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A Novel Speed Sensorless Field-Oriented Control

Scheme of IM Using Extended Kalman Filter with


Load Torque Observer
WANG Chenchen, LI Yongdong
Department of Electrical Engineering
Tsinghua University,
Beijing, 100084, P.R.China

Abstract – The Extended kalman filter (EKF) has been matrices are reduced. Furthermore, the load torque is
found wide application in the sensorless control of induction included as a state variable to improve the steady and
motor (IM) because of its good steady and dynamic behaviour,
disturbance resistance, and fast convergence. This paper dynamic performances. The observed load torque is also
presents a novel speed sensorless field-oriented control scheme compensated to the system as a feedforward to reduce the
of Induction motor using extended kalman filter. As the ripple caused by a sudden change of load torque. The
quadrature axes rotor flux is equal to zero in the field-oriented simulation and experimental results show the validity and
control, the observer based on the IM model in synchronous feasibility of the presented scheme. The comparative study of
reference coordinate to estimate the flux and rotor speed
simultaneously is simpler. Compared to the traditional observer presented scheme with the one in stationary reference
using extended kalman filter, the orders of model and the coordinate is also carried out.
matrixes are reduced, the complexity and the computational The paper is organized as follows: after the introduction in
time are also decreased. The load torque is also observed by Section I, the models of motor and EKF algorithm is
EKF and compensated to the system to reduce the ripple caused discussed in Section II; Section III presents the novel speed
by a sudden change of the load torque. The speed and torque
ripple in steady state also reduces when the load torque is
sensorless field-oriented control scheme based on the model
included as a state variable. The simulation and experimental in synchronous coordinate, and then two methods are derived;
results show the validity and the feasibility of the presented The observation and compensation of load torque is studied
scheme. in Section IV; Section V and VI gives the simulation and
Keywords – induction motors; extended kalman filter; speed experimental results. Finally, the conclusion is given in
sensorless; field-oriented control; load torque observer. Section VII.

I. INTRODUCTION
II. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF IM AND EKF ALGORITHM
The sensorless field-oriented control of IM has been
A dynamic model for induction motor in an arbitrary
researched extensively over the last two decades. Good
reference coordinate rotating with a angular speed ωK , by
performance of the control lies on the accuracy of the
choosing the stator current and rotor flux as state variables, is
estimated or observed flux and rotor angular speed of the
as follows[13]:
motor. The flux and speed are calculated using the stator
current and voltage in the traditional approaches, with a large
dx(t )
error especially in the low speed range. Recently, the = A ⋅ x (t ) + B ⋅ u (t ) (1)
extended kalman filter algorithm, in which the system dt
(process) and measurement noise is considered, has been y (t ) = C ⋅ x(t ) (2)
widely used in the sensorless control of IM[1-9]. With EKF, where
it is possible to estimate the states and identify the T
x = ⎡⎣ids iqs ψ dr ψ qr ⎤⎦ ,
parameters in a relatively short time interval. According to
T T
the stator current and reconstructed voltage, the flux and y = ⎡⎣ids iqs ⎤⎦ , u = ⎡⎣ uds uqs ⎤⎦ ,
speed of IM can be estimated simultaneously using the EKF.
Since the good steady and dynamic behaviour, disturbance ⎡ a1 ωK a2 / τ r a2ωr ⎤

resistance, and the fast convergence, the EKF is considered −ω K a1 −a2ωr a2 / τ r ⎥⎥
to be a preferable method to estimate the motor speed[10-12]. A= ⎢ ,
⎢ Lm / τ r 0 −1/ τ r ω K − ωr ⎥
This paper presents a novel speed sensorless field-oriented ⎢ ⎥
⎣0 Lm / τ r ωr − ωK −1/ τ r ⎦
control scheme of Induction motor using EKF. As the
quadrature axes flux is equal to zero in the field-oriented
control, the elements related to the q axes flux could be
omitted if the model of IM in a synchronous reference
coordinate is used. Then the orders of the model and iterative

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⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎡ a1 ωs a2 / τ r a2ωr ⎤
0 ⎢

L ⎥
−ω s a1 − a2ωr a2 / τ r ⎥⎥
⎢ σ ⎥ A= ⎢ . (10)
⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎡1 0 0 0⎤ ⎢ Lm / τ r 0 −1/ τ r ωsl ⎥
B= ⎢0 ⎥ , C= ⎢ , ⎢ ⎥

Lσ ⎥ ⎣0 1 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎣0 Lm / τ r
ωsl −1/ τ r ⎦
⎢0 0 ⎥ Since the d axes is oriented towards the rotor flux in field-
⎢ ⎥
oriented control, the q axes rotor flux equals zero:
⎣0 0 ⎦
ψ rq = 0 . (11)
L2m L L − L2m
σ = 1− = s r , The elements correlative with ψ rq are omitted. Then the
Ls Lr Ls Lr
state variables x = (isd , isq ,ψ rd ) ,
Ls Lr − L2m L ⎡ a1 ωs a2 / τ r ⎤
Lσ = σ Ls = , τr = r , ⎢
Lr Rr A = ⎢ −ωs − a1 − a2ωr ⎥⎥ . (12)
Rs Rr L2m L ⎣ Lm / τ r 0
⎢ −1/ τ r ⎦⎥
a1 = −( + ) , a2 = m .
Lσ L2r Lσ Lr Lσ The dynamic model of IM can be given when the ωr is
Generally, we set ωK = 0 , and add the angular speed of added as a state variable (Method I):
rotor as a state variable. Then a 5 order nonlinear model of x& (t ) = f [ x(t ), u (t ), t ] + Q
IM is obtained and can be described as: ⎡ Lm x2 a 1 ⎤
xk = f ( xk −1 , uk , wk −1 ) , (3) ⎢ a1 x1 + ( x4 + ) x2 + 2 x3 + usd ⎥

τ x
r 3 τ 2 Lσ ⎥
zk = h( xk , vk ) , (4) ⎢ Lm x2 1 ⎥
where ⎢ − ( x4 + ) x1 + a1 x2 − a2 x3 x4 + usq ⎥ . (13)
= ⎢ τ r x3 Lσ ⎥+Q
T
x = ⎡⎣ids iqs ψ dr ψ qr ωr ⎤⎦ . ⎢L
m 1 ⎥
⎢ x1 − x3 ⎥
⎢ τr τr ⎥
Here w is the input noise (process noise) of the system,
⎢0 ⎥
which stands for the error of the parameters; v is the output ⎣ ⎦
noise (measurement noise) which stands for the errors in Lm isq
measurement and sample. From the nonlinear model above, according to ωs = ωr + ωsl = ωr + ,
τ rψ rd
the rotor speed can be estimated by the following EKF
algorithm. where x = (isd , isq ,ψ rd , ωr ) ,
1. Prediction of the state variables: Q = diag (q1 , q2 , q3 , q4 ) ,
xˆk− = f ( xˆk −1 , uk , 0) . (5) and
2. Estimation of the error covariance matrix: Φk = I +
Pk− = Φ k Pk −1ΦTk + Qk −1 , (6) ⎡ 2 Lm x2 a2 Lm x22 ⎤
⎢ a1 x4 + − x2 ⎥
where ⎢ τ r x3 τr τ r x32 ⎥
∂f ⎢ ⎥
Φk = , Qk = cov{wk } = E{wk wkT } . Lm x2 L x Lm x2 x1
∂x xk ⎢ −( x4 + ) a1 − m 1 − a2 x 4 + − x1 − a2 x3 ⎥
⎢ τ r x3 τ r x3 τ r x32 ⎥ Ts
3. Kalman filter gain: ⎢ ⎥
⎢ Lm −
1 ⎥
( ) 0 0
−1
K k = Pk− ⋅ H kT ⋅ H k ⋅ Pk− ⋅ H kT + Rk . (7) ⎢τ
r τr ⎥
⎢ ⎥
where ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 0 ⎥⎦
∂h
Hk = , Rk = cov{vk } = E{vk vkT } .
∂x xk
where Ts is the period of the observer.
It can be seen that, in the synchronous coordinate, the
4. Estimation of the state variables:
order of the model and the correlative matrix decreases from
xˆk = xˆk− + K k ⋅ ( zk − h( xˆk− , 0)) . (8) 5 to 4. The numerical complexity can be reduced in the
5. Update of the error covariance matrix: iteration of matrix for the one order decrease. But it can also
Pk = ( I − K k ⋅ H h ) ⋅ Pk− . (9) be seen that the elements of Φ k in (13) are complex. If we
change the variable ωr by synchronous speed ωs , then the
dynamic model can be given (Method II):
III. PROPOSED SCHEME IN THE SYNCHRONOUS REFERENCE
COORIDNATE

If we select ωK = ωs , which is the synchronous angular


speed, the model in the synchronous reference coordinate is:

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x& (t ) = f [ x(t ), u (t ), t ] + Q In the stationary reference coordinate, if
a2 1 ,
x = (isα , isβ ,ψ rα ,ψ r β , Ω,τ L ) the extended model of IM is

⎡ ⎤
⎢ a1 x1 + x4 x2 + x3 + usd ⎥ given as follows

τr Lσ

x& (t ) = f [ x(t ), u (t ), t ] + Q
⎢ Lr Rs a2 1 ⎥
⎢ − x4 x1 − x2 − a2 x4 x3 + usq ⎥ , (14) ⎡ a2 1 ⎤
= Lm Lσ ⎥+Q
⎢ ⎢ a1 x1 + x3 + a2 x4 x5 + usα ⎥
⎢L ⎥ τ Lσ
m 1 ⎢ ⎥
⎢ x1 − x3 ⎥ ⎢ a2 1 ⎥
⎢ τr τr ⎥ ⎢ a1 x2 − a2 x3 x5 + x4 + us β ⎥
⎢0 ⎥ ⎢
τ Lσ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
⎢L 1 ⎥
where x = (isd , isq ,ψ rd , ωs ) , ⎢
m
x1 − x3 − x4 x5 ⎥ , (17)
and = ⎢ τr τr ⎥ +Q
a2 ⎢L 1 ⎥
⎡ ⎤
⎢ m x2 + x3 x5 − x4
⎢ a1 x4 x2 ⎥
⎥ τ τ
τr ⎢ r r ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎢ a2 Lr Rs ⎥ p
⎢−a x x + a x x −
⎢ − x4 − − a2 x 4 − x1 − a2 x3 ⎥ x6 ⎥
3 1 4 3 2 3
Φk = I +⎢ Lm ⎥ Ts .
⎢ J ⎥
⎢0 ⎥
⎢L 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
m
⎢ 0 − 0 ⎥
τ
⎢ r τr ⎥ 3 p 2 Lm
where a3 = ,
0 ⎢0 0 0 ⎥ 2 J Lr
⎣ ⎦
Obviously, the model and the iterative matrix are simpler ⎡ a2 ⎤
by the alteration of the state variable. The diagram of the ⎢ a1 0 a2 x5 a2 x4 0 ⎥
τr
proposed speed sensorless field-oriented control method is ⎢ ⎥
⎢ a2 ⎥
shown in Fig. 1 in which ωs is selected to be the variable. ⎢0 a1 − a2 x5 − a2 x3 0 ⎥
The method in which ωr is selected to be the variable is ⎢
τr ⎥
similar and will not be shown here. ⎢L 1 ⎥
m
⎢ 0 − − x5 − x4 0 ⎥
IV. LOAD TORQUE OBSERVATION Φk = I + ⎢ τr τr ⎥ Ts
.
⎢ Lm 1 ⎥
As we know, the mechanical equation of the motor is: ⎢0 x5 − x3 0 ⎥
T −T ⎢ τr τr ⎥
ω& r = p ⋅ m L , (15) ⎢
p⎥
J ⎢ − a3 x4 a3 x3 a3 x2 − a3 x1 0 − ⎥
where ⎢ J⎥
⎢0 0 0 0 0 0 ⎥
J : the inertia of motor; ⎣ ⎦
p : pairs of poles of motor;
Similarly, in the synchronous reference coordinate,
Tm : electromagnetic torque;
TL : load torque, include friction and windage. x = (isd , isd ,ψ rd , ωr ,τ L ) ,
the model of IM can be given
In the aforementioned discussion, the mechanical time by :
constant is considered adequately larger than the x& (t ) = f [ x(t ), u (t ), t ] + Q
electromagnetic time constant, so it makes: ⎡ Lm x2 a 1 ⎤
ω& r = 0 , (16) ⎢ a1 x1 + ( x4 + ) x2 + 2 x3 + usd ⎥

τ r x3 τr Lσ

Actually, we can include the load torque as a state variable,
⎢ Lm x2 1 ⎥
and (15) can be used in the model. ⎢ − ( x4 + ) x1 − a1 x2 − a2 x3 x4 + usq ⎥
⎢ τ r x3 Lσ ⎥ , (18)
usqc
= ⎢L 1 ⎥ +Q
Te* 2 LrT m
ω *r
3 Lm n pψ r
i*sq u*sq u *sα
⎢ x1 − x3 ⎥
⎢ τr τr
dq
− − usdc

i*sd *
↓ u *sβ
usd αβ
− ⎢ p ⎥
θˆψ isq
⎢ a3 x2 x3 − x5 ⎥
Lmisq r
αβ abc ⎢ J ⎥
Trψ r isd ↓ ↓
dq αβ ⎢0 ⎥
ω *sl − ⎣ ⎦
ω̂ r ω̂ s
ψˆ rd

u sd usq

Fig.1 Diagram of the proposed scheme

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Φk = I + Fig. 3 and 4 shows the estimation of flux and speed when
⎡ 2 Lm x2 a2 Lm x22 ⎤ the method I and method II is employed respectively. The
⎢ a1 x4 + − x2 0 ⎥ motor is magnetized from 0 to 1.5 second, and accelerates to
⎢ τ r x3 τr τ r x32 ⎥
⎢ ⎥
600rpm from 1.5 second. A rated load torque is imposed on
L x L x Lm x2 x1
⎢ −( x4 + m 2 ) a1 − m 1 −a2 x4 + − x1 − a2 x3 0 ⎥ the motor at 3 second. The simulation results show that the
⎢ τ r x3 τ r x3 τ r x32 ⎥ observed speed and flux can trace the real one quickly
⎢ ⎥T
⎢ Lm 1 ⎥
s enough.
0 − 0 0
⎢τ τr ⎥ The simulation results of EKF with load torque observer
r
⎢ ⎥
⎢ p⎥ respectively in stationary and synchronous reference
0 a3 x3 a3 x2 0 −
⎢ J⎥ coordinate show in Fig. 5 and 6. The motor operates at 600
⎢ ⎥ rpm, and a rated load torque is imposed at 2.5 second. It can
⎣0 0 0 0 0 ⎦
be seen that if the observed load torque is compensated to the
The speed and load torque can be observed simultaneously system, the ripple of speed caused by a sudden change of
according to the extended model above. The observed load load torque can be reduced obviously. Comparatively, the
torque can also be compensated to the system as a speed ripple using the proposed scheme in the synchronous
feedforward to calculate the command of the q axes current. reference coordinate is much smaller than that in stationary
And the dynamic performances can be improved thanks to one.
the observation load torque. Fig. 2 shows the compensation VI. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
of the load torque.
A platform with a TMS320F2812 DSP is used to confirm
ω *r Te* the validity of the proposed schemes. The control period is
125us. For the restriction of the computational accuracy, the
− performances obtained from the experiments may be not the
ω̂ r TˆL best. But the following experimental results are the best we
can achieve using this hardware and the conclusions are
Fig.2 Feedforward of the load torque.
derived from the experimental results we got. The real speed
is measured by the encoder of 1000 p/r. The parameters of
V. SIMULATION RESULTS motor using in experiments are same with that using
To test the performances of the proposed schemes, insimulations. A DC motor with a resistance is used as the
simulations are carried out on an IM with the following load of the induction motor.
parameters: Fig. 7 and 8 shows the performances of the proposed
Pn = 2200W UL=380V In=5.9A ,
fn =50Hz p=3 , , , , method I and II. The condition of acceleration and sudden
Ls=Lr=0.1801 H, Lm =0.1893 H, Rs = 2.75 , Rr = 2.27 Ω Ω, change of load torque is considered. From the figures, the
J=0.21kg.m2
1.2
。 800 1.2 800
Real flux Real speed
Real flux Real speed
Estimated flux Estimated speed
Estimated flux Estimated speed
600
0.9 600
0.9
Rotro speed(rpm)

Rotro speed(rpm)
Rotor flux (Wb)

Rotor flux(Wb)

400
400
0.6 0.6

200
200

0.3 0.3
0
0

0.0 -200 0.0


0 1 2 3 4 5 -200
0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
Time(s) Time(s) Time(s) 0 1 2 3 4 5
Time(s)
(a)Real and estimated flux (b) Real speed and estimated speed (a) Real and estimated flux (b) Real speed and estimated speed

Fig.3 Simulation result of the method I Fig.4 Simulation result of the method II
800 800 1.5

Observed load torque


1.2 Real load torque

600 600
Rotor speed(rpm)

Load torque(p.u)

0.9
Rotor speed(rpm)

400 400 0.6

0.3
200 200
0.0

0 0 -0.3
0 1 2
Time(s) 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
Time(s) Time(s)
(a) Rotor speed without feedforward of load torque (b) Rotor speed with feedforward of load torque (c) Real and estimated load torque
Fig.5 Simulation result using EKF based on stationary reference coordinate. (The rated load torque is imposed on the motor at 2.5 second)

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two methods based on the synchronous reference coordinate can be reduced obviously if the observed load torque is
both show the acceptable steady and dynamic performances. compensated to the system as a feedforward.
The ripple of speed and torque current when using method I VII. CONCLUSION
are smaller than that using method II.
Fig. 9 and 10 shows the experiment results when the EKF A novel speed sensorless field-oriented control scheme of
based on the model respectively in stationary and IM using EKF based on the synchronous reference coordinate
synchronous reference coordinate with load torque observer is presented in this paper. Two methods are derived and
are employed. The speed estimation, torque current and carried out which use the rotor speed or synchronous speed as
observed load torque is shown. The condition when the state variable respectively. The load torque is also included as
observed load torque is compensated and not compensated is a state variable and compensated to the system as a
compared. Firstly, it can be seen visibly that the speed and feedforward. In this case, the speed and torque ripple can be
torque ripple in steady state is much smaller than that when obviously reduced either in steady or dynamic states.
the load torque is not included as a state variable. Secondly,
the speed ripple caused by the sudden change of load torque
800 1.5
800
Estimated load torque
1.2 Real load torque

600 600
Rotor speed(rpm)

Load torque(p.u)
Rotor speed(rpm)

0.9

400 400 0.6

0.3

200 200
0.0

0 0 -0.3
0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
Time(s) Time(s) Time(s)

(a) Rotor speed without feedforward of load torque (b) Rotor speed with feedforward of load torque (c) Real and estimated load torque
Fig.6 Simulation result using EKF based on synchronous reference coordinate. (The rated load torque is imposed on the motor at 2.5 second)

800 800 5
Real speed Real speed
Estimated speed Estimated speed
4
600 600
Rotor speed(rpm)

Torque current(A)
Rotor speed(rpm)

3
400 400

200 200
1

0 0
0 2 4 6 8 10
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10
Time(s) Time(s)
Time(s)
(a) method I (a) Real speed and estimated speed. (b) Torque current

800 800 5
Real speed Real speed
Estimated speed Estimated speed
4
600 600
Rotor speed(rpm)

Torque current(A)
Rotor speed(rpm)

3
400
400

200
200
1

0
0 2 4 6 8 10
0 0
Time(s) 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10
Time(s) Time(s)
(b) method II (c) Real speed and estimated speed. (d) Torque current
Fig.7 Speed estimation when the motor Fig.8 Speed estimation and torque current when the motor operates at 600rpm
accelerates from 20rpm to 600rpm using method I and II. with a sudden load torque imposed using method I (a and b) and II (c and d).

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[8] F. Schutte, S. Beineke, A. Rolfsmeier, and H. Grotstollen, "Online
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800 6 20
Real speed
Estimated speed

Observed load torque(N.m))


600 15
Rotor speed(rpm)

Torque current(A)

400 10

2
200 5

0 0 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10
Time(s) Time(s) Time(s)
(a) Real speed and estimated speed. (b) Torque current. (c) Observed load torque.
20
800 6

Real speed
Estimated speed
Observed load torque(N.m)

15
600
Rotor speed(rpm)

Torque current(A)

10
400

2
5
200

0 0
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10
Time(s) Time(s) Time(s)

(d) Real speed and estimated speed (e) Torque current (f) Observed load torque
Fig.9 The motor operates at 600 rpm when a sudden load torque is imposed without (a,b,c) and with (d,e,f) the feedforward of the load torque.
(EKF with load torque observation in the stationary reference coordinate)
800 6 20
Real speed
Estimated speed
Observed load torque(N.m)

600 15
Rotor speed(rpm)

Torque current(A)

400 10

2
200 5

0 0 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10
Time(s) Time(s) Time(s)
(a) Real speed and estimated speed. (b) Torque current (c) Observed load torque

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800 6 20

Real speed
Estimated speed

Observed load torque(N.m)


600 15
Rotor speed(rpm)

Torque current(A)
4

400 10

2
200 5

0 0
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10
Time(s) 0 2 4 6 8 10
Time(s) Time(s)
(d) Real speed and estimated speed. (e) Torque current (f) Observed load torque
Fig.10 The motor operates at 600 rpm when a sudden load torque is imposed on without (a,b,c) and with (d,e,f) the feedforward of the load
torque. (EKF with load torque observation in the synchronous reference coordinate)

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