, the rotor
flux can be regulated by an I-type voltage controller as reported in Publication III. The d- flux can be regulated by an I-type voltage controller as reported in Publication III. The d-
axis stator current reference is decreased if the unlimited inverter output voltage reference axis stator current reference is decreased if the unlimited inverter output voltage reference
exceeds the maximum inverter output voltage. The advantage of the voltage controller is exceeds the maximum inverter output voltage. The advantage of the voltage controller is
that it provides full utilization of the DC-link voltage automatically. that it provides full utilization of the DC-link voltage automatically.

The control design is discussed in Publication II. The outer control loops can be de- The control design is discussed in Publication II. The outer control loops can be de-
signed by assuming ideal inner-loop controllers. However, better control performance is signed by assuming ideal inner-loop controllers. However, better control performance is
achieved by approximating the inner control loops with a first-order system when design- achieved by approximating the inner control loops with a first-order system when design-
ing the outer-loop controller. Cross-couplings caused by the rotating reference frame are ing the outer-loop controller. Cross-couplings caused by the rotating reference frame are
compensated, and a back-calculation method is used to avoid integrator windup. compensated, and a back-calculation method is used to avoid integrator windup.

37 37
Full-Order Observer Full-Order Observer
Most of the control methods reviewed in Section 3.2 are based on additional current or Most of the control methods reviewed in Section 3.2 are based on additional current or
voltage measurements. However, no extra hardware should be added to the system, and voltage measurements. However, no extra hardware should be added to the system, and
the drive should preferably work without a speed sensor. In Publication I, a full-order ob- the drive should preferably work without a speed sensor. In Publication I, a full-order ob-
server is proposed for IM drives with an inverter output LC filter, which allows the vector server is proposed for IM drives with an inverter output LC filter, which allows the vector
control without additional current or voltage measurements. Because the stator current is control without additional current or voltage measurements. Because the stator current is
not measured, the inverter output current is the feedback for the observer. The observer is not measured, the inverter output current is the feedback for the observer. The observer is
defined by defined by
dx̂ dx̂
= A x̂ + BuA + K(iA − îA ) (3.12) = A x̂ + BuA + K(iA − îA ) (3.12)
dt dt
where the observer gain vector is where the observer gain vector is
 T  T
K = k1 k2 k3 k4 . (3.13) K = k1 k2 k3 k4 . (3.13)
Two different ways to select the observer gain K for a speed-sensored drive are com- Two different ways to select the observer gain K for a speed-sensored drive are com-
pared in Publication I. The first one is a pole placement method, where the observer gain pared in Publication I. The first one is a pole placement method, where the observer gain
varies with the rotor speed. In practice, gain scheduling is used: the observer gain is cal- varies with the rotor speed. In practice, gain scheduling is used: the observer gain is cal-
culated in advance as a function of ωm , and interpolation between tabulated values is used culated in advance as a function of ωm , and interpolation between tabulated values is used
during the operation. The other proposed observer gain is a constant gain of the form during the operation. The other proposed observer gain is a constant gain of the form
 T  T
K = k1 0 0 0 (3.14) K = k1 0 0 0 (3.14)
where k1 is a real-valued gain parameter. According to experiments, the pole placement where k1 is a real-valued gain parameter. According to experiments, the pole placement
method and the constant gain method give similar results, and thus it is recommended to method and the constant gain method give similar results, and thus it is recommended to
use a constant gain because it is easier to implement. use a constant gain because it is easier to implement.
The saturation of the magnetizing inductance LM may deteriorate the observer perfor- The saturation of the magnetizing inductance LM may deteriorate the observer perfor-
mance. The measured saturation characteristic can be used to improve the performance of mance. The measured saturation characteristic can be used to improve the performance of
the observer and the cascade control. the observer and the cascade control.

Speed Adaptation Speed Adaptation


The observer equation (3.12) contains the rotor angular speed in the system matrix A. If The observer equation (3.12) contains the rotor angular speed in the system matrix A. If
speed-sensorless operation is required, an adaptation mechanism can be used to estimate speed-sensorless operation is required, an adaptation mechanism can be used to estimate
the rotor speed. The speed adaptation is a popular method for speed-sensorless drives the rotor speed. The speed adaptation is a popular method for speed-sensorless drives
without a filter (Schauder, 1992; Kubota et al., 1993; Yang and Chin, 1993; Maes and without a filter (Schauder, 1992; Kubota et al., 1993; Yang and Chin, 1993; Maes and
Melkebeek, 2000; Suwankawin and Sangwongwanich, 2002; Hinkkanen, 2004a). In Pub- Melkebeek, 2000; Suwankawin and Sangwongwanich, 2002; Hinkkanen, 2004a). In Pub-
lications II and III, the speed adaptation is proposed for IM drives equipped with an LC lications II and III, the speed adaptation is proposed for IM drives equipped with an LC
filter. The conventional adaptation law cannot be used, because the stator current is not filter. The conventional adaptation law cannot be used, because the stator current is not
measured. The estimation error of the inverter output current is used instead of the usual measured. The estimation error of the inverter output current is used instead of the usual
estimation error of the stator current. The speed-adaptation law in the estimated rotor flux estimation error of the stator current. The speed-adaptation law in the estimated rotor flux
reference frame is reference frame is
ω̂m = − Kp Im{(iA − îA )e−jφ } ω̂m = − Kp Im{(iA − îA )e−jφ }
Z Z
(3.15) (3.15)
− Ki Im{(iA − îA )e−jφ }dt − Ki Im{(iA − îA )e−jφ }dt

where Kp and Ki are nonnegative adaptation gains, and the angle φ changes the direction where Kp and Ki are nonnegative adaptation gains, and the angle φ changes the direction
of the error projection. The change of the error projection is needed to stabilize the adaptive of the error projection. The change of the error projection is needed to stabilize the adaptive
full-order observer at low speeds in a fashion similar to (Hinkkanen and Luomi, 2004) for full-order observer at low speeds in a fashion similar to (Hinkkanen and Luomi, 2004) for
the stator current. Quasi-steady-state analysis is used to visualize the selection of φ in the stator current. Quasi-steady-state analysis is used to visualize the selection of φ in
Publications II and III. Publications II and III.

38 38
Gain Selection for Speed-Adaptive Full-Order Observer Gain Selection for Speed-Adaptive Full-Order Observer
The observer gain K affects the stability of the speed-adaptive full-order observer and The observer gain K affects the stability of the speed-adaptive full-order observer and
it should be selected carefully. In Publication II, a simple observer gain (3.14) is used. it should be selected carefully. In Publication II, a simple observer gain (3.14) is used.
According to linearization analysis, the observer is stable in a wide operation range. At According to linearization analysis, the observer is stable in a wide operation range. At
higher speeds, however, the damping of the dominant poles is poor as shown in Publication higher speeds, however, the damping of the dominant poles is poor as shown in Publication
III. An improved observer gain is proposed in Publication III: III. An improved observer gain is proposed in Publication III:
  T   T
K = k1 0 0 λ −1 + j sign(ω̂m ) (3.16) K = k1 0 0 λ −1 + j sign(ω̂m ) (3.16)

where  where 
λ′ |ω̂ωmλ |, if |ω̂m | < ωλ λ′ |ω̂ωmλ |, if |ω̂m | < ωλ
λ= (3.17) λ= (3.17)
λ′ , if |ω̂m | ≥ ωλ λ′ , if |ω̂m | ≥ ωλ
The positive constants λ′ and ωλ can be selected based on the linearization analysis. The The positive constants λ′ and ωλ can be selected based on the linearization analysis. The
damping of the dominant poles is increased, and the drive also operates well at higher damping of the dominant poles is increased, and the drive also operates well at higher
speeds. speeds.

3.4 Performance Comparison With and Without an LC 3.4 Performance Comparison With and Without an LC
Filter Filter
Cascade Control Cascade Control
A drive equipped with an LC filter needs two additional control loops as compared to a A drive equipped with an LC filter needs two additional control loops as compared to a
drive without a filter. The bandwidth of the innermost controller is determined according drive without a filter. The bandwidth of the innermost controller is determined according
to the sampling frequency. Therefore, the bandwidth of the inverter output current control to the sampling frequency. Therefore, the bandwidth of the inverter output current control
can be equal to the bandwidth of the stator current control of a drive without a filter. The can be equal to the bandwidth of the stator current control of a drive without a filter. The
cascade control requires an adequate bandwidth between each control loop, which causes cascade control requires an adequate bandwidth between each control loop, which causes
a decreased bandwidth of the stator current control as compared to a drive without a filter. a decreased bandwidth of the stator current control as compared to a drive without a filter.
Therefore, the use of an LC filter is expected to slow down the dynamics of the stator Therefore, the use of an LC filter is expected to slow down the dynamics of the stator
current control. current control.
In the following experimental comparison, a 2.2-kW IM drive was controlled in torque In the following experimental comparison, a 2.2-kW IM drive was controlled in torque
mode operation with and without an LC filter. When an LC filter was used, the sensorless mode operation with and without an LC filter. When an LC filter was used, the sensorless
vector control was that proposed in Publication III. The LC filter was the same used in vector control was that proposed in Publication III. The LC filter was the same used in
Publication V (Lf = 5.1 mH, Cf = 6.8 µF). The bandwidths of the controllers were Publication V (Lf = 5.1 mH, Cf = 6.8 µF). The bandwidths of the controllers were
2π · 600 rad/s for the inverter output current, 2π · 400 rad/s for the stator voltage, and 2π · 600 rad/s for the inverter output current, 2π · 400 rad/s for the stator voltage, and
2π · 200 rad/s for the stator current. The parameters of the observer gain were k1 = 2000 2π · 200 rad/s for the stator current. The parameters of the observer gain were k1 = 2000
s−1 , λ′ = 10 V/A and ωλ = 1 p.u. The parameters used in the speed adaptation were s−1 , λ′ = 10 V/A and ωλ = 1 p.u. The parameters used in the speed adaptation were
Kp = 10 (A · s)−1 and Ki = 10000 (A · s2 )−1 . The sensorless vector control of the Kp = 10 (A · s)−1 and Ki = 10000 (A · s2 )−1 . The sensorless vector control of the
IM drive without a filter was based on (Hinkkanen, 2004a). The bandwidth of the stator IM drive without a filter was based on (Hinkkanen, 2004a). The bandwidth of the stator
current controller was 2π · 600 rad/s. Like in all experiments in this thesis, the parameter current controller was 2π · 600 rad/s. Like in all experiments in this thesis, the parameter
errors of the filter and the motor were kept as small as possible. errors of the filter and the motor were kept as small as possible.
Fig. 3.4 shows d and q components of the stator current with and without an LC filter. Fig. 3.4 shows d and q components of the stator current with and without an LC filter.
A constant speed ωm = 2π · 25 rad/s was maintained by a servo motor, and nominal torque A constant speed ωm = 2π · 25 rad/s was maintained by a servo motor, and nominal torque
reference was set for the IM drive at t = 0.01 s. When an LC filter is used, the rise time reference was set for the IM drive at t = 0.01 s. When an LC filter is used, the rise time
(from 10% to 90%) of isq is 2.7 ms. When an LC filter is not used, the rise time of isq is 0.5 (from 10% to 90%) of isq is 2.7 ms. When an LC filter is not used, the rise time of isq is 0.5
ms. As was expected, the response of the stator current controller is slower when an LC ms. As was expected, the response of the stator current controller is slower when an LC
filter is used than when it is not. However, most AC drive applications do not need very fast filter is used than when it is not. However, most AC drive applications do not need very fast

39 39
1 1
With LC filter isq With LC filter isq

isd , isq (p.u.)

isd , isq (p.u.)


isd isd
0.5 0.5

0 0
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04
1 isq 1 isq
Without LC filter Without LC filter
isd , isq (p.u.)

isd , isq (p.u.)


isd isd
0.5 0.5

0 0
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04
t (s) t (s)

Figure 3.4. Experimental performance comparison of stator current control with and without LC Figure 3.4. Experimental performance comparison of stator current control with and without LC
filter. The solid lines are actual currents and dashed lines are reference values. filter. The solid lines are actual currents and dashed lines are reference values.

1.2 1.2
ωm (p.u.)

ωm (p.u.)
0.6 0.6

0 0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
2 2
îsq (p.u.)

îsq (p.u.)
1 1

0 0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
t (s) t (s)

Figure 3.5. Experimental results showing acceleration from zero speed to 1 p.u. when LC filter is Figure 3.5. Experimental results showing acceleration from zero speed to 1 p.u. when LC filter is
used. The first subplot shows the rotor speed (solid) and its reference (dashed). The second subplot used. The first subplot shows the rotor speed (solid) and its reference (dashed). The second subplot
shows q components of the stator current estimate (solid) and the stator current reference (dashed). shows q components of the stator current estimate (solid) and the stator current reference (dashed).

stator current control. Fast dynamics is important mainly in servo drives. The switching stator current control. Fast dynamics is important mainly in servo drives. The switching
ripple is clearly seen in the lower subplot of Fig. 3.4. This ripple is reduced when an LC ripple is clearly seen in the lower subplot of Fig. 3.4. This ripple is reduced when an LC
filter is added to the inverter output. filter is added to the inverter output.
The bandwidth of the speed controller is usually well below the bandwidth of the stator The bandwidth of the speed controller is usually well below the bandwidth of the stator
current controller. Thus, the output filter is not expected to slow down the dynamics of the current controller. Thus, the output filter is not expected to slow down the dynamics of the
speed control. Fig. 3.5 shows experimental results obtained for an acceleration from zero speed control. Fig. 3.5 shows experimental results obtained for an acceleration from zero
speed to 1 p.u. The speed controller bandwidth was 2π · 7.5 rad/s and the stator current speed to 1 p.u. The speed controller bandwidth was 2π · 7.5 rad/s and the stator current
limit was 1.5 p.u. As can be seen in Fig. 3.5, the stator current is at its limit during the limit was 1.5 p.u. As can be seen in Fig. 3.5, the stator current is at its limit during the
acceleration. Similar results were obtained when using an IM drive without an LC filter. acceleration. Similar results were obtained when using an IM drive without an LC filter.
The acceleration times were approximately equal in both drives. The acceleration times were approximately equal in both drives.

40 40
Observer Observer
The observer performance of speed sensorless drives can be evaluated by finding the The observer performance of speed sensorless drives can be evaluated by finding the
minimum stator frequency where the system remains stable under load. Fig. 3.6 shows minimum stator frequency where the system remains stable under load. Fig. 3.6 shows
low-speed operation of a 2.2-kW IM drive equipped with an LC filter (Lf = 5.1 mH, low-speed operation of a 2.2-kW IM drive equipped with an LC filter (Lf = 5.1 mH,
Cf = 6.8 µF). The drive was controlled in the speed mode. The speed reference was set to Cf = 6.8 µF). The drive was controlled in the speed mode. The speed reference was set to
0.04 p.u. After applying a negative rated load torque the drive operates in the regenerating 0.04 p.u. After applying a negative rated load torque the drive operates in the regenerating
mode. The speed-adaptive observer remains stable even though the stator frequency is only mode. The speed-adaptive observer remains stable even though the stator frequency is only
ωs = 0.009 p.u. A similar experiment has been done by Hinkkanen and Luomi (2004) us- ωs = 0.009 p.u. A similar experiment has been done by Hinkkanen and Luomi (2004) us-
ing a 2.2-kW IM drive without an LC filter. According to the experiment shown in Fig. 3.6 ing a 2.2-kW IM drive without an LC filter. According to the experiment shown in Fig. 3.6
and several simulation and experimental results in Publications II–III, the speed-adaptive and several simulation and experimental results in Publications II–III, the speed-adaptive
full-order observer works properly, and the performance is close to that of a drive without full-order observer works properly, and the performance is close to that of a drive without
an LC filter. Parameter errors in the stator resistance, the filter resistance, and the inverter an LC filter. Parameter errors in the stator resistance, the filter resistance, and the inverter
model have significant effects on the speed sensorless operation at low speeds. Parameter model have significant effects on the speed sensorless operation at low speeds. Parameter
errors in the filter inductance and capacitance have only a minor effect on the stability of errors in the filter inductance and capacitance have only a minor effect on the stability of
the system. the system.

0.2 0.2
ωm (p.u.)

ωm (p.u.)
0.1 0.1

0 0
5 10 15 20 25 5 10 15 20 25
1 1
iAq , îsq (p.u.)

iAq , îsq (p.u.)


0 0

-1 -1
5 10 15 20 25 5 10 15 20 25
1 1
ψ̂Rα , ψ̂Rβ (p.u.)

ψ̂Rα , ψ̂Rβ (p.u.)


0 0

-1 -1
5 10 15 20 25 5 10 15 20 25
t (s) t (s)

Figure 3.6. Experimental results showing low-speed operation when LC filter is used. The first Figure 3.6. Experimental results showing low-speed operation when LC filter is used. The first
subplot shows the rotor speed (solid) and its estimate (dotted). The second subplot shows the q subplot shows the rotor speed (solid) and its estimate (dotted). The second subplot shows the q
components of the stator current estimate (solid) and inverter output current (dotted). The third components of the stator current estimate (solid) and inverter output current (dotted). The third
subplot shows the real and imaginary components of the rotor flux estimate in the stationary refer- subplot shows the real and imaginary components of the rotor flux estimate in the stationary refer-
ence frame. ence frame.

41 41
42 42
Chapter 4 Chapter 4

Control of PMSM Drives Equipped Control of PMSM Drives Equipped


With an LC Filter With an LC Filter

Inverter output filters are mostly used in induction motor drives. However, problems Inverter output filters are mostly used in induction motor drives. However, problems
caused by the pulse-width-modulated voltage have also been reported on for permanent caused by the pulse-width-modulated voltage have also been reported on for permanent
magnet synchronous motors (Carpita et al., 2001b; Batzel and Lee, 2005; Yamazaki and magnet synchronous motors (Carpita et al., 2001b; Batzel and Lee, 2005; Yamazaki and
Seto, 2006). In this chapter, the system model is presented for a three-phase LC filter and Seto, 2006). In this chapter, the system model is presented for a three-phase LC filter and
a PMSM, after which state-of-the-art control methods are reviewed for such a system. a PMSM, after which state-of-the-art control methods are reviewed for such a system.
Finally, the cascade control structure, the full-order observer, and the speed adaptation Finally, the cascade control structure, the full-order observer, and the speed adaptation
mechanism proposed in this thesis are presented. mechanism proposed in this thesis are presented.

4.1 System Model 4.1 System Model


The space vector notation used in connection with induction motor drives is inconvenient The space vector notation used in connection with induction motor drives is inconvenient
for modeling permanent magnet motors with magnetic saliency. Therefore, matrix notation for modeling permanent magnet motors with magnetic saliency. Therefore, matrix notation
is preferred in PMSM drives. Fig. 4.1 shows a drive system consisting of a frequency is preferred in PMSM drives. Fig. 4.1 shows a drive system consisting of a frequency
converter, LC filter, and PMSM. The inverter output voltage uA is filtered by an LC filter, converter, LC filter, and PMSM. The inverter output voltage uA is filtered by an LC filter,
and the PMSM is fed by the filtered voltage us . The inverter output current and the stator and the PMSM is fed by the filtered voltage us . The inverter output current and the stator
current are denoted by iA and is , respectively. current are denoted by iA and is , respectively.
In a reference frame rotating at electrical angular speed ωm of the rotor, the equations In a reference frame rotating at electrical angular speed ωm of the rotor, the equations
of the LC filter are of the LC filter are
diA RLf 1 diA RLf 1
=− iA − ωm JiA + (uA − us ) (4.1) =− iA − ωm JiA + (uA − us ) (4.1)
dt Lf Lf dt Lf Lf
dus 1 dus 1
= −ωm Jus + (iA − is ), (4.2) = −ωm Jus + (iA − is ), (4.2)
dt Cf dt Cf
 T  T  T  T
where iA = iAd iAq is the inverter output current, uA = uAd uAq the inverter where iA = iAd iAq is the inverter output current, uA = uAd uAq the inverter
 T  T  T  T
output voltage, us = usd usq the stator voltage, is = isd isq the stator current, output voltage, us = usd usq the stator voltage, is = isd isq the stator current,
and   and  
0 −1 0 −1
J= J=
1 0 1 0
In the d-q reference frame fixed to the rotor, the voltage equation of the PMSM is In the d-q reference frame fixed to the rotor, the voltage equation of the PMSM is

dψ s dψ s
us = Rs is + + ωm Jψ s (4.3) us = Rs is + + ωm Jψ s (4.3)
dt dt

43 43
ωm,ref ωm,ref
iA iA
Control Control
udc Lf udc Lf
us is us is
Grid

Grid
PMSM PMSM

uA uA
Diode bridge Inverter Cf Diode bridge Inverter Cf

Figure 4.1. Permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive equipped with three-phase LC Figure 4.1. Permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive equipped with three-phase LC
filter. filter.

where Rs is the stator resistance. The stator flux linkage is where Rs is the stator resistance. The stator flux linkage is

ψ s = Ls is + ψ pm (4.4) ψ s = Ls is + ψ pm (4.4)
 T  T
where ψ pm = ψpm 0 is the permanent magnet flux linkage. The stator inductance where ψ pm = ψpm 0 is the permanent magnet flux linkage. The stator inductance
matrix   matrix  
Ld 0 Ld 0
Ls = Ls =
0 Lq 0 Lq
consists of the direct-axis inductance Ld and quadrature-axis inductance Lq . The electro- consists of the direct-axis inductance Ld and quadrature-axis inductance Lq . The electro-
magnetic torque is magnetic torque is
3p 3p
Te = ψ Ts JT is (4.5) Te = ψ Ts JT is (4.5)
2 2
where p is the number of pole pairs. where p is the number of pole pairs.
Based on Eqs. (4.1)–(4.4), the state-space representation of the system can be written Based on Eqs. (4.1)–(4.4), the state-space representation of the system can be written
as as
   −1     −1 
−RLf L−1 f I − ωm J −Lf I
−1
0 Lf I 0   −RLf L−1 f I − ωm J −Lf I
−1
0 Lf I 0  
dx  −1 −1 −1 −1 −1  uA dx  −1 −1 −1 −1 −1  uA
= Cf I −ωm J −Cf Ls  x+  0 Cf Ls = Cf I −ωm J −Cf Ls  x+  0 Cf Ls
dt ψ pm dt ψ pm
0 I −Rs L−1
s − ω m J 0 Rs L−1
s 0 I −Rs L−1
s − ω m J 0 Rs L−1
s
| {z } | {z } | {z } | {z }
A B A B
(4.6) (4.6)
   
iA = I 0 0 x (4.7) iA = I 0 0 x (4.7)
| {z } | {z }
C C

 
T T
 T
where x = iTA uTs ψ s is the state vector and I is a 2 × 2 identity matrix. The inverter where x = iTA uTs ψ Ts is the state vector and I is a 2 × 2 identity matrix. The inverter
output voltage uA and the permanent magnet flux linkage ψ pm are considered as inputs to output voltage uA and the permanent magnet flux linkage ψ pm are considered as inputs to
the system. the system.

4.2 Control Structures 4.2 Control Structures


There are only a few publications that deal with the control of synchronous motor drives There are only a few publications that deal with the control of synchronous motor drives
equipped with an LC filter. Different output filter topologies have been tested on a 25- equipped with an LC filter. Different output filter topologies have been tested on a 25-
hp PMSM drive by Sozer et al. (2000). A field-oriented control method is used, but it is hp PMSM drive by Sozer et al. (2000). A field-oriented control method is used, but it is

44 44
not documented in detail. The measurements needed for the control are the stator current, not documented in detail. The measurements needed for the control are the stator current,
the rotor speed, and the DC-link voltage. A predictive current control is implemented to the rotor speed, and the DC-link voltage. A predictive current control is implemented to
provide stable operation despite the filter. provide stable operation despite the filter.
Carpita et al. (2001b) have investigated two different methods to compensate for the Carpita et al. (2001b) have investigated two different methods to compensate for the
effects of an LC filter in sensorless high-speed PMSM drives. In both methods, the rotor effects of an LC filter in sensorless high-speed PMSM drives. In both methods, the rotor
position is estimated by means of a modified voltage model (Carpita et al., 2001a). The position is estimated by means of a modified voltage model (Carpita et al., 2001a). The
first method uses feed-forward voltage terms that are based on the approximated system first method uses feed-forward voltage terms that are based on the approximated system
equations. The feed-forward terms are added to the output of the stator current controller. equations. The feed-forward terms are added to the output of the stator current controller.
The method requires measurements of the stator voltage and the stator current. The other The method requires measurements of the stator voltage and the stator current. The other
investigated method presented by Carpita et al. (2001b) is based on sliding mode control. investigated method presented by Carpita et al. (2001b) is based on sliding mode control.
The switching functions are determined according to the error vector consisting of the dif- The switching functions are determined according to the error vector consisting of the dif-
ference between the stator voltage and its reference and the difference between the deriva- ference between the stator voltage and its reference and the difference between the deriva-
tive of the stator voltage and its reference. The control method requires measurements of tive of the stator voltage and its reference. The control method requires measurements of
the capacitor current, the stator voltage, and the stator current. According to simulation the capacitor current, the stator voltage, and the stator current. According to simulation
results, both control methods work well. results, both control methods work well.
Batzel and Lee (2005) have used a sensorless control method for PMSM drives Batzel and Lee (2005) have used a sensorless control method for PMSM drives
equipped with an LC filter. Originally, the control method was developed for a drive with- equipped with an LC filter. Originally, the control method was developed for a drive with-
out a filter at the inverter output. A voltage-model-based speed estimate is enhanced by an out a filter at the inverter output. A voltage-model-based speed estimate is enhanced by an
adaptive speed estimate in a fashion similar to (Kim and Sul, 1997b). When an LC filter is adaptive speed estimate in a fashion similar to (Kim and Sul, 1997b). When an LC filter is
used, the method requires measurements of the stator current and the stator voltage, and no used, the method requires measurements of the stator current and the stator voltage, and no
modifications are made to the control due to the LC filter. The measured stator voltage is modifications are made to the control due to the LC filter. The measured stator voltage is
low-pass filtered causing an unwanted time delay. The experimental results obtained using low-pass filtered causing an unwanted time delay. The experimental results obtained using
a 70-hp PMSM show an adequate performance at high speeds, but the low-speed operation a 70-hp PMSM show an adequate performance at high speeds, but the low-speed operation
at start-ups and reversals is problematic. at start-ups and reversals is problematic.
Park et al. (2005) have presented a feed-forward current controller in a speed-sensored Park et al. (2005) have presented a feed-forward current controller in a speed-sensored
synchronous reluctance motor drive with an LC filter. The effects of the LC filter are synchronous reluctance motor drive with an LC filter. The effects of the LC filter are
compensated for by using a filter model. Even though feed-forward current control is used, compensated for by using a filter model. Even though feed-forward current control is used,
the stator current and the DC-link voltage are measured. The experimental results with a the stator current and the DC-link voltage are measured. The experimental results with a
120-kW synchronous reluctance motor drive confirm the reduction of losses in the motor 120-kW synchronous reluctance motor drive confirm the reduction of losses in the motor
due to the LC filter. due to the LC filter.
Szczupak and Pacas (2006) have used cascaded controllers and a full-order observer Szczupak and Pacas (2006) have used cascaded controllers and a full-order observer
for a PMSM drive equipped with an LC filter. The control method is based on Publication for a PMSM drive equipped with an LC filter. The control method is based on Publication
I, and it requires measurements of the inverter output current and the rotor speed. The main I, and it requires measurements of the inverter output current and the rotor speed. The main
focus in the paper is on the identification of the system parameters. focus in the paper is on the identification of the system parameters.
Publication V proposes a sensorless control method that does not need additional mea- Publication V proposes a sensorless control method that does not need additional mea-
surements due to the LC filter. An adaptive full-order observer is used to estimate the stator surements due to the LC filter. An adaptive full-order observer is used to estimate the stator
voltage, the stator current, the rotor speed, and the rotor position. The observer is analyzed voltage, the stator current, the rotor speed, and the rotor position. The observer is analyzed
and tuned using a linearized model. and tuned using a linearized model.
The high speed performance of the sensorless PMSM drive equipped with an LC filter The high speed performance of the sensorless PMSM drive equipped with an LC filter
is enhanced in Publication VI. The influence of the filter on the theoretical maximum is enhanced in Publication VI. The influence of the filter on the theoretical maximum
torque and speed is investigated. The proposed field-weakening method based on voltage torque and speed is investigated. The proposed field-weakening method based on voltage
control enables the maximum-torque operation at high speeds. control enables the maximum-torque operation at high speeds.
In Publication VII, the adaptive full-order observer is combined with a signal injec- In Publication VII, the adaptive full-order observer is combined with a signal injec-
tion method allowing sustained operation down to zero speed. It is shown that the signal tion method allowing sustained operation down to zero speed. It is shown that the signal
injection method can be used for the rotor speed and position estimation even if an LC injection method can be used for the rotor speed and position estimation even if an LC
filter is connected between the inverter and the motor. The control methods proposed in filter is connected between the inverter and the motor. The control methods proposed in
Publications V−VII are explained in more detail in the following section. Publications V−VII are explained in more detail in the following section.

45 45
Estimated rotor Stator Estimated rotor Stator
reference frame reference frame reference frame reference frame

is,ref u′A,ref is,ref u′A,ref


Speed us,ref Speed us,ref
ωm,ref and iA,ref ωm,ref and iA,ref
Stator udc Stator udc
FW current Stator uA,ref FW current Stator uA,ref
control control voltage control control voltage
Inverter Inverter
control current eJθ̂m PWM control current eJθ̂m PWM
control control

iA iA
e−Jθ̂m e−Jθ̂m
ûs ûs
îs Adaptive θ̂m îs Adaptive θ̂m
ω̂m full-order ω̂m full-order
observer observer
PMSM PMSM

Figure 4.2. Simplified block diagram of the cascaded control system. Double lines indicate vector Figure 4.2. Simplified block diagram of the cascaded control system. Double lines indicate vector
quantities whereas single lines indicate scalar quantities. quantities whereas single lines indicate scalar quantities.

4.3 Proposed Control Methods 4.3 Proposed Control Methods


Fig. 4.2 shows a simplified block diagram of the control system used in Publication VI. Fig. 4.2 shows a simplified block diagram of the control system used in Publication VI.
The control is implemented in the estimated rotor reference frame. The inverter output The control is implemented in the estimated rotor reference frame. The inverter output
current, the stator voltage, and the stator current are controlled by PI controllers, and current, the stator voltage, and the stator current are controlled by PI controllers, and
cross-couplings due to the rotating reference frame are compensated. An adaptive full- cross-couplings due to the rotating reference frame are compensated. An adaptive full-
order observer is used to estimate unmeasured system states making it possible to avoid order observer is used to estimate unmeasured system states making it possible to avoid
additional measurements due to the LC filter. The field weakening (FW) starts when the additional measurements due to the LC filter. The field weakening (FW) starts when the
unlimited inverter output voltage reference u′A,ref exceeds the maximum inverter output unlimited inverter output voltage reference u′A,ref exceeds the maximum inverter output
voltage. The field-weakening control was not used in Publication V. voltage. The field-weakening control was not used in Publication V.

Speed-Adaptive Full-Order Observer Speed-Adaptive Full-Order Observer


A speed-adaptive full-order observer for PMSM drives equipped with an LC filter was A speed-adaptive full-order observer for PMSM drives equipped with an LC filter was
proposed in Publication V. The inverter output current is a feedback signal for the observer, proposed in Publication V. The inverter output current is a feedback signal for the observer,
and the electrical angular speed of the rotor is estimated using an adaptation mechanism. and the electrical angular speed of the rotor is estimated using an adaptation mechanism.
The observer is defined by The observer is defined by
   
dx̂ uA dx̂ uA
= Â x̂ + B + K(iA − îA ) (4.8) = Â x̂ + B + K(iA − îA ) (4.8)
dt ψ̂ pm dt ψ̂ pm
where K is the observer gain and the system matrix is where K is the observer gain and the system matrix is
   
−RLf L−1 −1
f I − ω̂m J −Lf I 0 −RLf L−1 −1
f I − ω̂m J −Lf I 0
 =  Cf−1 I −ω̂m J −Cf−1 L−1
s
 (4.9) Â =  Cf−1 I −ω̂m J −Cf−1 L−1
s
 (4.9)
0 I −Rs L−1
s − ω̂ m J 0 I −Rs L−1
s − ω̂ m J
The adaptation law is The adaptation law is
Z Z
ω̂m = −Kp (iAq − îAq ) − Ki (iAq − îAq )dt (4.10) ω̂m = −Kp (iAq − îAq ) − Ki (iAq − îAq )dt (4.10)

46 46
where Kp and Ki are nonnegative adaptation gains. The estimated rotor position θ̂m is ob- where Kp and Ki are nonnegative adaptation gains. The estimated rotor position θ̂m is ob-
tained by integrating the estimated rotor speed ω̂m . Publication V deals with the lineariza- tained by integrating the estimated rotor speed ω̂m . Publication V deals with the lineariza-
tion analysis and the observer gain selection. In order to have a locally stable observer in tion analysis and the observer gain selection. In order to have a locally stable observer in
a wide speed range, the observer gain a wide speed range, the observer gain
   
k1d I k1d I
K= 0  (4.11) K= 0  (4.11)
k3d I + k3q sign(ω̂m )J k3d I + k3q sign(ω̂m )J

is proposed. The gain parameters k1d , k3d , and k3q are positive constants. is proposed. The gain parameters k1d , k3d , and k3q are positive constants.
According to the experiments with a 2.2-kW PMSM drive, the sensorless control According to the experiments with a 2.2-kW PMSM drive, the sensorless control
method based on the speed-adaptive full-order observer works well down to speed 0.07 method based on the speed-adaptive full-order observer works well down to speed 0.07
p.u. At lower speeds under load, the system becomes unstable due to the inverter nonide- p.u. At lower speeds under load, the system becomes unstable due to the inverter nonide-
alities and the inaccuracies of the motor parameters. At no load, the system is stable down alities and the inaccuracies of the motor parameters. At no load, the system is stable down
to zero speed. to zero speed.

Field-Weakening Control Field-Weakening Control


The DC-link voltage constrains the inverter output voltage. In order to reach high speeds, The DC-link voltage constrains the inverter output voltage. In order to reach high speeds,
the magnetic field must be weakened by supplying negative d-axis stator current. The max- the magnetic field must be weakened by supplying negative d-axis stator current. The max-
imum torque is limited by the maximum allowable current. When an LC filter is used, the imum torque is limited by the maximum allowable current. When an LC filter is used, the
inverter output current and the stator current can be limited separately. The influence of an inverter output current and the stator current can be limited separately. The influence of an
LC filter on the maximum torque and speed of PMSM drives is investigated in Publication LC filter on the maximum torque and speed of PMSM drives is investigated in Publication
VI. In addition, a field-weakening method based on voltage control is proposed. Voltage VI. In addition, a field-weakening method based on voltage control is proposed. Voltage
control has been successfully used in IM and PMSM drives that are not equipped with an control has been successfully used in IM and PMSM drives that are not equipped with an
LC filter (Kim and Sul, 1997c,a; Harnefors et al., 2001). LC filter (Kim and Sul, 1997c,a; Harnefors et al., 2001).
The field weakening is implemented by adding an incremental d-axis stator current The field weakening is implemented by adding an incremental d-axis stator current
reference isd∆ to the d-axis current reference isdM that is in accordance with the maximum reference isd∆ to the d-axis current reference isdM that is in accordance with the maximum
torque-per-ampere (MTPA) trajectory. The d-axis current reference is thus torque-per-ampere (MTPA) trajectory. The d-axis current reference is thus

isd,ref = isdM + isd∆ (4.12) isd,ref = isdM + isd∆ (4.12)

The voltage control algorithm is The voltage control algorithm is

disd∆   disd∆  
= γf u2A,max − (u′A,ref )2 , isd∆,min ≤ isd∆ ≤ 0 (4.13) = γf u2A,max − (u′A,ref )2 , isd∆,min ≤ isd∆ ≤ 0 (4.13)
dt dt

where γf is the controller gain, uA,max is the maximum inverter output voltage, and u′A,ref where γf is the controller gain, uA,max is the maximum inverter output voltage, and u′A,ref
is the magnitude of the unlimited inverter output voltage reference. The lower limit of isd∆ is the magnitude of the unlimited inverter output voltage reference. The lower limit of isd∆
is designed as is designed as
 2
  2

iA,max − ω̂m Cf ψpm iA,max − ω̂m Cf ψpm
isd∆,min = −isdM + max −is,max , 2 C L −1
(4.14) isd∆,min = −isdM + max −is,max , 2 C L −1
(4.14)
ω̂m f d ω̂m f d

where is,max and iA,max are the maximum allowable stator and inverter output currents, where is,max and iA,max are the maximum allowable stator and inverter output currents,
respectively. The second term inside the maximum function is based on a steady-state respectively. The second term inside the maximum function is based on a steady-state
solution of (4.6) assuming Rs = 0. It prevents the violation of the inverter output current solution of (4.6) assuming Rs = 0. It prevents the violation of the inverter output current
limit. limit.

47 47
The q-axis stator current reference is limited according to The q-axis stator current reference is limited according to
( (
q q
isq,ref = sign(isq,ref )·min |i′sq,ref |, i2s,max − i2sd,ref ,

isq,ref = sign(isq,ref )·min |i′sq,ref |, i2s,max − i2sd,ref ,

q  2 ) q  2 )
i2A,max − (ω̂m
2 C L −1)i
f d
2
sd,ref + ω̂m Cf ψpm i2A,max − (ω̂m
2 C L −1)i
f d
2
sd,ref + ω̂m Cf ψpm
2 L C
(4.15) 2 L C
(4.15)
1 − ω̂m q f 1 − ω̂m q f

The minimum of the three values is chosen: (i) the absolute value of the unlimited refer- The minimum of the three values is chosen: (i) the absolute value of the unlimited refer-
ence i′sq,ref ; (ii) the value defined by the maximum stator current; or (iii) the value defined ence i′sq,ref ; (ii) the value defined by the maximum stator current; or (iii) the value defined
by the maximum inverter output current assuming Rs = 0. The experiments with a 2.2-kW by the maximum inverter output current assuming Rs = 0. The experiments with a 2.2-kW
PMSM drive show that the proposed field-weakening method works well both in steady PMSM drive show that the proposed field-weakening method works well both in steady
and transient states. and transient states.

Signal Injection Signal Injection


Signal injection methods make use of the magnetic asymmetry, i.e. saliency, of motors for Signal injection methods make use of the magnetic asymmetry, i.e. saliency, of motors for
estimating the rotor position. Interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSMs) estimating the rotor position. Interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSMs)
have the magnets mounted inside the rotor resulting in saliency. In Publication VII, the have the magnets mounted inside the rotor resulting in saliency. In Publication VII, the
sustained operation at low speeds is made possible by augmenting the adaptive full-order sustained operation at low speeds is made possible by augmenting the adaptive full-order
observer with a signal injection method. The high-frequency signal injection is based on a observer with a signal injection method. The high-frequency signal injection is based on a
method developed by Corley and Lorenz (1998). The combination of the high-frequency method developed by Corley and Lorenz (1998). The combination of the high-frequency
signal injection method and the adaptive full-order observer has been developed by Piippo signal injection method and the adaptive full-order observer has been developed by Piippo
and Luomi (2005) for PMSM drives without an LC filter. and Luomi (2005) for PMSM drives without an LC filter.
A carrier excitation signal ûc cos(ωc t), having amplitude ûc and angular frequency A carrier excitation signal ûc cos(ωc t), having amplitude ûc and angular frequency
ωc , is superimposed on the d-axis inverter output voltage reference in the estimated rotor ωc , is superimposed on the d-axis inverter output voltage reference in the estimated rotor
reference frame. A response is detected on the q-axis inverter output current, from which reference frame. A response is detected on the q-axis inverter output current, from which
an error signal ε, proportional to the rotor position estimation error, can be extracted: an error signal ε, proportional to the rotor position estimation error, can be extracted:
n  o n  o
ε = LPF BPF iAq sin(ωc t) (4.16) ε = LPF BPF iAq sin(ωc t) (4.16)

Here, LPF means low-pass filtering and BPF means band-pass filtering. In a conventional Here, LPF means low-pass filtering and BPF means band-pass filtering. In a conventional
signal injection, when an inverter output filter is not used, the excitation signal is superim- signal injection, when an inverter output filter is not used, the excitation signal is superim-
posed on the stator voltage reference and detected on the stator current. posed on the stator voltage reference and detected on the stator current.
A correction term ωε for the estimated rotor speed ω̂m is obtained using a PI mechanism A correction term ωε for the estimated rotor speed ω̂m is obtained using a PI mechanism
Z Z
ωε = γp ε + γi εdt (4.17) ωε = γp ε + γi εdt (4.17)

where γp and γi are nonnegative gains. The correction term is used by replacing ω̂m in where γp and γi are nonnegative gains. The correction term is used by replacing ω̂m in
(4.9) with ω̂m − ωε . (4.9) with ω̂m − ωε .
The signal injection is not needed at higher speeds, so its influence is reduced as the The signal injection is not needed at higher speeds, so its influence is reduced as the
rotor speed increases. Both the HF excitation voltage ûc and the approximate bandwidth rotor speed increases. Both the HF excitation voltage ûc and the approximate bandwidth
of the PI mechanism in (4.17) are linearly decreased as the speed increases, reaching zero of the PI mechanism in (4.17) are linearly decreased as the speed increases, reaching zero
at the transition speed ω∆ . The experimental results, presented in Publication VII, show at the transition speed ω∆ . The experimental results, presented in Publication VII, show
that the sensorless PMSM drive equipped with an LC filter can stand nominal load torque that the sensorless PMSM drive equipped with an LC filter can stand nominal load torque
steps even at zero speed. steps even at zero speed.

48 48
Chapter 5 Chapter 5

Experimental Setup Experimental Setup

The experimental setup used in this thesis is described in this chapter. In Publications The experimental setup used in this thesis is described in this chapter. In Publications
I−IV and VIII, the investigated motor was a standard 2.2-kW induction motor. In Publi- I−IV and VIII, the investigated motor was a standard 2.2-kW induction motor. In Publi-
cations V and VI, the investigated motor was an experimental 2.2-kW permanent magnet cations V and VI, the investigated motor was an experimental 2.2-kW permanent magnet
synchronous motor. synchronous motor.
Fig. 5.1 shows an overview of the experimental setup. The investigated motor (IM or Fig. 5.1 shows an overview of the experimental setup. The investigated motor (IM or
PMSM) is supplied by a VLT5004 frequency converter through an inverter output filter. PMSM) is supplied by a VLT5004 frequency converter through an inverter output filter.
The motor is loaded by a PM servo motor driven by a Bivector frequency converter. Both The motor is loaded by a PM servo motor driven by a Bivector frequency converter. Both
frequency converters are equipped with braking resistors (BR). The system is controlled frequency converters are equipped with braking resistors (BR). The system is controlled
by a dSPACE DS1103 PCC/DSP board connected to a PC. A photograph of the experi- by a dSPACE DS1103 PCC/DSP board connected to a PC. A photograph of the experi-
mental setup is shown in Fig. 5.2. The technical data of the hardware is given in Table 5.1. mental setup is shown in Fig. 5.2. The technical data of the hardware is given in Table 5.1.
The parameters of the 2.2-kW IM and 2.2-kW PMSM are given in Tables 5.2 and 5.3, The parameters of the 2.2-kW IM and 2.2-kW PMSM are given in Tables 5.2 and 5.3,
respectively. respectively.

Shaft torque Shaft torque

ωm ωm

PC with dSPACE PC with dSPACE


DS1103 board DS1103 board

ia , ib , ic ia , ib , ic
Braking PWM PWM udc Encoder Braking PWM PWM udc Encoder

Frequency Output IM or Frequency Output IM or


converter PMSM converter PMSM
VLT5004 filter VLT5004 filter
Mains Mains
BR LEMs BR LEMs
BR Torque flange BR Torque flange
Frequency Frequency
converter PM converter PM
servo servo
Bivector Bivector

Torque (or speed) reference Torque (or speed) reference

Figure 5.1. Experimental setup. Figure 5.1. Experimental setup.

49 49
Figure 5.2. Photograph of experimental setup. Figure 5.2. Photograph of experimental setup.

The technical data of the LC filter used in each publication are given in Table 5.4. In The technical data of the LC filter used in each publication are given in Table 5.4. In
Publications I−III, the capacitors of the LC filter were in delta connection. In Publication Publications I−III, the capacitors of the LC filter were in delta connection. In Publication
IV, a sinusoidal DM and CM filter similar to that shown in Fig. 2.11 was built. The CM IV, a sinusoidal DM and CM filter similar to that shown in Fig. 2.11 was built. The CM
inductor was built using two toroidal VITROPERM cores and three windings with 24 inductor was built using two toroidal VITROPERM cores and three windings with 24
turns in each. The DM part of the filter was used in Publications V−VII. All three-phase turns in each. The DM part of the filter was used in Publications V−VII. All three-phase
inductors used in the experiments were laminated iron-core inductors. inductors used in the experiments were laminated iron-core inductors.
The original VLT5004 frequency converter was modified in order to control the gate The original VLT5004 frequency converter was modified in order to control the gate
signals directly from the dSPACE DS1103 PCC/DSP board. The original controller board signals directly from the dSPACE DS1103 PCC/DSP board. The original controller board
of the frequency converter was replaced with an interface and protection board compatible of the frequency converter was replaced with an interface and protection board compatible
with the DS1103 board. This hardware modification was developed at Aalborg University with the DS1103 board. This hardware modification was developed at Aalborg University
in Denmark (Teodorescu et al., 2000). The feedback signals from the phase currents, the in Denmark (Teodorescu et al., 2000). The feedback signals from the phase currents, the
DC-link voltage, and the motor speed are connected to the DS1103 board through a signal DC-link voltage, and the motor speed are connected to the DS1103 board through a signal
conditioning unit. The braking choppers connected to the VLT5004 are also controlled by conditioning unit. The braking choppers connected to the VLT5004 are also controlled by
the DS1103 board. An analogue torque (or speed) reference was provided by the DS1103 the DS1103 board. An analogue torque (or speed) reference was provided by the DS1103
board for the Bivector frequency converter that supplies the servo motor. The shaft torque board for the Bivector frequency converter that supplies the servo motor. The shaft torque
was measured using a HBM T10F torque flange for monitoring purposes. was measured using a HBM T10F torque flange for monitoring purposes.
The developed control algorithms were programmed using the M ATLAB/Simulink The developed control algorithms were programmed using the M ATLAB/Simulink
software. The Simulink Real-Time Workshop generates an executable C-code from the software. The Simulink Real-Time Workshop generates an executable C-code from the
Simulink model, after which the dSPACE Real-Time Interface builds and downloads the Simulink model, after which the dSPACE Real-Time Interface builds and downloads the
code to the DS1103 board. The program execution can be monitored and controlled us- code to the DS1103 board. The program execution can be monitored and controlled us-
ing the dSPACE ControlDesk software. The pulse-width modulation was generated by ing the dSPACE ControlDesk software. The pulse-width modulation was generated by
the slave DSP of the DS1103 board. The sampling frequency was equal to the switching the slave DSP of the DS1103 board. The sampling frequency was equal to the switching
frequency of 5 kHz in all experiments in this thesis. frequency of 5 kHz in all experiments in this thesis.

50 50
Table 5.1. Technical data of the experimental setup. Table 5.1. Technical data of the experimental setup.

Induction motor ABB M2AA 100LA 3GAA102001-ADA Induction motor ABB M2AA 100LA 3GAA102001-ADA
Rating plate 380. . . 420 V, 50 Hz, 1 430 r/min, Rating plate 380. . . 420 V, 50 Hz, 1 430 r/min,
2.2 kW, 5.0 A, cos ϕ = 0.81 2.2 kW, 5.0 A, cos ϕ = 0.81
Moment of inertia 0.0069 kgm2 Moment of inertia 0.0069 kgm2
Permanent magnet synchronous motor ABB M2BJ 100L 6B3 Permanent magnet synchronous motor ABB M2BJ 100L 6B3
Rating plate 370 V, 75 Hz, 1 500 r/min, Rating plate 370 V, 75 Hz, 1 500 r/min,
2.2 kW, 4.3 A, cos ϕ = 0.90 2.2 kW, 4.3 A, cos ϕ = 0.90
Frequency converter Danfoss VLT5004 P T5 B20 EB R3 (modified) Frequency converter Danfoss VLT5004 P T5 B20 EB R3 (modified)
Supply voltage 380. . . 500 V (50/60 Hz) Supply voltage 380. . . 500 V (50/60 Hz)
Output voltage 0. . . 100 % of supply voltage Output voltage 0. . . 100 % of supply voltage
Max. const. output current 5.6 A Max. const. output current 5.6 A
Output frequency 0. . . 1 000 Hz Output frequency 0. . . 1 000 Hz
PM servo motor ABB 8C5 230 00YA02SL3MB PM servo motor ABB 8C5 230 00YA02SL3MB
Rating plate 315 V, 3 000 r/min, cont. stall torque 21.5 Nm Rating plate 315 V, 3 000 r/min, cont. stall torque 21.5 Nm
(14.1 A), peak stall torque 75.3 Nm (54.6 A) (14.1 A), peak stall torque 75.3 Nm (54.6 A)
Moment of inertia 0.0040 kgm2 Moment of inertia 0.0040 kgm2
Frequency converter for PM servo ABB Bivector 535 “25” Frequency converter for PM servo ABB Bivector 535 “25”
Rated supply voltage 400 V (50/60 Hz) Rated supply voltage 400 V (50/60 Hz)
Rated output voltage 400 V Rated output voltage 400 V
Rated cont. output current 25.0 A Rated cont. output current 25.0 A
Current transducers LEM LA 55-P/SP1 Current transducers LEM LA 55-P/SP1
Bandwidth 0. . . 200 kHz (−1 dB) Bandwidth 0. . . 200 kHz (−1 dB)
Accuracy (at 25◦ C, rated current) ±0.9 % Accuracy (at 25◦ C, rated current) ±0.9 %
Incremental encoder Leine & Linde 186 90311 Incremental encoder Leine & Linde 186 90311
Line counts 2 048 ppr Line counts 2 048 ppr
Moment of inertia 42 · 10−6 kgm2 Moment of inertia 42 · 10−6 kgm2
Torque transducer HBM K-T10F-050Q-SU2-G-1-W1-Y Torque transducer HBM K-T10F-050Q-SU2-G-1-W1-Y
Rated torque 50 Nm Rated torque 50 Nm
Maximum speed 15 000 r/min Maximum speed 15 000 r/min
Torsional stiffness 160 kNm/rad Torsional stiffness 160 kNm/rad
Bandwidth 0. . . 1 kHz (−3 dB) Bandwidth 0. . . 1 kHz (−3 dB)
Moment of inertia 0.0017 kgm2 Moment of inertia 0.0017 kgm2
Coupling HBM BSD-M ODULFLEX for K-T10F Coupling HBM BSD-M ODULFLEX for K-T10F
Torsional stiffness 24 kNm/rad Torsional stiffness 24 kNm/rad
Moment of inertia (incl. joint) 0.0029 kgm2 Moment of inertia (incl. joint) 0.0029 kgm2
Controller board dS PACE DS1103 PPC Controller board dS PACE DS1103 PPC
Master processor PowerPC 604e (400 MHz, 2 MB local Master processor PowerPC 604e (400 MHz, 2 MB local
SRAM, 128 MB global DRAM) SRAM, 128 MB global DRAM)
Slave processor Texas Instruments TMS320F240 DSP Slave processor Texas Instruments TMS320F240 DSP
(20 MHz, 3-phase PWM generation) (20 MHz, 3-phase PWM generation)

51 51
Table 5.2. Parameters of 2.2-kW 4-pole 400-V 50-Hz IM and load. Table 5.2. Parameters of 2.2-kW 4-pole 400-V 50-Hz IM and load.

Rated torque TN 14.6 Nm Rated torque TN 14.6 Nm


Stator resistance Rs 3.67 Ω Stator resistance Rs 3.67 Ω
Rotor resistance RR 2.10 Ω Rotor resistance RR 2.10 Ω
Magnetizing inductance LM 0.224 H Magnetizing inductance LM 0.224 H
Stator transient inductance L′s 0.0209 H Stator transient inductance L′s 0.0209 H
Total moment of inertia J 0.0155 kgm2 Total moment of inertia J 0.0155 kgm2
Viscous friction coefficient 0.0025 Nm·s Viscous friction coefficient 0.0025 Nm·s

Table 5.3. Parameters of 2.2-kW 6-pole 380-V 75-Hz PMSM and load. Table 5.3. Parameters of 2.2-kW 6-pole 380-V 75-Hz PMSM and load.

Rated torque TN 14.0 Nm Rated torque TN 14.0 Nm


Stator resistance Rs 3.59 Ω Stator resistance Rs 3.59 Ω
Direct-axis inductance Ld 36.0 mH Direct-axis inductance Ld 36.0 mH
Quadrature-axis inductance Lq 51.0 mH Quadrature-axis inductance Lq 51.0 mH
Permanent magnet flux linkage ψpm 0.545 Vs Permanent magnet flux linkage ψpm 0.545 Vs
Total moment of inertia J 0.015 kgm2 Total moment of inertia J 0.015 kgm2

52 52
Table 5.4. Technical data of inverter output filters. Table 5.4. Technical data of inverter output filters.

Filter used in Publications I−III Filter used in Publications I−III


3-phase inductor Platthaus UAG 941/16/8 Nr.:L122985 3-phase inductor Platthaus UAG 941/16/8 Nr.:L122985
Inductance 3 x 8.0 mH Inductance 3 x 8.0 mH
Rated voltage 690 V Rated voltage 690 V
Rated current 16 A Rated current 16 A
Rated frequency 50/60 Hz Rated frequency 50/60 Hz
Rated switching frequency 2/4 kHz Rated switching frequency 2/4 kHz
Capacitors 3 x VISHAY PEC-Kondensator KMKP 1100 -3.30 IA Capacitors 3 x VISHAY PEC-Kondensator KMKP 1100 -3.30 IA
Capacitance 3.3 µF ±10 % (9.9-µF per phase in delta connection) Capacitance 3.3 µF ±10 % (9.9-µF per phase in delta connection)
Rated voltage 1100 V Rated voltage 1100 V
Filter used in Publications IV−VII Filter used in Publications IV−VII
3-phase inductor Block B0403092 3 LC Filter for ABB 3-phase inductor Block B0403092 3 LC Filter for ABB
VFD ACS 800 Series (capacitors removed) VFD ACS 800 Series (capacitors removed)
Inductance 3 x 5.10 mH Inductance 3 x 5.10 mH
Voltage range 0-440/520 V Voltage range 0-440/520 V
Frequency range 0-150 Hz Frequency range 0-150 Hz
Rated current 10.0 A Rated current 10.0 A
Capacitor 3 x EPCOS B25834-L6685-K009 MKV Capacitor 3 x EPCOS B25834-L6685-K009 MKV
Capacitance 6.8 µF ±10 % Capacitance 6.8 µF ±10 %
Rated voltage 900 V Rated voltage 900 V
CM filter used in Publication IV CM filter used in Publication IV
CM inductor Core: 2 x Vacuumschmelze VITROPERM W631-52 CM inductor Core: 2 x Vacuumschmelze VITROPERM W631-52
Inductance 20 mH Inductance 20 mH
Number of winding turns 24 (per phase) Number of winding turns 24 (per phase)
Capacitor VISHAY PEC-Kondensator KMKP 900 -2.2 IA Capacitor VISHAY PEC-Kondensator KMKP 900 -2.2 IA
Capacitance 2.2 µF ±10 % Capacitance 2.2 µF ±10 %
Rated voltage 900 V Rated voltage 900 V
Resistor Resistor
Resistance 10 Ω Resistance 10 Ω
Filter used in Publication VIII Filter used in Publication VIII
3-phase inductor Muuntosähkö Trafox 3INP5 50145 3-phase inductor Muuntosähkö Trafox 3INP5 50145
Inductance 3 x 4.0 mH Inductance 3 x 4.0 mH
Rated voltage 400 V Rated voltage 400 V
Rated current 5.0 A Rated current 5.0 A
Capacitor 3 x EPCOS B25832-F4505-K001 MKV Capacitor 3 x EPCOS B25832-F4505-K001 MKV
Capacitance 5.0 µF ±10 % Capacitance 5.0 µF ±10 %
Rated voltage 640 V Rated voltage 640 V

53 53
54 54
Chapter 6 Chapter 6

Summary of Publications Summary of Publications

Summaries of the publications which comprise this thesis are reprinted in Section 6.1. Summaries of the publications which comprise this thesis are reprinted in Section 6.1.
Publication I deals with speed-sensored control and Publications II and III with speed- Publication I deals with speed-sensored control and Publications II and III with speed-
sensorless control of IM drives equipped with an LC filter. In Publication IV, different sensorless control of IM drives equipped with an LC filter. In Publication IV, different
PWM methods are compared when a sinusoidal differential-mode and common-mode fil- PWM methods are compared when a sinusoidal differential-mode and common-mode fil-
ter is used. Publications V, VI, and VII deal with speed-sensorless control of PMSM drives ter is used. Publications V, VI, and VII deal with speed-sensorless control of PMSM drives
equipped with an LC filter. Publication VIII focuses on the design of inverter output filters. equipped with an LC filter. Publication VIII focuses on the design of inverter output filters.
The contribution of the thesis is described in Section 6.2. The contribution of the thesis is described in Section 6.2.

6.1 Abstracts 6.1 Abstracts


Publication I Publication I
This paper introduces a control method for an induction motor that is supplied by a PWM This paper introduces a control method for an induction motor that is supplied by a PWM
voltage source inverter through an LC filter. A cascade control structure is employed and voltage source inverter through an LC filter. A cascade control structure is employed and
a full-order observer is used to estimate the system states. Thus no additional voltage a full-order observer is used to estimate the system states. Thus no additional voltage
or current measurements are needed for the vector control of the motor. Two alternative or current measurements are needed for the vector control of the motor. Two alternative
methods are presented for the observer gain selection. Simulation and experimental results methods are presented for the observer gain selection. Simulation and experimental results
confirm the functionality of the proposed control method. confirm the functionality of the proposed control method.

Publication II Publication II
The paper presents a speed sensorless vector control method for an induction motor that is The paper presents a speed sensorless vector control method for an induction motor that is
supplied by a PWM inverter through an output LC filter. The system states are estimated by supplied by a PWM inverter through an output LC filter. The system states are estimated by
an adaptive full-order observer, and no additional voltage, current or speed measurements an adaptive full-order observer, and no additional voltage, current or speed measurements
are needed. The rotor speed adaptation is based on the estimation error of the inverter are needed. The rotor speed adaptation is based on the estimation error of the inverter
output current. Quasi-steady-state analysis is used to illustrate the speed adaptation, and output current. Quasi-steady-state analysis is used to illustrate the speed adaptation, and
the stability is analyzed using a linearized model. Simulation and experimental results the stability is analyzed using a linearized model. Simulation and experimental results
show that it is possible to achieve performance comparable to that of a drive without the show that it is possible to achieve performance comparable to that of a drive without the
LC filter. LC filter.

Publication III Publication III


This paper deals with the speed sensorless vector control of an induction motor in a special This paper deals with the speed sensorless vector control of an induction motor in a special
case where the output voltage of the PWM inverter is filtered by an LC filter. The system case where the output voltage of the PWM inverter is filtered by an LC filter. The system
states are estimated by means of an adaptive full-order observer, and no additional voltage, states are estimated by means of an adaptive full-order observer, and no additional voltage,

55 55
current or speed measurements are needed. The rotor speed adaptation is based on the es- current or speed measurements are needed. The rotor speed adaptation is based on the es-
timation error of the inverter output current. Quasi-steady-state and linearization analyses timation error of the inverter output current. Quasi-steady-state and linearization analyses
are used to design an observer that enables a wide operation region, including very low and are used to design an observer that enables a wide operation region, including very low and
very high speeds. A torque-maximizing control method is applied in the field-weakening very high speeds. A torque-maximizing control method is applied in the field-weakening
region. Simulation and experimental results show that the performance is comparable to region. Simulation and experimental results show that the performance is comparable to
that of a drive without the LC filter. that of a drive without the LC filter.

Publication IV Publication IV
This paper deals with the suitability of various pulse-width modulation techniques for a This paper deals with the suitability of various pulse-width modulation techniques for a
variable-speed AC drive equipped with a sinusoidal differential-mode and common-mode variable-speed AC drive equipped with a sinusoidal differential-mode and common-mode
filter at the inverter output. Simulations and experiments are used for the investigation. filter at the inverter output. Simulations and experiments are used for the investigation.
If the average common-mode voltage is changed abruptly, the filter resonance may be If the average common-mode voltage is changed abruptly, the filter resonance may be
excited, and the common-mode voltage at the motor terminals may rise to values higher excited, and the common-mode voltage at the motor terminals may rise to values higher
than those obtained without the filter. This phenomenon may cause difficulties when the than those obtained without the filter. This phenomenon may cause difficulties when the
modulation is started, and it also creates a fundamental problem when a two-phase mod- modulation is started, and it also creates a fundamental problem when a two-phase mod-
ulation method is used. The resonance problem can be avoided by selecting a modulation ulation method is used. The resonance problem can be avoided by selecting a modulation
technique that does not cause sudden changes in the average common-mode voltage. A technique that does not cause sudden changes in the average common-mode voltage. A
starting algorithm is proposed, enabling a trouble-free start of the drive equipped with a starting algorithm is proposed, enabling a trouble-free start of the drive equipped with a
sinusoidal common-mode filter. sinusoidal common-mode filter.

Publication V Publication V
The paper presents a sensorless vector control method for a permanent magnet syn- The paper presents a sensorless vector control method for a permanent magnet syn-
chronous motor when the output voltage of the PWM inverter is filtered by an LC filter. chronous motor when the output voltage of the PWM inverter is filtered by an LC filter.
The dynamics of the LC filter are taken into account in the design of the controller and The dynamics of the LC filter are taken into account in the design of the controller and
adaptive full-order observer. The use of the output filter does not require additional cur- adaptive full-order observer. The use of the output filter does not require additional cur-
rent or voltage measurements. The speed adaptation is based on the estimation error of the rent or voltage measurements. The speed adaptation is based on the estimation error of the
inverter output current. Linearization analysis is used to design an observer that enables a inverter output current. Linearization analysis is used to design an observer that enables a
wide operation region. Simulation and experimental results show the functionality of the wide operation region. Simulation and experimental results show the functionality of the
proposed control method. proposed control method.

Publication VI Publication VI
The paper deals with the maximum torque and speed of permanent magnet synchronous The paper deals with the maximum torque and speed of permanent magnet synchronous
motor (PMSM) drives when the inverter output voltage is filtered by an LC filter with a motor (PMSM) drives when the inverter output voltage is filtered by an LC filter with a
cut-off frequency well below the switching frequency. According to steady-state analysis, cut-off frequency well below the switching frequency. According to steady-state analysis,
the filter affects the performance of the motor drive especially at high speeds. The stator the filter affects the performance of the motor drive especially at high speeds. The stator
current is not equal to the inverter current, and due to the inverter current and inverter volt- current is not equal to the inverter current, and due to the inverter current and inverter volt-
age limits, the torque-maximizing stator current locus differs from that of a drive without age limits, the torque-maximizing stator current locus differs from that of a drive without
the filter. A field-weakening method is proposed for PMSM drives with an inverter output the filter. A field-weakening method is proposed for PMSM drives with an inverter output
filter. The method is implemented and tested in a 2.2-kW PMSM drive. The experimen- filter. The method is implemented and tested in a 2.2-kW PMSM drive. The experimen-
tal results agree well with the analysis, and validate the high-speed performance of the tal results agree well with the analysis, and validate the high-speed performance of the
proposed field-weakening method. proposed field-weakening method.

56 56
Publication VII Publication VII
The paper proposes a hybrid observer for sensorless control of permanent magnet syn- The paper proposes a hybrid observer for sensorless control of permanent magnet syn-
chronous motor drives equipped with an inverter output LC filter. An adaptive full-order chronous motor drives equipped with an inverter output LC filter. An adaptive full-order
observer is augmented with a high-frequency signal injection method at low speeds. The observer is augmented with a high-frequency signal injection method at low speeds. The
only measured quantities are the inverter phase currents and the DC-link voltage. It is only measured quantities are the inverter phase currents and the DC-link voltage. It is
shown that the LC filter is not an obstacle to using signal injection methods. The proposed shown that the LC filter is not an obstacle to using signal injection methods. The proposed
method allows sensorless operation in a wide speed range down to zero speed. Experimen- method allows sensorless operation in a wide speed range down to zero speed. Experimen-
tal results are given to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method. tal results are given to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Publication VIII Publication VIII


The paper deals with the minimization of output filter cost in inverter-fed AC drives. The The paper deals with the minimization of output filter cost in inverter-fed AC drives. The
LC filter design is constrained by the total harmonic distortions of the stator voltage and LC filter design is constrained by the total harmonic distortions of the stator voltage and
inverter output current, the voltage drop in the filter inductor, and the system resonance inverter output current, the voltage drop in the filter inductor, and the system resonance
frequency. The last constraint is important from the control point of view, because the vec- frequency. The last constraint is important from the control point of view, because the vec-
tor control requires that the sampling frequency is sufficiently higher than the resonance tor control requires that the sampling frequency is sufficiently higher than the resonance
frequency. The design takes into account the frequency dependence of the filter resistance frequency. The design takes into account the frequency dependence of the filter resistance
and inductance due to the eddy currents in the laminated iron-core inductor. The design and inductance due to the eddy currents in the laminated iron-core inductor. The design
method is further enhanced by taking into account the inverter power stage cost as a func- method is further enhanced by taking into account the inverter power stage cost as a func-
tion of the switching frequency. The design minimizes the total cost of the inverter and tion of the switching frequency. The design minimizes the total cost of the inverter and
filter, and determines the optimal switching frequency. Simulations and experiments show filter, and determines the optimal switching frequency. Simulations and experiments show
that the filter designed according to the proposed design procedure fulfils the design con- that the filter designed according to the proposed design procedure fulfils the design con-
straints, and the speed-sensorless control works well with the cost-optimized filter. straints, and the speed-sensorless control works well with the cost-optimized filter.

6.2 Contribution of the Thesis 6.2 Contribution of the Thesis


The main contributions of the thesis can be summarized as follows: The main contributions of the thesis can be summarized as follows:
• A full-order observer for IM drives equipped with an LC filter is proposed in Publi- • A full-order observer for IM drives equipped with an LC filter is proposed in Publi-
cation I. The observer estimates the stator voltage, the stator current, and rotor flux cation I. The observer estimates the stator voltage, the stator current, and rotor flux
linkage, and therefore no additional measurements are needed for the vector control. linkage, and therefore no additional measurements are needed for the vector control.

• In Publication II, a speed-adaptation mechanism is added to the full-order observer • In Publication II, a speed-adaptation mechanism is added to the full-order observer
enabling speed-sensorless operation of IM drives equipped with an LC filter. enabling speed-sensorless operation of IM drives equipped with an LC filter.

• A field weakening method based on a voltage control is proposed in Publication III • A field weakening method based on a voltage control is proposed in Publication III
for IM drives equipped with an LC filter. A similar voltage control algorithm has for IM drives equipped with an LC filter. A similar voltage control algorithm has
been used by Harnefors et al. (2001) without an LC filter. been used by Harnefors et al. (2001) without an LC filter.

• A speed and position sensorless control method based on a full-order observer and • A speed and position sensorless control method based on a full-order observer and
speed adaptation is proposed for PMSM drives equipped with an LC filter in Publi- speed adaptation is proposed for PMSM drives equipped with an LC filter in Publi-
cation V. cation V.

• The influence of an inverter output LC filter on the maximum torque and speed • The influence of an inverter output LC filter on the maximum torque and speed
of PMSM drives is analyzed and a new field weakening method is developed in of PMSM drives is analyzed and a new field weakening method is developed in
Publication VI. Publication VI.

• In Publication IV, it is shown that the two-phase (or discontinuous) modulation • In Publication IV, it is shown that the two-phase (or discontinuous) modulation
method may excite the CM filter resonance and causes excessive oscillation in the method may excite the CM filter resonance and causes excessive oscillation in the

57 57
CM current if a sinusoidal CM filter is used at the inverter output. Symmetrical CM current if a sinusoidal CM filter is used at the inverter output. Symmetrical
suboscillation or the corresponding space vector modulation (SVPWM) is suitable suboscillation or the corresponding space vector modulation (SVPWM) is suitable
method when a sinusoidal CM filter is used. A starting algorithm is proposed to method when a sinusoidal CM filter is used. A starting algorithm is proposed to
solve a starting problem originating from the saturated CM inductor. solve a starting problem originating from the saturated CM inductor.

• A high-frequency signal injection method combined with an adaptive full-order ob- • A high-frequency signal injection method combined with an adaptive full-order ob-
server is jointly developed for PMSM drives equipped with an LC filter in Publica- server is jointly developed for PMSM drives equipped with an LC filter in Publica-
tion VII. tion VII.

• An LC filter design method that minimizes the filter cost is proposed in Publication • An LC filter design method that minimizes the filter cost is proposed in Publication
VIII. The method takes the vector control into account. VIII. The method takes the vector control into account.

58 58
Chapter 7 Chapter 7

Conclusions Conclusions

In this thesis, new sensorless vector control methods are developed for IM and PMSM In this thesis, new sensorless vector control methods are developed for IM and PMSM
drives equipped with a sinusoidal LC filter at the inverter output. The innovation of the drives equipped with a sinusoidal LC filter at the inverter output. The innovation of the
developed control methods is to use a full-order observer to estimate unmeasured state developed control methods is to use a full-order observer to estimate unmeasured state
variables of the filter and the motor. A speed-adaptation mechanism enables speed and po- variables of the filter and the motor. A speed-adaptation mechanism enables speed and po-
sition sensorless operation. The control methods require only measurements of the inverter sition sensorless operation. The control methods require only measurements of the inverter
output current and the DC-link voltage. Thus, an LC filter can be added to an existing drive output current and the DC-link voltage. Thus, an LC filter can be added to an existing drive
without any hardware modifications. Only changes in the control software of the frequency without any hardware modifications. Only changes in the control software of the frequency
converter are needed. converter are needed.
First, a speed-sensored vector control method was developed for IM drives equipped First, a speed-sensored vector control method was developed for IM drives equipped
with an LC filter. The full-order observer based on filter and motor equations estimates the with an LC filter. The full-order observer based on filter and motor equations estimates the
stator voltage, the stator current, and the rotor flux linkage. The feedback is taken from the stator voltage, the stator current, and the rotor flux linkage. The feedback is taken from the
inverter output current. The observer gain can be selected by means of pole placement, but inverter output current. The observer gain can be selected by means of pole placement, but
a constant gain gives similar results and is more convenient to use. Cascaded controllers a constant gain gives similar results and is more convenient to use. Cascaded controllers
for the inverter output current, the stator voltage, the stator current, and the rotor speed for the inverter output current, the stator voltage, the stator current, and the rotor speed
work well if they are carefully tuned. work well if they are carefully tuned.
Speed-sensorless operation of IM drives with an LC filter was made possible by adding Speed-sensorless operation of IM drives with an LC filter was made possible by adding
a speed-adaptation mechanism to the observer. A PI-type adaptation mechanism is based a speed-adaptation mechanism to the observer. A PI-type adaptation mechanism is based
on the estimation error of the inverter output current. The observer gain and adaptation on the estimation error of the inverter output current. The observer gain and adaptation
parameters can be selected by means of quasi-steady-state and linearization analyses. Ac- parameters can be selected by means of quasi-steady-state and linearization analyses. Ac-
cording to experimental results, the speed-sensorless control method works well in wide cording to experimental results, the speed-sensorless control method works well in wide
speed and load ranges. However, inaccurate parameters and inverter nonidealities cause speed and load ranges. However, inaccurate parameters and inverter nonidealities cause
unstable operation at very low stator frequencies even if the system is stable according to unstable operation at very low stator frequencies even if the system is stable according to
the linearization analysis (marginally stable at zero frequency). The minimum stator fre- the linearization analysis (marginally stable at zero frequency). The minimum stator fre-
quency that can be reached under loaded conditions is approximately equal to that obtained quency that can be reached under loaded conditions is approximately equal to that obtained
for sensorless drives without a filter. for sensorless drives without a filter.
A sensorless vector control method was developed for PMSM drives equipped with A sensorless vector control method was developed for PMSM drives equipped with
an LC filter. The full-order observer is based on filter and motor equations, and a PI-type an LC filter. The full-order observer is based on filter and motor equations, and a PI-type
adaptation mechanism uses the estimation error of the inverter output current to adapt the adaptation mechanism uses the estimation error of the inverter output current to adapt the
rotor speed. Linearization analysis is a suitable method for designing an observer gain for rotor speed. Linearization analysis is a suitable method for designing an observer gain for
the system. The stability problem at very low speeds under load can be solved by aug- the system. The stability problem at very low speeds under load can be solved by aug-
menting the adaptive observer with a signal injection method. Even if the filter is present, menting the adaptive observer with a signal injection method. Even if the filter is present,
the signal injection method works properly. The sensorless PMSM drive equipped with an the signal injection method works properly. The sensorless PMSM drive equipped with an
LC filter can stand nominal load torque steps even at zero speed. LC filter can stand nominal load torque steps even at zero speed.
When an LC filter is used the limits for the inverter output current and for the sta- When an LC filter is used the limits for the inverter output current and for the sta-
tor current can be defined separately. These current limits and the inverter output voltage tor current can be defined separately. These current limits and the inverter output voltage

59 59
limit determine an optimal stator current locus for the maximum-torque operation. De- limit determine an optimal stator current locus for the maximum-torque operation. De-
pending on the current limits, the maximum torque can be even higher with an LC filter pending on the current limits, the maximum torque can be even higher with an LC filter
than without it. The proposed field-weakening methods based on voltage control enable than without it. The proposed field-weakening methods based on voltage control enable
maximum-torque operation both in IM and PMSM drives equipped with an LC filter. maximum-torque operation both in IM and PMSM drives equipped with an LC filter.
An inverter output filter does not significantly affect the control performance of a An inverter output filter does not significantly affect the control performance of a
variable-speed AC drive. The proposed control methods are based on cascaded controllers. variable-speed AC drive. The proposed control methods are based on cascaded controllers.
Two additional control loops are needed due to the LC filter as compared to a drive without Two additional control loops are needed due to the LC filter as compared to a drive without
a filter. To ensure an adequate bandwidth separation between the control loops, the band- a filter. To ensure an adequate bandwidth separation between the control loops, the band-
width of the stator current controller is about one third of that when a filter is not used. width of the stator current controller is about one third of that when a filter is not used.
The speed control performance is close to that of a drive without a filter. The speed control performance is close to that of a drive without a filter.
When using a sinusoidal CM filter at the inverter output, the modulation method should When using a sinusoidal CM filter at the inverter output, the modulation method should
be selected carefully. The two-phase (or discontinuous) modulation method generates high be selected carefully. The two-phase (or discontinuous) modulation method generates high
lower-order harmonics in the CM voltage, which may excite the CM filter resonance and lower-order harmonics in the CM voltage, which may excite the CM filter resonance and
cause excessive oscillation in the CM current. Symmetrical suboscillation (or the corre- cause excessive oscillation in the CM current. Symmetrical suboscillation (or the corre-
sponding space vector PWM) is suitable modulation method for drives equipped with a sponding space vector PWM) is suitable modulation method for drives equipped with a
sinusoidal CM filter. The starting problem originating from the saturated CM inductor can sinusoidal CM filter. The starting problem originating from the saturated CM inductor can
be solved by modifying the on-durations of the zero vectors at the modulation start. be solved by modifying the on-durations of the zero vectors at the modulation start.
A cost-effective filter design requires knowledge of the component prices, motor and A cost-effective filter design requires knowledge of the component prices, motor and
inverter parameters, and filtering requirements. In addition, the vector control sets a con- inverter parameters, and filtering requirements. In addition, the vector control sets a con-
straint for the filter design: the sampling frequency of the inverter output current should straint for the filter design: the sampling frequency of the inverter output current should
be at least four times the resonance frequency of the system. This requirement can be a be at least four times the resonance frequency of the system. This requirement can be a
limiting factor especially if the sampling frequency is low. Otherwise, the dominant re- limiting factor especially if the sampling frequency is low. Otherwise, the dominant re-
quirement may be the THD of the stator voltage or the voltage drop in the filter inductor. quirement may be the THD of the stator voltage or the voltage drop in the filter inductor.
Increasing the switching frequency of the inverter, the filter cost reduces, but on the other Increasing the switching frequency of the inverter, the filter cost reduces, but on the other
hand, the inverter power stage cost increases. An optimum switching frequency can be hand, the inverter power stage cost increases. An optimum switching frequency can be
found if the inverter power stage cost is taken into account in the filter design. found if the inverter power stage cost is taken into account in the filter design.
Topics for future research could include the development of control methods that in- Topics for future research could include the development of control methods that in-
crease the bandwidth of the stator current control. If the cascaded controllers are replaced crease the bandwidth of the stator current control. If the cascaded controllers are replaced
by some other control structure, the bandwidth of the stator current control could be closer by some other control structure, the bandwidth of the stator current control could be closer
to that of a drive without a filter. Speed-sensorless operation of IM drives equipped with to that of a drive without a filter. Speed-sensorless operation of IM drives equipped with
an LC filter might be improved at low speeds if a signal injection method is applied. The an LC filter might be improved at low speeds if a signal injection method is applied. The
development of identification methods for filter and motor parameters would be useful if development of identification methods for filter and motor parameters would be useful if
the control methods presented in this thesis are to be implemented in commercial drives. the control methods presented in this thesis are to be implemented in commercial drives.

60 60
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