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obust speed-controlled induction-motor

F and RLS estimators

F.-J. Lin

Indexing term) Induction-motor drive, RLS estimator, Kalwan Jiltei

On the other hand, to preserve the robust perform-

Abstract: An induction-motor (IM) speed drive, ance under parameter variations and external load dis-
with the application of an extended Kalman filter turbance, many studies have been made on the motor
(EKF) and a proposed recursive least-square drives [ 14-21], which include feedforward control of
(RLS) estimator, is introduced. The rotor the observed torque [19-211. An on-line tuning IP
resistance of the IM is identified by the EKF, and speed controller, with disturbance torque feedforward
the rotor inertia constant, the damping constant control, is proposed in this study. The tuning of the IP
and the disturbed load torque of the IM are controller is according to the estimated rotor inertia
estimated by the proposed RLS estimator, which and damping constants from the proposed RLS estima-
is composed of an RLS estimator and a torque tor [22], and the disturbance torque is obtained from
observer. The integral proportional (IP) speed the proposed load torque observer. The IP controller
controller is on-line, designed according to the and the observer are implemented using a PC-486, and
estimated rotor parameters. Then the observed the RLS estimator is also implemented using a
disturbance torque is fed forward to increase the DSP32C.
robustness of the induction-motor speed drive. Under this co-processor structure, the decouple con-
trol of torque and flux in the indirect field-oriented
mechanism is guaranteed by the estimated rotor resist-
ance; and the robust control performance is obtained
1 Introduction by the on-line tuning IP controller with feedforward
control. The theoretic basis of the proposed controllers
Indirect field-oriented techniques utilising microproces- is derived in detail, and some simulation and experi-
sors are now widely used for the control of induction- mental results are provided to demonstrate the effec-
motor drives in high-performance applications. How- tiveness of the proposed control scheme.
ever, their performance strongly depends on the motor
2 Induction-motor model
parameters, especially the rotor resistance 111.
Recently, much attention has been given to the possi- The small-signal linear state space equation for the
bility of identifying the changes in motor parameters induction motor in a stationary reference frame is as
while the drive is in normal operation 121. Some follows [23]:
authors have proposed various induction-motor drives
with rotor-resistance or time-constant identification X=AX+BU (1)
methods [2-lo], including the EKF technique [9, lo], to T
given better control performance. The EKF algorithm x= [iqs ids iq, zdr] (2)
[ I l l is an optimal recursive estimation algorithm for
nonlinear systems, which is very suitable for implemen-
tation in systems with measurement contaminated by
noise. The current-controlled pulse-width modulated
(CCPWM) voltage-source inverter (VSI) is most popu-
lar in high-performance AC servo applications. The
A=o [
voltage waveform of this VSI has a broad-band spec-
trum. This harmonic spectrum can be considered as
noise input. The EKF approach is ideally suited for
parameter estimation in such a system. Since the algo-
rithm is computationally intensive, and all the steps (5)
involved require vector or matrix operations, the
DSP32C digital signal processor (DSP) [12, 131, which
is installed in a PC-486, is used to implement the algo-
rithm. igs,ids = q-axis and d-axis stator current
iyr,idr = q-axis and d-axis rotor current
0IEE, 1996
IEE Proceedings online no. 19960287
vqr, vds = q-axis and d-axis stator voltage
Paper received 11th July 1995 vqr, vdr = q-axis and d-axis rotor voltage
The author is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Chung R, = stator resistance per phase
Yuan Christian University, Chung Li, Taiwan, Republic of China R, = rotor resistance per phase
186 IEE Proc.-Electr. Power Appl., Vol. 143, No 3, M a y 1996

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L, = magnetising inductance per phase

1, I]
L, 0 0
L, = stator inductance per phase
L, = rotor inductance per phase G=hjo!-im (20)
or= rotor angular speed
The discrete time equivalent model of eqn. 1 is 0 0 k
x(k 1) = $ x ( k ) ru(k) + (7) H(X(k)) = [iqs(k) (21)
The process noise W(k) is characterised by
E { W ( k ) }= 0 (22)

E { W ( k ) W ( l ) T=
) Qdki Q 20 (23)
The measurement noise V(k) is characterised by

r= (1 h
E { V ( k ) }= 0
E { V ( k ) V ( l ) T=) R S k l
The initial state is characterised by
where h is the sampling interval. One way to compute 4
and r is as follows [24]: E(X(0))= xo (26)
- 20))
E ( ( X ( 0 )- XO)(X(O) = Po (27)

3 Extended Kalman filter

To use the Kalman filter (KF) with nonlinear plant

models, such as eqn. 17, the model must be linearised
about a nominal state trajectory to produce a linear
perturbation model. The standard K F is then used to
estimate the perturbation states. The EKF estimator
can be summarised as follows [l 11:
Step 1: Prediction
X(k + l/k) = f ( X ( k / k ) ,U @ ) ) (28)
P ( k + l / k ) = p ( / ~ ) P ( k / k ) F (+k G
) ~( k ) Q G ( k ) (29)
L 0 -L,1
The EKF can be used for combined state and parame-
ter estimation by treating selected parameters as extra
states and forming an augmented state vector. Whether
the original state space model is linear or not, the aug- LRU, &-R,L, LmL,wT L m x j Lmx4
mented model is nonlinear because of the multiplica- =hu R,L,,, L,L,W, & -LsX5 LsL,dT -Ls51
tion of states. Since R, is the parameter to be -L,,L,w, RsL, -L,L,w, & - Lsx5 - L , x ~
estimated, R, is augmented into X(k), and X(k) 0 0 0 1
X ( k ) = [ 2 q s ( k ) 2 d s ( k ) z q r ( k ) Z d r ( k ) % ( k ) IT
= [ z i ( k ) % ( k ) 2 3 ( k ) 24(k) 2 5 ( k ) ]
Considering the inherent stochastic characteristic of
PWM, treating the fundamental component as the
deterministic input U(k) and all the high-order harmon-
ics as white gaussian noise W(k), and considering the
measurement noise V(k), the dynamic behaviour of a
three-phase induction motor can be modelled as
X(k + 1) = f ( X ( k ) U, ( k ) )+ G W ( k ) (17)
Y ( k )= H ( X ( k ) )+ V ( k ) (18)
f ( X ( k ) U@))
, =

I 1
(&-R,L, ) z I - L ~ , w ,s 2 + L , , , z 3 z ~ - L , , L , W r m 4 + L r p * ~ where klk denotes a prediction at time k based on data
L2,w,z1+(&--R5 L,)m2+L7,LL,w, z 3 + L , r , z 4 z 8 + L r p d , up to time k. Similarly, (k + 1)lk denotes a prediction
hn R b L r r , ~ i + L T r b L X3Zw
+ (, ~ - ~ , ~ ~ ) ~ ~ + L c L r W ~ ~ 4 - ~ at time k + 1 based on data up to time k. The block
~ r ~ ~ y r

diagram of the EKF estimator is shown in Fig. 1. The

L estimated R, will be used in the indirect field-oriented
Power Appl.. Pol. 143. No. 3, May 1996
IEE P?oc.-Electr. 187

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I HP(S) =
P = number of poles
iis = torque current command generated from the
speed controller
ii5 = flux current command
J = total mechanical inertia constant
B = total damping constant.
Fig.1 EKF block diagram
In the current-controlled PWM inverter of the indirect
field-oriented induction-motor drive, the current com-
4 Modelling of field-oriented induction-motor mands in the synchronous reference frame, denoted by
drive i;, and i;,, must be transformed into the phase domain
to yield the reference currents. The unit vector (cos@,+
The block diagram of the indirect field-oriented induc- jsino,) used in the transformation matrix is generated
tion-motor-drive system combined with an EKF esti- by using the measured rotor angular velocity CO, and
mator is shown in Fig. 2, which consists of an the following estimated slip angular velocity wx1:
induction motor loaded with a DC generator, a ramp
comparison current-controlled PWM voltage source
inverter, a field-orientation mechanism, a coordinate
translator and a speed-control loop. The induction Since Rr is sensitive for different operating conditions,
the estimated R, from the EKF estimator will be used
motor used in this drive system is a three-phase Y-con-
in eqn. 38 to guarantee a correct estimation of the slip
nected two-pole 8OOw 60Hz 120Vi5.4A type.
frequency, and to preserve the decouple control charac-
The dynamic modelling, based on measurements 1251,
is applied to find the drive model off-line at the nomi-
nal case (aro= lOOOrpm, RL = On). The results are,
(the scaling is 5OradislV)
K t = 0.5756NmIA a = 0.538 b = 3.31
J = 6.04 x 10p3Nms2= 0.302Nmsrad/V (39)
B = 3.25 x 10p3Nms/rad = 0.1625Nm/V
The estimated drive parameters will be used in the
design of the proposed controller.

5 Design of IP controller

The IP controller is shown in Fig. 3. Using the nominal

drive model, the transfer function of the rotor speed
response to the command input of Fig. 3 can be
expressed by
Fig.2 Indirect field-oriented induction-motor drive bvith EKF estimator
showing the system configuration
Js' + (B+ K,Kt)S + KIKt
2 (40)
- Wn
s2 + 2CWnS + w;

L _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - - _ - - _ - - I
Owing to the absence of zeros, the overshoot of the
Fig.3 Indirect field-oriented induction-motor drive M.ith EKF estimator step response in eqn. 6 is avoided by setting the damp-
showing the control rystem block diagram
ing ratio 5 = 1. Then one can find the unit-step
response in eqn. 40 to be
By using the reference-frame theory and the linearisa-
tion technique, the field-oriented induction-motor LJ,(~) = 1 - eP'7Lt(l +writ) (42)
drive, shown in Fig. 2, can be reasonably represented For convenience in designing the IP controller quanti-
by the control system block diagram shown in Fig. 3, tatively, the response time is defined as, the time
in which, G,(s) is an IP speed controller and required for the step response to increase from 0 to
Te --K 'taqs
* 90% of its final value. By specifying the response time
(35) as t,,, the following nonlinear equation is yielded:
0.9 = 1 - e-w"t" (1 + wnh-e) (43)
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Solve the above nonlinear equation to obtain a,; then P(k - l)C(k - 1)T
K ( k )=
from eqn. 40 one can find the parameters of the IP
controller as
1 + C(k - l ) P ( k - 1 ) C ( k - 1)T (49)

1 P ( k - 1 ) C ( k - l ) T C ( k - 1 ) P ( k - 1)
KI = Jw:/K~ K p = ( 2 7 -~ B~) / K ,
1 + C ( k - 1 ) P ( k - l)C(/k- 1)T 1
(44) P(lc)=-[P(k-l)-
Eqn. 40 also indicates that the tracking steady-state (50)
error is zero. It follows from the above analysis that where
the desired tracking specifications can be completely
achieved by using the simple IP controller. C ( k ) = [wT(k)&(W -%/GI (51)

6 Proposed RLS estimator with torque observer @(IC) = [-a1 (IC), b1 (IC)] (52)
The value of the forgetting factor a should be restricted
The block diagram of the proposed RLS estimator to 0 < a 2 1. After O(k) is obtained, the estimated val-
with a torque observer is shown in Fig. 4. If on-line ues of J and B can be easily determined from eqn. 46.
parameter identification is available when the parame- The convergence of the RLS algorithm with the torque
ter variations occur, the IP controller can be of on-line observer will be shown by simulation results.
design, according to eqn. 44, to preserve the tracking
The observed torque is also fed forward through a
performance. Though the RLS estimator is one of the
weighting factor W, to realise a robust speed control
most effective methods for on-line parameter identifica-
system, as shown in Fig. 4. Ideally, the value of W is
tion, it is difficult to get unbiased results [22] in this
set at 1. For the system possessing nonlinearities, e.g.
application, owing to the dynamic model of the plant
being disturbed by the external load torque. As shown limiter, dead-time element etc., the weighting factor
in Fig. 4, the proposed RLS estimator is combined should be selected at less than 1 to preserve stability.
with a simple torque observer to resolve the above dif-
ficulty. The torque observer uses the inverse dynamic 7 Design and simulation results
of the motor drive to obtain the observed torque,
which is denoted TLIK,. The torque current command 7. I Simulation of EKF estimator
minus this value results in the unbiased identified The sampling interval used in the simulation is 2ms.
parameters, J and B, which denote the estimated rotor The process noise covariance and measurement noise
inertia constant and damping constant, through the covariance are set as
RLS estimator. Then J A a n dB in the torque observer
are replaced by J and B. By this recursive process, the
identified J and B parameters and the observed load
torque will quickly converge to their real values.
The simulation result is shown in Fig. 5. Between 0 and
toraue observer
1s, the estimated rotor resistance quickly converges to
its real value, which is 1.3Q. Beginning at 1s, the real
rotor resistance is varied according to the following
R, = 1.3 (t - l ) f l + (54)
where t is the simulation time. The estimated rotor
resistance can trace the variance of the real value as
shown in Fig. 5.

Fig. 4 Proposed controller with the RLS estimator

The Z transform of the plant model with ZOH, when

TL is zero, is as follows:

o.5[ 1
O I ' , ~ ' ~ ~ '
a1 = - exp(-T,B/J) bl = ( l y , / B ) ( l ~ e x p ( - T s ~ / J ) ) 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
(46) time,s
Fig. 5 Simulation result ofthe EKF estimator
and T, is the sampling interval. The system model can a rotor resistor
be written as b estimated rotor resistor

w,(k + 1) = -a1w,(k) + b l i & ( k ) (47) 7.2 Design of IP controller

From the above equation, a discrete RLS estimator for Using the parameters listed in eqn. 39 and setting t,, at
use in estimating system parameters can be written as 0.3s, the parameter of the IP speed controller can be
[22]: obtained from eqn. 44 as
O ( k ) = O ( k - 1)+ K ( k ) [ w , ( k )- C ( F ) O ( k- l)] (48) K p = 13.25 K I = 87.7 (55)
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7.3 Simulation of RLS estimator with torque
1120 1
In this simulation, the load torque is set at 1Nm. In the
beginning, J and B are set according to their nominal
values. Then, at 2s, J is abruptly increased by a factor
of three. From the simulation results shown in Fig. 6:
the estimated values of J and B, after a step change in
the speed command, are quickly converged to their true
values under contant load disturbance. Though the
value of the observed torque is influenced by the speed
transient, the steady-state observed value is correct;
/ /
and this observed torque transient has little effect on
the desired control performance from the simulation
and experimental results owing to feedforward control.

' O 1 ' ' '

- - - . . lo
- 05 1 15 2
, -
time, s
35 4 45 5

Fig. 6 Simulation se.su1t.s (j"the RLS estiniator and the torque observer.
showing sotor s eed (-) and e.mmated values of'rotor speed (xi, observed
torque ( a i , and ~ ( c )

-60' ' ,
7.4 Simulation of proposed controllers 0

0.2 04

06 0.8 1 1.2 14


1.8 2
To investigate the effectiveness of the proposed robust tirne,s
controller, suppose that the mechanical inertia constant Fig.8 Simulation results of proposed controller showing load regulation
N Nominal case with IP controller only
J is significantly changed to allow the transfer function b Case 1 with IP controller only
model HJs) to be changed to c Case 2 with IP controller only
d Nominal case with proposed controllers
e Case 1 with proposed controllers
( J = 5 xJ) (56)
Case 1 : f Case 2 with proposed controllers
HpL(S) = 1.51s
The control intervals are all selected at 5ms. To reduce
Case 2 ( J = 0.5 x 7) the calculation burden of the CPU and to increase the
(37) accuracy of the three-phase command current, the
coordinate transformation in the field-oriented mecha-
In the nominal case, the step rotor speed tracking and
nism is implemented by an AD2S100 AC vector proc-
step load regulating responses of the drive system
shown in Fig. 4, without and with the proposed on-line essor. The control interval of the vector processor is
selected at 0.2ms. The pure differentiator, which is
IP controller design and feedforward control, are
shown in Figs. 7 and 8 by curves a and d, respectively. shown in Fig. 4, may amplify the high-frequency noise,
The results are identical for the tracking conditions, so the operating stability of the closed-loop controlled
and the regulating performance is improved. Suppose drive will be greatly affected. Thus in practical imple-
that the mechanical inertia constant J is changed mentation, a filter is used as an alternative. It is
according to eqns, 56 and 57; then, the rotor speed designed to behave as a pure differentiator for the main
responses due to a step command change and a step low-frequency dynamic signal, but it becomes a low-
load torque change, without and with the proposed on- pass filter for high-frequency signals.
line IP controller design and feedforward control, are Some experimental results are provided in the follow-
also compared in Figs. 7 and 8. Significant perform- ing to show the effectiveness of the estimators and the
ance improvements both in the tracking and regulating proposed controllers. The estimated rotor resistance
responses by the proposed controller are observed from obtained from the EKF estimator, which converges to
the results. its real value, 1.3!2, within 0.3s, is shown in Fig. 10.
This estimated value, after suitable filtering, is used on-
8 Implementation and experimental results line in the indirect field-oriented mechanism. To avoid
the numerical problem of dividing by zero during the
The block diagram of the co-processor computer con- implementation for the parameters J and B, the param-
trol system for the indirect field-oriented induction eters a and b (expressed in eqn. 37) are estimated
motor servo drive is shown in Fig. 9. The robust speed instead of J and B. Moreover, the load resistance of the
control algorithm is realised in a 486DX-66 and the DC generator is set at 118R during load torque obser-
EKF and RLS algorithms are realised in a DSP32C. vation. The estimated values of a, b and the observed
190 IEE Proc.-Electr. Powes Appl., Vol. 143, No. 3, May I996

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Fig.9 DSP-bused computer-control drive .system with vector processor

load torque are shown in Figs. 11 and 12, respectively. ,

The values of U , b and observed load torque all con-
verge to their real value within 0.5s. The measured
rotor-speed responses, owing to step command change
and step load resistance change, without and with on-
line IP controller design and feedforward control at the
nominal condition, are compared in Figs. 13-16. The Fig. 13 M e a w e d rotor speed r a p o n w at the nominal case owing to
results show that, while the tracking responses of these step command change with an IP controller
two cases are almost identical, the regulating response
is significantly improved by augmenting the proposed i T
controllers. Now let the drive be operated at 2000 rpm,
the drive rotor speed tracking and regulating responses,
without and with on-line IP controller design and feed-
forward control at another operating condition, are
i +-----,
shown in Figs. 17-20. Better control performance 44rpm jI 0 25s
yielded by the proposed controller is obvious from the 1
Fig.14 Measured rotor speed reAponses at the nominal case owing to
results. step load resistance change with an IP controller
rotor resistance
command i

~ +

Fig. 10 Estimated rotor resistance

- lOOOrpm
I 0 25s
Fig. 15 Measured rotor speed rerponses at the nominal c u x owing to
step command change with on-line IP contioller design and feedforward
I ... b r 3 31 - L
E +

0 25;
Fig.11 Experimental r e d 3 of the RLS estimator and the torque
observer showing the valne~of the a and b parumeters
Fig.16 Measured rotor speed res onhe5 at the nominal case owin
step load resistance change with on-fne IP controller design andjee&fi
ward control

9 Conclusions

The EKF and the proposed RLS estimators are suc-

Fig.12 Experimental resultr oj the RLS estimator and the torque cessfully implemented in this study for the speed con-
observer showing observed loud torque trol of an indirect field-oriented induction-motor drive.
IEE Proc.-Elect?. Power Appl., Vol. 143, No. 3, May 1996 191

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192 IEE Proc.-Ebctr. Power Appl., Vol. 143, No. 3, M a y 1996

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