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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Load Torque Observer

WANG Chenchen, LI Yongdong

Department of Electrical Engineering

Tsinghua University,

Beijing, 100084, P.R.China

Abstract – The Extended kalman filter (EKF) has been matrices are reduced. Furthermore, the load torque is

found wide application in the sensorless control of induction included as a state variable to improve the steady and

motor (IM) because of its good steady and dynamic behaviour,

disturbance resistance, and fast convergence. This paper dynamic performances. The observed load torque is also

presents a novel speed sensorless field-oriented control scheme compensated to the system as a feedforward to reduce the

of Induction motor using extended kalman filter. As the ripple caused by a sudden change of load torque. The

quadrature axes rotor flux is equal to zero in the field-oriented simulation and experimental results show the validity and

control, the observer based on the IM model in synchronous feasibility of the presented scheme. The comparative study of

reference coordinate to estimate the flux and rotor speed

simultaneously is simpler. Compared to the traditional observer presented scheme with the one in stationary reference

using extended kalman filter, the orders of model and the coordinate is also carried out.

matrixes are reduced, the complexity and the computational The paper is organized as follows: after the introduction in

time are also decreased. The load torque is also observed by Section I, the models of motor and EKF algorithm is

EKF and compensated to the system to reduce the ripple caused discussed in Section II; Section III presents the novel speed

by a sudden change of the load torque. The speed and torque

ripple in steady state also reduces when the load torque is

sensorless field-oriented control scheme based on the model

included as a state variable. The simulation and experimental in synchronous coordinate, and then two methods are derived;

results show the validity and the feasibility of the presented The observation and compensation of load torque is studied

scheme. in Section IV; Section V and VI gives the simulation and

Keywords – induction motors; extended kalman filter; speed experimental results. Finally, the conclusion is given in

sensorless; field-oriented control; load torque observer. Section VII.

I. INTRODUCTION

II. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF IM AND EKF ALGORITHM

The sensorless field-oriented control of IM has been

A dynamic model for induction motor in an arbitrary

researched extensively over the last two decades. Good

reference coordinate rotating with a angular speed ωK , by

performance of the control lies on the accuracy of the

choosing the stator current and rotor flux as state variables, is

estimated or observed flux and rotor angular speed of the

as follows[13]:

motor. The flux and speed are calculated using the stator

current and voltage in the traditional approaches, with a large

dx(t )

error especially in the low speed range. Recently, the = A ⋅ x (t ) + B ⋅ u (t ) (1)

extended kalman filter algorithm, in which the system dt

(process) and measurement noise is considered, has been y (t ) = C ⋅ x(t ) (2)

widely used in the sensorless control of IM[1-9]. With EKF, where

it is possible to estimate the states and identify the T

x = ⎡⎣ids iqs ψ dr ψ qr ⎤⎦ ,

parameters in a relatively short time interval. According to

T T

the stator current and reconstructed voltage, the flux and y = ⎡⎣ids iqs ⎤⎦ , u = ⎡⎣ uds uqs ⎤⎦ ,

speed of IM can be estimated simultaneously using the EKF.

Since the good steady and dynamic behaviour, disturbance ⎡ a1 ωK a2 / τ r a2ωr ⎤

⎢

resistance, and the fast convergence, the EKF is considered −ω K a1 −a2ωr a2 / τ r ⎥⎥

to be a preferable method to estimate the motor speed[10-12]. A= ⎢ ,

⎢ Lm / τ r 0 −1/ τ r ω K − ωr ⎥

This paper presents a novel speed sensorless field-oriented ⎢ ⎥

⎣0 Lm / τ r ωr − ωK −1/ τ r ⎦

control scheme of Induction motor using EKF. As the

quadrature axes flux is equal to zero in the field-oriented

control, the elements related to the q axes flux could be

omitted if the model of IM in a synchronous reference

coordinate is used. Then the orders of the model and iterative

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⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎡ a1 ωs a2 / τ r a2ωr ⎤

0 ⎢

⎢

L ⎥

−ω s a1 − a2ωr a2 / τ r ⎥⎥

⎢ σ ⎥ A= ⎢ . (10)

⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎡1 0 0 0⎤ ⎢ Lm / τ r 0 −1/ τ r ωsl ⎥

B= ⎢0 ⎥ , C= ⎢ , ⎢ ⎥

⎢

Lσ ⎥ ⎣0 1 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎣0 Lm / τ r

ωsl −1/ τ r ⎦

⎢0 0 ⎥ Since the d axes is oriented towards the rotor flux in field-

⎢ ⎥

oriented control, the q axes rotor flux equals zero:

⎣0 0 ⎦

ψ rq = 0 . (11)

L2m L L − L2m

σ = 1− = s r , The elements correlative with ψ rq are omitted. Then the

Ls Lr Ls Lr

state variables x = (isd , isq ,ψ rd ) ,

Ls Lr − L2m L ⎡ a1 ωs a2 / τ r ⎤

Lσ = σ Ls = , τr = r , ⎢

Lr Rr A = ⎢ −ωs − a1 − a2ωr ⎥⎥ . (12)

Rs Rr L2m L ⎣ Lm / τ r 0

⎢ −1/ τ r ⎦⎥

a1 = −( + ) , a2 = m .

Lσ L2r Lσ Lr Lσ The dynamic model of IM can be given when the ωr is

Generally, we set ωK = 0 , and add the angular speed of added as a state variable (Method I):

rotor as a state variable. Then a 5 order nonlinear model of x& (t ) = f [ x(t ), u (t ), t ] + Q

IM is obtained and can be described as: ⎡ Lm x2 a 1 ⎤

xk = f ( xk −1 , uk , wk −1 ) , (3) ⎢ a1 x1 + ( x4 + ) x2 + 2 x3 + usd ⎥

⎢

τ x

r 3 τ 2 Lσ ⎥

zk = h( xk , vk ) , (4) ⎢ Lm x2 1 ⎥

where ⎢ − ( x4 + ) x1 + a1 x2 − a2 x3 x4 + usq ⎥ . (13)

= ⎢ τ r x3 Lσ ⎥+Q

T

x = ⎡⎣ids iqs ψ dr ψ qr ωr ⎤⎦ . ⎢L

m 1 ⎥

⎢ x1 − x3 ⎥

⎢ τr τr ⎥

Here w is the input noise (process noise) of the system,

⎢0 ⎥

which stands for the error of the parameters; v is the output ⎣ ⎦

noise (measurement noise) which stands for the errors in Lm isq

measurement and sample. From the nonlinear model above, according to ωs = ωr + ωsl = ωr + ,

τ rψ rd

the rotor speed can be estimated by the following EKF

algorithm. where x = (isd , isq ,ψ rd , ωr ) ,

1. Prediction of the state variables: Q = diag (q1 , q2 , q3 , q4 ) ,

xˆk− = f ( xˆk −1 , uk , 0) . (5) and

2. Estimation of the error covariance matrix: Φk = I +

Pk− = Φ k Pk −1ΦTk + Qk −1 , (6) ⎡ 2 Lm x2 a2 Lm x22 ⎤

⎢ a1 x4 + − x2 ⎥

where ⎢ τ r x3 τr τ r x32 ⎥

∂f ⎢ ⎥

Φk = , Qk = cov{wk } = E{wk wkT } . Lm x2 L x Lm x2 x1

∂x xk ⎢ −( x4 + ) a1 − m 1 − a2 x 4 + − x1 − a2 x3 ⎥

⎢ τ r x3 τ r x3 τ r x32 ⎥ Ts

3. Kalman filter gain: ⎢ ⎥

⎢ Lm −

1 ⎥

( ) 0 0

−1

K k = Pk− ⋅ H kT ⋅ H k ⋅ Pk− ⋅ H kT + Rk . (7) ⎢τ

r τr ⎥

⎢ ⎥

where ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 0 ⎥⎦

∂h

Hk = , Rk = cov{vk } = E{vk vkT } .

∂x xk

where Ts is the period of the observer.

It can be seen that, in the synchronous coordinate, the

4. Estimation of the state variables:

order of the model and the correlative matrix decreases from

xˆk = xˆk− + K k ⋅ ( zk − h( xˆk− , 0)) . (8) 5 to 4. The numerical complexity can be reduced in the

5. Update of the error covariance matrix: iteration of matrix for the one order decrease. But it can also

Pk = ( I − K k ⋅ H h ) ⋅ Pk− . (9) be seen that the elements of Φ k in (13) are complex. If we

change the variable ωr by synchronous speed ωs , then the

dynamic model can be given (Method II):

III. PROPOSED SCHEME IN THE SYNCHRONOUS REFERENCE

COORIDNATE

speed, the model in the synchronous reference coordinate is:

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x& (t ) = f [ x(t ), u (t ), t ] + Q In the stationary reference coordinate, if

a2 1 ，

x = (isα , isβ ,ψ rα ,ψ r β , Ω,τ L ) the extended model of IM is

：

⎡ ⎤

⎢ a1 x1 + x4 x2 + x3 + usd ⎥ given as follows

⎢

τr Lσ

⎥

x& (t ) = f [ x(t ), u (t ), t ] + Q

⎢ Lr Rs a2 1 ⎥

⎢ − x4 x1 − x2 − a2 x4 x3 + usq ⎥ , (14) ⎡ a2 1 ⎤

= Lm Lσ ⎥+Q

⎢ ⎢ a1 x1 + x3 + a2 x4 x5 + usα ⎥

⎢L ⎥ τ Lσ

m 1 ⎢ ⎥

⎢ x1 − x3 ⎥ ⎢ a2 1 ⎥

⎢ τr τr ⎥ ⎢ a1 x2 − a2 x3 x5 + x4 + us β ⎥

⎢0 ⎥ ⎢

τ Lσ ⎥

⎣ ⎦

⎢L 1 ⎥

where x = (isd , isq ,ψ rd , ωs ) , ⎢

m

x1 − x3 − x4 x5 ⎥ , (17)

and = ⎢ τr τr ⎥ +Q

a2 ⎢L 1 ⎥

⎡ ⎤

⎢ m x2 + x3 x5 − x4

⎢ a1 x4 x2 ⎥

⎥ τ τ

τr ⎢ r r ⎥

⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥

⎢ a2 Lr Rs ⎥ p

⎢−a x x + a x x −

⎢ − x4 − − a2 x 4 − x1 − a2 x3 ⎥ x6 ⎥

3 1 4 3 2 3

Φk = I +⎢ Lm ⎥ Ts .

⎢ J ⎥

⎢0 ⎥

⎢L 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

m

⎢ 0 − 0 ⎥

τ

⎢ r τr ⎥ 3 p 2 Lm

where a3 = ,

0 ⎢0 0 0 ⎥ 2 J Lr

⎣ ⎦

Obviously, the model and the iterative matrix are simpler ⎡ a2 ⎤

by the alteration of the state variable. The diagram of the ⎢ a1 0 a2 x5 a2 x4 0 ⎥

τr

proposed speed sensorless field-oriented control method is ⎢ ⎥

⎢ a2 ⎥

shown in Fig. 1 in which ωs is selected to be the variable. ⎢0 a1 − a2 x5 − a2 x3 0 ⎥

The method in which ωr is selected to be the variable is ⎢

τr ⎥

similar and will not be shown here. ⎢L 1 ⎥

m

⎢ 0 − − x5 − x4 0 ⎥

IV. LOAD TORQUE OBSERVATION Φk = I + ⎢ τr τr ⎥ Ts

.

⎢ Lm 1 ⎥

As we know, the mechanical equation of the motor is: ⎢0 x5 − x3 0 ⎥

T −T ⎢ τr τr ⎥

ω& r = p ⋅ m L , (15) ⎢

p⎥

J ⎢ − a3 x4 a3 x3 a3 x2 − a3 x1 0 − ⎥

where ⎢ J⎥

⎢0 0 0 0 0 0 ⎥

J : the inertia of motor; ⎣ ⎦

p : pairs of poles of motor;

Similarly, in the synchronous reference coordinate,

Tm : electromagnetic torque;

TL : load torque, include friction and windage. x = (isd , isd ,ψ rd , ωr ,τ L ) ，

the model of IM can be given

In the aforementioned discussion, the mechanical time by ：

constant is considered adequately larger than the x& (t ) = f [ x(t ), u (t ), t ] + Q

electromagnetic time constant, so it makes: ⎡ Lm x2 a 1 ⎤

ω& r = 0 , (16) ⎢ a1 x1 + ( x4 + ) x2 + 2 x3 + usd ⎥

⎢

τ r x3 τr Lσ

⎥

Actually, we can include the load torque as a state variable,

⎢ Lm x2 1 ⎥

and (15) can be used in the model. ⎢ − ( x4 + ) x1 − a1 x2 − a2 x3 x4 + usq ⎥

⎢ τ r x3 Lσ ⎥ , (18)

usqc

= ⎢L 1 ⎥ +Q

Te* 2 LrT m

ω *r

3 Lm n pψ r

i*sq u*sq u *sα

⎢ x1 − x3 ⎥

⎢ τr τr

dq

− − usdc

⎥

i*sd *

↓ u *sβ

usd αβ

− ⎢ p ⎥

θˆψ isq

⎢ a3 x2 x3 − x5 ⎥

Lmisq r

αβ abc ⎢ J ⎥

Trψ r isd ↓ ↓

dq αβ ⎢0 ⎥

ω *sl − ⎣ ⎦

ω̂ r ω̂ s

ψˆ rd

u sd usq

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Φk = I + Fig. 3 and 4 shows the estimation of flux and speed when

⎡ 2 Lm x2 a2 Lm x22 ⎤ the method I and method II is employed respectively. The

⎢ a1 x4 + − x2 0 ⎥ motor is magnetized from 0 to 1.5 second, and accelerates to

⎢ τ r x3 τr τ r x32 ⎥

⎢ ⎥

600rpm from 1.5 second. A rated load torque is imposed on

L x L x Lm x2 x1

⎢ −( x4 + m 2 ) a1 − m 1 −a2 x4 + − x1 − a2 x3 0 ⎥ the motor at 3 second. The simulation results show that the

⎢ τ r x3 τ r x3 τ r x32 ⎥ observed speed and flux can trace the real one quickly

⎢ ⎥T

⎢ Lm 1 ⎥

s enough.

0 − 0 0

⎢τ τr ⎥ The simulation results of EKF with load torque observer

r

⎢ ⎥

⎢ p⎥ respectively in stationary and synchronous reference

0 a3 x3 a3 x2 0 −

⎢ J⎥ coordinate show in Fig. 5 and 6. The motor operates at 600

⎢ ⎥ rpm, and a rated load torque is imposed at 2.5 second. It can

⎣0 0 0 0 0 ⎦

be seen that if the observed load torque is compensated to the

The speed and load torque can be observed simultaneously system, the ripple of speed caused by a sudden change of

according to the extended model above. The observed load load torque can be reduced obviously. Comparatively, the

torque can also be compensated to the system as a speed ripple using the proposed scheme in the synchronous

feedforward to calculate the command of the q axes current. reference coordinate is much smaller than that in stationary

And the dynamic performances can be improved thanks to one.

the observation load torque. Fig. 2 shows the compensation VI. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

of the load torque.

A platform with a TMS320F2812 DSP is used to confirm

ω *r Te* the validity of the proposed schemes. The control period is

125us. For the restriction of the computational accuracy, the

− performances obtained from the experiments may be not the

ω̂ r TˆL best. But the following experimental results are the best we

can achieve using this hardware and the conclusions are

Fig.2 Feedforward of the load torque.

derived from the experimental results we got. The real speed

is measured by the encoder of 1000 p/r. The parameters of

V. SIMULATION RESULTS motor using in experiments are same with that using

To test the performances of the proposed schemes, insimulations. A DC motor with a resistance is used as the

simulations are carried out on an IM with the following load of the induction motor.

parameters: Fig. 7 and 8 shows the performances of the proposed

Pn = 2200W UL=380V In=5.9A ，

fn =50Hz p=3 ， ， ， ， method I and II. The condition of acceleration and sudden

Ls=Lr=0.1801 H, Lm =0.1893 H, Rs = 2.75 , Rr = 2.27 Ω Ω， change of load torque is considered. From the figures, the

J=0.21kg.m2

1.2

。 800 1.2 800

Real flux Real speed

Real flux Real speed

Estimated flux Estimated speed

Estimated flux Estimated speed

600

0.9 600

0.9

Rotro speed(rpm)

Rotro speed(rpm)

Rotor flux (Wb)

Rotor flux(Wb)

400

400

0.6 0.6

200

200

0.3 0.3

0

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 -200

0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5

Time(s) Time(s) Time(s) 0 1 2 3 4 5

Time(s)

(a)Real and estimated flux (b) Real speed and estimated speed (a) Real and estimated flux (b) Real speed and estimated speed

Fig.3 Simulation result of the method I Fig.4 Simulation result of the method II

800 800 1.5

1.2 Real load torque

600 600

Rotor speed(rpm)

Load torque(p.u)

0.9

Rotor speed(rpm)

0.3

200 200

0.0

0 0 -0.3

0 1 2

Time(s) 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5

Time(s) Time(s)

(a) Rotor speed without feedforward of load torque (b) Rotor speed with feedforward of load torque (c) Real and estimated load torque

Fig.5 Simulation result using EKF based on stationary reference coordinate. (The rated load torque is imposed on the motor at 2.5 second)

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two methods based on the synchronous reference coordinate can be reduced obviously if the observed load torque is

both show the acceptable steady and dynamic performances. compensated to the system as a feedforward.

The ripple of speed and torque current when using method I VII. CONCLUSION

are smaller than that using method II.

Fig. 9 and 10 shows the experiment results when the EKF A novel speed sensorless field-oriented control scheme of

based on the model respectively in stationary and IM using EKF based on the synchronous reference coordinate

synchronous reference coordinate with load torque observer is presented in this paper. Two methods are derived and

are employed. The speed estimation, torque current and carried out which use the rotor speed or synchronous speed as

observed load torque is shown. The condition when the state variable respectively. The load torque is also included as

observed load torque is compensated and not compensated is a state variable and compensated to the system as a

compared. Firstly, it can be seen visibly that the speed and feedforward. In this case, the speed and torque ripple can be

torque ripple in steady state is much smaller than that when obviously reduced either in steady or dynamic states.

the load torque is not included as a state variable. Secondly,

the speed ripple caused by the sudden change of load torque

800 1.5

800

Estimated load torque

1.2 Real load torque

600 600

Rotor speed(rpm)

Load torque(p.u)

Rotor speed(rpm)

0.9

0.3

200 200

0.0

0 0 -0.3

0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5

Time(s) Time(s) Time(s)

(a) Rotor speed without feedforward of load torque (b) Rotor speed with feedforward of load torque (c) Real and estimated load torque

Fig.6 Simulation result using EKF based on synchronous reference coordinate. (The rated load torque is imposed on the motor at 2.5 second)

800 800 5

Real speed Real speed

Estimated speed Estimated speed

4

600 600

Rotor speed(rpm)

Torque current(A)

Rotor speed(rpm)

3

400 400

200 200

1

0 0

0 2 4 6 8 10

0

0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10

Time(s) Time(s)

Time(s)

(a) method I (a) Real speed and estimated speed. (b) Torque current

800 800 5

Real speed Real speed

Estimated speed Estimated speed

4

600 600

Rotor speed(rpm)

Torque current(A)

Rotor speed(rpm)

3

400

400

200

200

1

0

0 2 4 6 8 10

0 0

Time(s) 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10

Time(s) Time(s)

(b) method II (c) Real speed and estimated speed. (d) Torque current

Fig.7 Speed estimation when the motor Fig.8 Speed estimation and torque current when the motor operates at 600rpm

accelerates from 20rpm to 600rpm using method I and II. with a sudden load torque imposed using method I (a and b) and II (c and d).

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[8] F. Schutte, S. Beineke, A. Rolfsmeier, and H. Grotstollen, "Online

REFERENCES identification of mechanical parameters using extended Kalman filters,"

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[1] L. Salvatore, S. Stasi, and L. Tarchioni, "A new EKF-based algorithm [9] K. Young-Real, S. Seung-Ki, and P. Min-Ho, "Speed sensorless vector

for flux estimation in induction machines," IEEE Transactions on control of induction motor using extended Kalman filter," IEEE

Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, pp. 496-504, 1993. Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 30, pp. 1225-1233, 1994.

[2] T. Iwasaki and T. Kataoka, "Application of an extended Kalman filter [10] C. Manes, F. Parasiliti, and M. Tursini, "A comparative study of rotor

to parameter identification of an induction motor," in IAS, 1989, pp. flux estimation in induction motors with a nonlinear observer and the

248-253 vol.1. extended Kalman filter," in IECON 1994, pp. 2149-2154 vol.3.

[3] M. Barut, O. S. Bogosyan, and M. Gokasan, "EKF based estimation for [11] K. L. Shi, T. F. Chan, Y. K. Wong, and S. L. Ho, "Speed estimation of

direct vector control of induction motors," in IECON 02, 2002, pp. an induction motor drive using extended Kalman filter," in Power

1710-1715 vol.2. Engineering Society Winter Meeting, 2000, pp. 243-248 vol.1.

[4] M. Barut, M. Gokasan, and O. S. Bogosyan, "An extended Kalman [12] K. L. Shi, T. F. Chan, Y. K. Wong, and S. L. Ho, "Speed estimation of

filter based sensorless direct vector control of induction motors," in an induction motor drive using an optimized extended Kalman filter,"

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[5] A. Dell'Aquila, F. Cupertino, L. Salvatore, and S. Stasi, "Kalman filter [13] T. Du and M. A. Brdys, "Shaft speed, load torque and rotor flux

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[6] J. W. Finch, D. J. Atkinson, and P. P. Acarnley, "Full-order estimator Drives, 1993, pp. 179-184.

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on Industrial Electronics, vol. 54, pp. 272-280, 2007.

800 6 20

Real speed

Estimated speed

600 15

Rotor speed(rpm)

Torque current(A)

400 10

2

200 5

0 0 0

0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10

Time(s) Time(s) Time(s)

(a) Real speed and estimated speed. (b) Torque current. (c) Observed load torque.

20

800 6

Real speed

Estimated speed

Observed load torque(N.m)

15

600

Rotor speed(rpm)

Torque current(A)

10

400

2

5

200

0 0

0

0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10

Time(s) Time(s) Time(s)

(d) Real speed and estimated speed (e) Torque current (f) Observed load torque

Fig.9 The motor operates at 600 rpm when a sudden load torque is imposed without (a,b,c) and with (d,e,f) the feedforward of the load torque.

(EKF with load torque observation in the stationary reference coordinate)

800 6 20

Real speed

Estimated speed

Observed load torque(N.m)

600 15

Rotor speed(rpm)

Torque current(A)

400 10

2

200 5

0 0 0

0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10

Time(s) Time(s) Time(s)

(a) Real speed and estimated speed. (b) Torque current (c) Observed load torque

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800 6 20

Real speed

Estimated speed

600 15

Rotor speed(rpm)

Torque current(A)

4

400 10

2

200 5

0 0

0

0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10

Time(s) 0 2 4 6 8 10

Time(s) Time(s)

(d) Real speed and estimated speed. (e) Torque current (f) Observed load torque

Fig.10 The motor operates at 600 rpm when a sudden load torque is imposed on without (a,b,c) and with (d,e,f) the feedforward of the load

torque. (EKF with load torque observation in the synchronous reference coordinate)

1802

Authorized licensed use limited to: Reva Institute of Tehnology and Management. Downloaded on December 14, 2008 at 00:22 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

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