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Proceedings of the 27th Chinese Control Conference

July 16-18, 2008, Kunming,Yunnan, China

෎ѢEKFⱘᛳᑨ⬉ᴎ᮴䗳ᑺӴᛳ఼᥻ࠊ㋏㒳
ஐ冪ͫㄋ妫ࣦͫ㨄Ұ
ಯᎱ໻ᄺ⬉⇨ֵᙃᄺ䰶ˈ៤䛑 610065
E-mail: weicc1231@126.com

ᨬ 㽕˖ᴀ᭛䞛⫼ᠽሩवᇨ᳐Ⓒ⊶఼(EKF)Ԅ䅵ᓖℹ⬉ᴎ䕀ᄤ㾦䗳ᑺ,ᑊᇍⒸ⊶఼߱ྟؐⱘ䗝প䖯㸠њⷨお,ᕫࠄњӬ࣪
ⱘवᇨ᳐Ⓒ⊶఼DŽ೼MATLAB䕃ӊЁᨁᓎSVPWM䕀Ꮒൟ䇗䗳㋏㒳,㋏㒳Ⳉ᥹ᑨ⫼⬉य़ⶶ䞣᥻ࠊᮍ⿟ᕫࠄ䕀ᄤԡ㕂,᮴
䳔ᇍ䕀ᄤ⺕䫒੠䕀ᄤԡ㕂䖯㸠Ԅㅫ,䙓‫ܡ‬њ໡ᴖⱘ䗁ҷ䖤ㅫDŽ㒧ᵰ㸼ᯢ,䕀䗳Ԅㅫⱘ‫⹂ޚ‬ᗻ䕗催,㋏㒳ᇍ⬉ᴎখ᭄ⱘব࣪
ϡᬣᛳ,‫݋‬᳝䕗ᔎⱘ剕Ầᗻ,ᑊᇍ䋳䕑ᡄࡼ‫݋‬᳝䕗ᔎⱘᡥࠊ㛑࡯DŽ
݇䬂䆡˖ᠽሩवᇨ᳐Ⓒ⊶,䕀䗳Ԅ䅵,䯈᥹ⶶ䞣᥻ࠊ,᮴䗳ᑺӴᛳ఼

Speed Sensorless Control of Induction Motors Using the


Extended Kalman Filter
Chen Cui, Sun Qu, Wang Xuguang
School of Electrical Engineering and Information, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, P.R.China
E-mail: weicc1231@126.com

Abstract: A rotor speed estimation method of an asynchronous motor, based on extended Kalman filter (EKF), is studied and
is adopted in SVPWM slip frequency vector control system in this paper. The optimized Filter is got by choosing the proper
initial value. The rotor position can be got by voltage vector controlled equations, without estimating the rotor flux and rotor
position by EKF. The complicated iterative operations can be avoided. The simulation results show good performance of the
speed estimation and the system is insensitive to the machine parameter variations and load disturbances. The rationality and
advantage of proposed methods is testified though MATLAB simulation.
Key Words: Extended Kalman Filter,Speed Estimation, Indirect Vector Control, Speed Sensorless

1 ᓩ㿔(Introduction)
೼催ᗻ㛑ᓖℹ⬉ᴎⶶ䞣᥻ࠊ㋏㒳Ёˈ䕀䗳䯁⦃ᰃ 㛑гᕫࠄᦤ催DŽӓⳳᅲ偠Ё↨䕗њぎ䕑੠さࡴ䋳䕑ᡄ
ᖙϡৃᇥⱘDŽ䗮ᐌ⫼Ϣ⬉ࡼᴎৠ䕈Ⳍ䖲ⱘ‫⬉ܝ‬㓪ⷕ఼ ࡼᚙ‫މ‬ϟ䕀䗳Ԅㅫؐⱘবࡼҹঞᬍব䕀ᄤ⬉䰏ؐৢ
ㄝ䗳ᑺӴᛳ఼⌟䞣⬉ࡼᴎⱘ㾦䗳ᑺˈԚ䖭ᕔᕔᇍ㋏㒳 䕀䗳Ԅㅫⱘ㊒ᑺDŽ
ⱘৃ䴴ᗻ੠㒣⌢ᗻѻ⫳ᕅડDŽ಴ℸˈ᮴䗳ᑺӴᛳ఼ⶶ
䞣᥻ࠊ㋏㒳ⷨお៤ЎѸ⌕Ӵࡼ乚ඳⱘϔϾ䞡㽕䇒乬DŽ 2 ᓖℹ⬉ࡼᴎⱘ㒓ᗻǃ⾏ᬷ࣪ǃᠽሩ⢊ᗕぎ
೑໪Ң 20 Ϫ㑾 70 ᑈҷᓔྟ䖭ᮍ䴶ⱘⷨお[1,2,5,7]ˈᐌ 䯈῵ൟ(Asynchronous Motor's Linearǃ
⫼ⱘԄㅫᮍ⊩᳝⼲㒣㔥㒰⊩ǃⳈ᥹䅵ㅫ⊩ǃ῵ൟখ㗗 DiscreteǃExtended State-Space Models)
㞾䗖ᑨ⊩ˈԚᅗӀ៪㗙ᇍ⹀ӊ㽕∖䖛催ˈ៪ᰃᇍ⬉ᴎ
ᓖℹ⬉ࡼᴎᰃϔϾ催䰊ǃ䴲㒓ᗻǃᔎ㗺ড়ⱘ໮ব䞣㋏
ⱘᅮ䕀ᄤখ᭄ձ䌪ᗻ໾ᔎˈ㗠䖭ѯখ᭄Ӯ䱣ⴔ⏽छ੠
㒳DŽ೼߽⫼ᠽሩवᇨ᳐Ⓒ⊶఼ᵘ䗴ⱘ᮴䗳ᑺӴᛳ఼ⶶ
⺕䏃佅੠থ⫳ব࣪ˈᰃϡ⹂ᅮⱘᯊবখ᭄ˈҢ㗠Փᕫ
㾖⌟ⱘ㒧ᵰϡ‫ˈ⹂ޚ‬ᕅડⶶ䞣᥻ࠊⱘᗻ㛑DŽ 䞣᥻ࠊᮍḜЁˈᓎゟҹᅮᄤ⬉⌕ isα ǃ is β ˈ䕀ᄤ⺕䫒

ˈ䕀䗳 ω Ў⢊ᗕব䞣ˈҹᅮᄤ⬉य़Ў䕧
㞾 20 Ϫ㑾 90 ᑈҷҹᴹˈवᇨ᳐Ⓒ⊶ᮍ⊩㹿ᑨ⫼
ψ rα ǃ ψ r β
Ѣখ᭄䕼䆚੠䗳ᑺԄㅫˈ೑‫ⷨݙ‬お໻໮ջ䞡Ѣㅫ⊩ⱘ
ᬍ䖯ˈԚᑊ᳾䖛໮ⱘᇍㅫ⊩߱ྟؐ䖯㸠Ӭ࣪DŽᴀ᭛䗮 ܹব䞣ˈᅮᄤ⬉⌕Ў䕧ߎব䞣ⱘ⬉ᴎ⢊ᗕᮍ⿟੠⌟䞣
䖛⌟䞣⬉ᴎᅮᄤ⬉⌕੠⬉य़ˈ߽⫼ᠽሩवᇨ᳐Ⓒ⊶ᅲ ᮍ⿟DŽ‫؛‬ᅮ䕀䗳䯁⦃᥻ࠊⱘ䞛ḋ乥⥛Ⳍ↨Ѣ⬉ᴎⱘᴎ
⦄ᇍ䕀ᄤ䕀䗳ⱘԄ䅵ˈᵘ៤䕀䗳䯁⦃᥻ࠊˈᑊᇍㅫ⊩ Ẅᯊ䯈ᐌ᭄˄ᴎẄᛃᗻ˅䎇໳催ˈ߭⬉ᴎ䕀䗳೼ϔϾ
߱ྟؐⱘ䗝প䖯㸠њⷨおˈᕫࠄӬ࣪ⱘवᇨ᳐Ⓒ⊶ 䞛ḋ਼ᳳ‫ৃݙ‬䅸Ўᰃᐌ䞣DŽ䖭⾡䖥Ԑ໘⧚䗴៤ⱘ䕀䗳
఼DŽ䆹ᮍḜ᮴䳔ᇍ䕀ᄤ⺕䫒੠䕀ᄤԡ㕂䖯㸠Ԅㅫˈ㋏ Ԅ䅵䇃Ꮒৃㅔऩᔦ㒧ࠄ㋏㒳ాໄ Z ( k ) Ёˈ߭⬉ᴎ῵
㒳Ⳉ᥹ᑨ⫼⬉य़ⶶ䞣᥻ࠊᮍ⿟ᕫࠄ䕀ᄤԡ㕂ˈ䙓‫ܡ‬њ ൟⱘ㊒⹂ᑺϡӮফᕜ໻ⱘᕅડ[3]DŽ
໡ᴖⱘ䗁ҷ䖤ㅫDŽ⬅Ѣᡞ⬉ᴎখ᭄ব࣪੠ֵো⌟䞣ᓩ ᠽሩৢ⬉ᴎⱘ⢊ᗕᮍ⿟བᓣ˄1˅᠔⼎[3]˖
䍋ⱘ䇃Ꮒߚ߿ᔦ㒧Ў㋏㒳ాໄⶶ䞣੠⌟䞣ాໄⶶ䞣
䖯㸠໘⧚ˈՓᕫ䕀䗳ⱘԄ䅵᳈Ў‫ⶶˈ⹂ޚ‬䞣᥻ࠊⱘᗻ

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ª Rs 1 − σ Lm ω Lm º
«− σ L − σ T 0
σ Ls Lr Tr σ Ls Lr
0
»
« s r » ª 1 0 º
i
ª sα º « Rs 1−σ ω Lm Lm » ª sα º « σ Ls
i »
0 − − − 0
« i » « σ Ls σ Tr σ Ls Lr σ Ls Lr Tr »«i » « »
« sβ
» « » « sβ » « 0 1 » u
ª sα º
«ψ rα » = « Lm 1 » «ψ rα » + « σ Ls » «u » (1)
« 0 − −ω 0 » «ψ » « 0 » ¬ sβ ¼
«ψ »
« rβ » « » « rβ » «
Tr Tr 0
»
¬ ω ¼ « Lm 1 »¬ ω ¼ « 0 0 »
« 0 ω − 0 » ¬« 0 0 »¼
Tr Tr
« »
¬ 0 0 0 0 0 ¼
݊Ё⢊ᗕব䞣˖ ª T
0
º
« σ L »
T « s »
; = ª isα is β ψ rα ψ rβ ω º « T »
¬ ¼ « 0 »
T % = « σ L s »
䕧ܹব䞣˖ 8= ª u sα u sβ º « 0 0 »
¬ ¼ « »
⌟䞣ᮍ⿟བᓣ˄2˅᠔⼎˖ « 0 0 »
« »
¬ 0 0 ¼
ª i sα º
« i » ª1 0 0 0 0º
« sβ » & = «
ª i sα º ª1 0 0 0 0º «ψ » (2) ¬ 0 1 0 0 0 »¼
«i » = « « rα
0 »¼
ᓣЁ $ ′ ( k ) Ў䴲㒓ᗻߑ᭄ˈ䖭Ͼ⢊ᗕᮍ⿟ҡ✊Ў
»
¬« s β ¼» ¬0 1 0 0
«ψ r β »
« »
¬« ω ¼» 䴲㒓ᗻˈ㢹䞛⫼वᇨ᳐Ⓒ⊶Ԅ䅵ㅫ⊩ˈ䳔㽕ᇚ῵ൟ㒓

䕧ߎব䞣˖< = ª i s α is β º
T (
ᗻ࣪ˈᇚ $ ( k ) ೼ [ˆ k k 䰘䖥ሩᓔ៤ϔ䰊ৄࢇ㑻᭄DŽ )
¬ ¼

⢊ᗕব䞣 isα ǃis β ৃ⌟ᕫˈᬙৃҹᕫࠄҹ ψrα ǃψrβ


( )
$′ ( k ) = $′ [ˆ ( k k ) , k + $ ( k ) ª¬[ ( k ) − [ˆ ( k k ) º¼ (4)
ᇚ˄4˅ҷܹᓣ˄3˅Ёˈᕫࠄ k ᯊࠏⱘϔ䰊䖥Ԑⱘ㒓
੠ ω Ў ব䞣ⱘ 3 䰊⢊ᗕᮍ⿟ҹ‫ޣ‬ᇥ䅵ㅫ䞣DŽԚ⬅ 5
ᗻ⢊ᗕᮍ⿟ˈ㗗㰥ࠄ㋏㒳ాໄ Z ( k ) ঞ⌟䞣䖛⿟Ёᓩ
䰊ᮍ⿟᥼ߎ 3 䰊ᮍ⿟๲ࡴњЁ䯈䖛⿟ⱘ䅵ㅫ䞣ˈϨՓ
䅵ㅫⱘ‫⹂ޚ‬ᗻϟ䰡ˈᬙᴀ᭛ҡ䞛⫼ 5 䰊⢊ᗕᮍ⿟䖯㸠 ܹⱘ⌟䞣ాໄ Y ( k ) ˈৃᇚ㋏㒳ⱘ⢊ᗕぎ䯈ᮍ⿟䖥Ԑ
Ԅ䅵DŽ Ў˖
ᇍ⢊ᗕᮍ⿟䖯㸠⾏ᬷ࣪໘⧚ˈ೼‫؛‬ᅮ䞛ḋ਼ᳳ T °­[ ( k +1) = $ ( k ) [ ( k ) + %X ( k ) +Z ( k )
®
\ ( k ) = & x ( k ) +Y ( k )
䎇໳ᇣᯊ˖ (5)
°̄
d x (t ) x ª¬ ( k + 1 ) T º¼ − x ( k T )
≈ ᓣЁˈ
dt T
∂$ ′ (k )
Rs 1−σ $ (k ) = x = xˆ ( k k )
পㅔ࣪㋏᭄ T s = 1 ( + ) ∂x
σ Ls σ Tr
ª T T × Lm T × Lm T × Lm º
ᇚᓣ˄1˅
ǃ˄2˅⾏ᬷ࣪ᑊㅔ‫ݭ‬Ў˖ « 1− 0 x5 x4 »
« Ts σ Ls LrTr σ Ls Lr σ Ls Lr »
­° [ ( k + 1) = $ ′ ( k ) [ ( k ) + % X ( k ) « T T × Lm T × Lm T × Lm »
« 0 1− − x5 − x»
®
°̄ \ ( k ) = &[ ( k ) (3) «
«
Ts σ Ls Lr σ Ls LrTr σ Ls Lr 3 »
»
= « T × Lm T
−T × x4 »»
݊Ё A ′ ( k )= « Tr
0 1−
Tr
−T × x5
« »
ª T T × Lm T × Lm º « T × Lm T »
« 1− 0 ω 0 » « 0 T × x5 1− T × x3 »
« Ts σ Ls LrTr σ Ls Lr » « Tr Tr »
« T T × Lm T × Lm » « 0 0 0 0 1 »
¬ ¼
« 0 1− − ω 0 »
« Ts σ Ls Lr σ Ls LrTr » ݊Ёˈ㋏㒳ాໄ Z ( k ) ᰃ 5 ×1 䰊ⶽ䰉ˈ݊णᮍᏂⶽ䰉
« »
« T × Lm
« Tr
0 1−
T
Tr
−T × ω 0 »
» { }
4 = cov (Z ) = E ZZ T Ў 5 × 5 䰊 ⶽ 䰉 ˈ ⌟ 䞣 ా ໄ
« »
« T × Lm T » v ( k ) ᰃ 2 ×1 䰊 ⶽ 䰉 ˈ ݊ ण ᮍ Ꮒ ⶽ 䰉
« 0 T ×ω 1− 0 »
«
«
Tr Tr »
»
5 = cov (Y ) = E {YY T } Ў 2 × 2 䰊ⶽ䰉DŽ
¬ 0 0 0 0 1 ¼

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3 ᠽሩवᇨ᳐Ⓒ⊶ㅫ⊩(Extended Kalman Xˆ ( k + 1 k + 1) = Xˆ ( k + 1 k ) + K ( k + 1 ) ×
Filter Algorithms)
ª¬Y ( k + 1) − C ( k + 1) Xˆ ( k + 1 k ) º¼ (12)
वᇨ᳐Ⓒ⊶ᰃ⬅ Kalman ೼ 60 ᑈҷ߱ᦤߎⱘϔ
᭛⤂[7]প Q Ўᘦؐⶽ䰉ˈ䖭ḋⱘᬊᬯ䗳ᑺ䕗᜶ˈ
⾡᳔ᇣᮍᏂᛣНϞⱘ᳔Ӭ乘⌟Ԅ䅵ᮍ⊩ˈᅗৃҹ᳝ᬜ
Ϩ㗗㰥ࠄ䕀ᄤ⬉䰏ㄝ⬉ᴎখ᭄䱣ⴔ⏽छথ⫳ব࣪ˈᬙ
ഄࠞᔅ䱣ᴎᑆᡄ੠⌟䞣ాໄⱘᕅડDŽᠽሩवᇨ᳐Ⓒ⊶
߽⫼ᓣ˄13˅ᇍ Q г䞛⫼䗁ҷ䖤ㅫˈ߭Ӯ໻໻ᦤ催व
఼˄EKF˅ᰃ㒓ᗻवᇨ᳐Ⓒ⊶఼˄KF˅೼䴲㒓ᗻ㋏㒳
Ёⱘ᥼ᑓᑨ⫼DŽEKF ᇚ㹿Ԅ䅵খ䞣ⳟ԰ᠽሩⱘ⢊ᗕব ᇨ᳐Ⓒ⊶ⱘᬊᬯ䗳ᑺϢ〇ᅮᗻDŽ
䞣ˈᵘ៤䴲㒓ᗻⱘ⢊ᗕᮍ⿟㒘ˈ೼Ꮖⶹ㋏㒳ⱘ䕧ܹా Q ( k + 1) = Φ ( k , k − 1, x ( k − 1) ) Q ( k ) ΦT
(13)
ໄ੠䕧ߎ⌟䞣ాໄⱘ㒳䅵ֵᙃⱘ෎⸔Ϟˈ䞛⫼䲙ৃ↨
( k , k − 1, x ( k − 1) ) T
ⶽ䰉ᇍℸ䴲㒓ᗻ⢊ᗕᮍ⿟㒘䖯㸠⾏ᬷ࣪໘⧚ˈ‫⫼⊓ݡ‬
ᓣЁ Φ ——㒓ᗻ㋏㒳ⱘⶽ䰉ᣛ᭄ߑ᭄ˈ೼ᅲ䰙䅵ㅫ
㒓ᗻवᇨ᳐Ⓒ⊶఼ⱘ䗦᥼݀ᓣˈ䗮䖛⌟䞣㋏㒳䕧ܹǃ
Ёˈ Φ ϔ㠀প݊䖥Ԑؐ
䕧ߎ᭄᥂ˈᇍ㋏㒳ⱘ⢊ᗕব䞣䖯㸠Ԅ䅵DŽ‫؛‬ᅮ㋏㒳ా
ໄ w ( k ) ੠⌟䞣ాໄ v ( k ) 䛑ᰃ䳊ഛؐ催ᮃⱑాໄDŽ Φ ( k , k − 1, x ( k − 1 ) ) ≈ A ( k − 1 ) (14)
䆒㋏㒳ⱘ⢊ᗕᮍ⿟੠䕧ߎᮍ⿟Ў ᠽሩवᇨ᳐Ⓒ⊶೼ᛳᑨ⬉ᴎ⢊ᗕԄ䅵Ёⱘᑨ⫼
X k + 1 = Ak X k + BkUk + Wk ೒㾷བ೒ 1 ᠔⼎ˈवᇨ᳐ㅫ⊩ߚЎ乘⌟੠᳈ᮄϸ䚼
(6)
ߚDŽ乘⌟䚼ߚЏ㽕ᰃ䅵ㅫ⢊ᗕ乘᡹ؐ੠⢊ᗕ䇃Ꮒणᮍ
Yk = C k X k + V k (7) Ꮒ乘᡹䖭ϸϾ䞣˗᳈ᮄ䚼ߚ䅵ㅫߎ᠔ᵘ䗴ⱘᠽሩवᇨ
‫؛‬ᅮ k ᯊࠏⱘ⢊ᗕԄ䅵 Xˆ k Ꮖⶹˈ㽕Ԅ䅵 k +1 ᳐Ⓒ⊶఼ⱘ๲Ⲟˈ䖯㸠⢊ᗕ䇃ᏂणᮍᏂⶽ䰉ⱘ᳈ᮄ੠
⢊ᗕ乘᡹ؐⱘ᳈ᮄDŽ
ᯊࠏⱘ⢊ᗕ Xˆ k + 1| k ˈ佪‫ܜ‬ḍ᥂ᓣ˄6˅乘⌟ k + 1 ᯊ w( k ) v (k )
㋏ 㒳 ా ໄ ⌟䞣ాໄ
ࠏⱘ⢊ᗕؐ ()
uk
⬉ࡼᴎ
y ( k + 1)

Xˆ k + 1| k = A k Xˆ k + B k U k

‫⬅ݡ‬ᓣ˄7˅ᕫࠄᇍᑨⱘ Yˆk + 1 乘⌟ؐ & .

Yˆ = C Xˆ = C A Xˆ + C B U
§
xˆ ¨¨ k + 1 k
·
¸¸ (
xˆ k +1k +1 )
k +1 k +1 k +1 k +1 k k k +1 k k %
© ¹

ᇚ Yˆk + 1 ੠ᅲ䰙ؐ Yk + 1 䖯㸠↨䕗ˈᑊᡞ乘⌟䇃


x̂ ( k k )
( )
Ꮒ Yˆk + 1 − Y k + 1 ЬϞ䗖ᔧⱘ㋏᭄ K k + 1 ԰Ў⢊ᗕ (
A xˆ ( k k )

⌟䞣
) Z −1
᳈ᮄ

乘⌟ⱘ᷵ℷ乍ˈᕫࠄ k + 1 ᯊࠏⱘԄ䅵ؐ
೒ 1 EKF ⢊ᗕ㾖⌟఼䗦᥼ㅫ⊩Ḛ೒
(
Xˆk +1 = Ak Xˆk + BkUk + Kk +1 Yk +1 −Ck +1Ak Xˆk −Ck BkUk )
݊Ё Kk +1 Ў๲Ⲟⶽ䰉ˈ䗮ᐌ Kk +1 ⱘ䗝ᢽॳ߭ᰃՓ 4 ㋏㒳῵ൟ(System Models)

( X k +1 − Xˆ k +1 ) ⱘणᮍᏂⶽ䰉 ᮴䗳ᑺӴᛳ఼䯈᥹ⶶ䞣᥻ࠊ㋏㒳㒧ᵘབ೒ 2 ᠔
⼎ˈ䆹㋏㒳ሲѢ⺕䫒ᓔ⦃⬉य़᥻ࠊൟ䯈᥹ⶶ䞣᥻ࠊ㋏
{ T
3k +1 = E ª¬ Xk +1 − Xˆ k +1 º¼ ª¬ Xk +1 − Xˆ k +1 º¼ পᕫᵕᇣDŽ } 㒳ˈ⬅ぎ䯈⬉य़ⶶ䞣 PWM ⊩ᴹ偅ࡼᓖℹ⬉ᴎˈ

i sd
㒣᥼ᇐߚᵤˈ᳔㒜ᕫࠄवᇨ᳐Ⓒ⊶ⱘ䗦᥼݀ᓣ[6] ψ r* ↨՟
U sd
3, U sα ia
བϟ˖ 䖤ㅫ 56 U ib
∗ U sq 693:0 ,0
ω r∗ i sq বᤶ

˄1˅䅵ㅫ⢊ᗕ乘᡹ؐ˖ 䗳ᑺ䇗 ic
㡖఼ 3,
Xˆ ( k +1 k) = A( k) Xˆ ( k) + B( k) U( k) (8)
˄2˅⢊ᗕ䇃ᏂणᮍᏂⶽ䰉乘᡹˖ ωsl∗ ωs 66
䕀Ꮒ ⿃ߚ θ বᤶ
乥⥛ 䖤ㅫ isα is β
P ( k + 1 k ) = A ( k ) P ( k ) A ( k )T + Q (9)
isd
˄3˅वᇨ᳐Ⓒ⊶఼๲Ⲟ˖ 65
isq বᤶ

K ( k + 1) = P ( k + 1 k ) C ( k + 1)
T
×
ωr
−1 (.)䕀䗳Ԅㅫ
ªC ( k + 1) P ( k + 1 k ) C ( k + 1)T + Rº
«¬ »¼ (10) ೒ 2 ㋏㒳㒧ᵘḚ೒
˄4˅⢊ᗕ䇃ᏂणᮍᏂⶽ䰉᳈ ῵ൟЁⱘ↨՟䖤ㅫ੠䕀Ꮒ乥⥛ᣛҸḍ᥂ҹϟ݀ᓣ [9]

P( k +1 k +1) = ª¬I − K ( k +1) C( k +1)º¼ P( k +1 k ) (11) ∗ ψ r Lm
ᴹᵘ䗴˖ i s d = ∗
ˈ ω sl = ∗
∗ i sq DŽ
˄5˅⢊ᗕ乘᡹ؐ᳈ᮄ˖
Lm T rψ r

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㋏㒳䞛⫼ϝϾ PI 䇗㡖఼ˈᵘ៤䗳ᑺ໪⦃੠⬉⌕
‫ⱘ⦃ݙ‬ঠ䯁⦃䇗䗳㋏㒳䗳ᑺˈPI 䇗㡖఼ḍ᥂㒭ᅮ䕀䗳
Ϣ EKF Ԅㅫ䕀䗳ⱘ‫أ‬Ꮒ䇗㡖䕀ⶽ⬉⌕ⱘ㒭ᅮؐˈ䕀
ⶽ⬉⌕ঞࢅ⺕⬉⌕ PI 䇗㡖఼ḍ᥂Ẕ⌟⬉⌕Ϣ⬉⌕㒭
ᅮؐⱘ‫أ‬Ꮒ䇗㡖Ⳍᑨⱘ d, q 䕈ᅮᄤ⬉य़㒭ᅮؐDŽEKF
䕀䗳Ԅ䅵῵ഫ䞛⫼ S ߑ᭄㓪⿟ᅲ⦄ˈಯϾ䕧ܹЎ䴭ℶ
തᷛ㋏ϟᅮᄤ⬉य़੠ᅮᄤ⬉⌕ˈ݊Ёᅮᄤ⬉य़԰Ўᠽሩ
वᇨ᳐Ԅ䅵఼⢊ᗕᮍ⿟Ёⱘ䕧ܹˈᅮᄤ⬉⌕԰Ў⌟䞣ᮍ
⿟ⱘ䕧ܹ䞣ˈ䕧ߎЎԄ䅵ⱘ䕀ᄤ䕀䗳DŽ

5 ᠽሩवᇨ᳐Ⓒ⊶఼ⱘӬ࣪ঞ㋏㒳ӓⳳ
೒ 4 ⬉ᴎさࡴ䋳䕑䕀䗳↨䕗᳆㒓
(Optimization of the extended kalman ೼㋏㒳䖤㸠ࠄ 0.5s ᯊさࡴ 10 N<m ⱘ䋳䕑ᯊⱘ䕀
filter and simulation of the system) 䗳ડᑨ᳆㒓བ೒ 4 ᠔⼎DŽ⬅೒ 4 ৃⳟߎˈԄㅫ䕀䗳ҡ
೼ӓⳳЁˈ⢊ᗕ߱ྟؐ䆒ᅮЎ 0 ⶶ䞣DŽ䞛ḋᯊ䯈 㛑䗤ℹ䘐䖥ᅲ䰙ⱘ䕀䗳ˈ䇈ᯢ䆹㋏㒳‫݋‬᳝ϔᅮⱘᡫ䋳
Ў 100 ȝs DŽ䖛໻ⱘ䞛ḋ਼ᳳгӮՓ EKF ㅫ⊩ⱘᗻ㛑 䕑ᡄࡼ㛑࡯DŽ㋏㒳೼ぎ䕑ᚙ‫މ‬ϟˈᬍব⬉ᴎⱘ䕀ᄤ⬉
বᏂ⫮㟇ϡᬊᬯ[10]DŽ 䰏Ў 1.8 Rr ᕫࠄⱘ䕀䗳ડᑨ᳆㒓བ೒ 5 ᠔⼎ˈৃҹⳟ
೼वᇨ᳐Ⓒ⊶఼ᵘ䗴Ёˈ 3 ( 0 ) ǃ 4 ( 0 ) ǃ 5 ⱘ ߎ㋏㒳ᇍѢ⬉ᴎখ᭄ⱘব࣪ϡᬣᛳDŽ
߱ྟؐᇍवᇨ᳐Ⓒ⊶఼ⱘᗻ㛑ᕅડ䕗໻DŽ೼߱ྟؐⱘ
䗝ᢽ䖛⿟Ёˈ᮶㽕㗗㰥ᬊᬯⱘᖿ䗳ᗻˈজ㽕䰆ℶ EKF
Ⓒㅫ⊩ⱘথᬷᗻDŽ EKF ㅫ⊩ᬊᬯᗻⱘᖙ㽕ᴵӊЎ
P (k k ) 䰉 Ϣ P (k + 1 k ) 䰉 Ў ᇍ ⿄ ℷ ᅮ 䰉 ˈ Ϩ 㢹
P ( k k ) → ∞ ˈ K ( k +1) → 0 ˈ߭ㅫ⊩থᬷ[11]DŽ 3 ( 0 ) ⱘ
䗝ᢽᕅડ EKF ㅫ⊩ᬊᬯˈ᭛⤂[12]䅸Ў 4 䰉Ϣ 5 䰉
ⱘ↨ؐгᕅડᬊᬯ䗳ᑺˈ↨ؐ䍞໻ EKF ㅫ⊩ⱘᬊᬯ
䗳ᑺ䍞ᖿDŽ೼ᅲ䰙ӓⳳЁথ⦄ 3 ( 0 ) ؐ‫ޣ‬ᇣˈ߭ᬊᬯ
䗳ᑺࡴᖿ˗བᵰ 4 ⱘ䅵ㅫ䞛⫼њᓣ˄13˅ˈ߭ 4 Ϣ 5
ⱘ↨ؐᇍ EKF ㅫ⊩ⱘᬊᬯᗻᕅડϡᰃᕜᯢᰒDŽ䖭ѯ ೒5 R = 1.8Rr ᯊⱘ䕀䗳↨䕗᳆㒓
খ᭄ⱘ䗝পᰃवᇨ᳐Ⓒ⊶఼೼ᅲ䰙㋏㒳ᑨ⫼Ёⱘ䲒 ᓖℹ⬉ᴎӓⳳখ᭄˖乱ᅮࡳ⥛ PN =37.3 kWˈᅮ
⚍Пϔˈ೼ֱ䆕㋏㒳〇ᅮⱘࠡᦤϟˈሑ䞣ᦤ催䕀䗳Ԅ
䅵㋏㒳ⱘᬊᬯ䗳ᑺ੠Ԅ䅵㊒ᑺDŽ ᄤⓣᛳ L1 s = 2mH; 䕀ᄤⓣᛳ L1 r ′ = 4mH; ᅮᄤ⬉䰏
ӓⳳЁ㒣䖛䆩偠ˈ䗝প 3 ( 0 ) Ўᇍ㾦㒓‫ܗ‬㋴Ў R s = 0.087 Ω ; 䕀 ᄤ ⬉ 䰏 R r =0.228 Ω ; Ѧ ᛳ
0.001 ⱘ 5 㓈ᇍ㾦ⶽ䰉ˈ4 ( 0 ) Ўᇍ㾦㒓‫ܗ‬㋴Ў 0.5 ⱘ
Lm =0.0347H;䕀ࡼᛃ䞣 J =0.5 kg <m 2 ; P =2DŽ
5 㓈ᇍ㾦ⶽ䰉ˈ 5 Ўᇍ㾦㒓‫ܗ‬㋴Ў 0.000001 ⱘ 2 㓈
ᇍ㾦ⶽ䰉DŽ 6 㒧䆎(Conclusion)
⬉ᴎ䕀䗳߱ྟؐ䆒ᅮЎ 100r/min, ӓⳳ㋏㒳೼ぎ
䕑ᚙ‫މ‬ϟਃࡼˈӓⳳ㒧ᵰབ೒ 3 ᠔⼎ˈ㉫㒓ᰃ⬅⬉ᴎ ᴀ᭛ᇍ෎Ѣᠽሩवᇨ᳐Ⓒ⊶఼ⱘᓖℹ⬉ᴎ᮴䗳ᑺ
⌟䞣῵ഫᕫࠄⱘ䕀䗳ˈ㒚㒓ᰃ EKF 䕀䗳Ԅ䅵῵ഫᕫ Ӵᛳ఼䯈᥹ⶶ䞣᥻ࠊᮍ⊩䖯㸠њㅫ⊩ⱘߚᵤϢ䅵ㅫ
ࠄⱘ䕀䗳DŽ䖯ܹ〇ᗕৢϸ㗙ⱘ᳆㒓෎ᴀϔ㟈DŽ ᴎӓⳳˈᑊᇍᠽሩवᇨ᳐Ⓒ⊶఼䖯㸠њӬ࣪DŽӓⳳ㒧
ᵰ㸼ᯢ䕀䗳Ԅㅫⱘ‫⹂ޚ‬ᗻ䕗催ˈ㋏㒳ᇍ⬉ᴎখ᭄ⱘব
࣪ϡᬣᛳˈ‫݋‬᳝䕗ᔎⱘ剕Ầᗻˈᑊᇍ䋳䕑ᡄࡼ‫݋‬᳝䕗
ᔎⱘᡥࠊ㛑࡯DŽԚᰃ䆹ᮍ⊩䖬ᄬ೼ϔѯ䯂乬ˈ೼㋏㒳
䖤㸠Ёˈ῵ൟৃ㛑ϡᮁব࣪ˈ㋏㒳ⱘ᭄ᄺ῵ൟ੠ాໄ
ⱘ㒳䅵῵ൟгৃ㛑ϡ‫ˈ⹂ޚ‬䖭ѯ䛑ӮՓⒸ⊶ⱘᅲ䰙䇃
Ꮒ䍙䖛Ⓒ⊶䇃Ꮒⱘ‫ܕ‬䆌㣗ೈˈ⫮㟇䍟৥᮴か໻ˈՓㅫ
⊩থᬷDŽབᵰ㛑೼ࡼᗕ䖛⿟Ё㞾䗖ᑨഄ䇗ᭈ߱ྟؐˈ
᥻ࠊㅫ⊩ⱘᬜᵰᇚ᳈⧚ᛇDŽ

খ㗗᭛⤂˄References˅
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