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Zicheng Li, Shanmei Cheng, and Kai Cai

Abstract—A method of speed identification for sensorless stator is regarded as the system error to estimate rotor speed

induction motor (IM) drives based on a model reference and stator resistance. Different PI adaptive relation that

adaptive system (MRAS) is proposed in this paper. The adaptive deduced from the Lyapunov’s criterion is employed to

full-order observer based on IM equation is used to estimate estimate the rotor speed and stator resistance respectively and

stator currents and rotor flux. Lyapunov’s stability criterion is the stability of the estimation is also proved by it. The

employed to estimate rotor speed. The same algorithm deduced sensorless induction motor drive system of indirect field

from Lyapunov’s stability criterion is given to estimate the

oriented control (FOC) is composed according to the schemes

stator resistance, which results in the speed estimation error.

The results of simulation show that the motor speed is controlled above. The feasibility of the system is verified by simulation

well at very low speeds. The proposed speed and stator results. The torque and speed have good performance at very

resistance identification methods can be believed have high low speeds especially.

possibility in practical applications.

II. MRAS BASED ON INDUCTION MOTOR MODEL

I. INTRODUCTION For an induction motor, if the stator currents is and rotor

used due to their attractive features such as reliability,

flexibility, robustness and poor cost, especially in the

flux ϕ r are selected as the state variables, the state equations

can be described in the stationary reference frame as follows

field of general inverter where they are used successfully. [3]:

However, when a very high accuracy is desired, the ª is º ª A11 A12 º ª is º ª B º

performance of speed estimation is not good particularly at p« » = « » « » + « » us (1)

low speeds. The main reason of the speed estimation error is ¬ϕ r ¼ ¬ A21 A22 ¼ ¬ϕ r ¼ ¬ 0 ¼

imprecise of flux observer and the offset of the stator current is = Cx (2)

sensor. Besides, it is very sensitive to the variation of motor Where:

parameters. The scheme based on model reference adaptive

is = [ isα is β ] T stator current

system (MRAS) is one of the major approaches for rotor

speed estimation [1,2]. Various control algorithms based on ϕ r

= [ ϕ rα ϕ r β ] T rotor flux

MRAS have been proposed. [3,4] apply the electromagnetic

torque in generalized error and obtained better effect in static u s = [ u sα u s β ] T stator voltage

state. [5-7] employ rotor flux as the system error to identify

A11 = − { Rs / (σ Ls ) + (1 − σ ) / (στ r )} I

the rotor speed. Stator back-EMF is used as the error to

estimate the rotor speed in [8,9]. These algorithms are mainly A12 = { Lm / (σ Ls Lrτ r )} I − { Lmω r / (σ Ls Lr )} J

based on the flux and speed estimations, which are obtained

from the electrical quantities, and they are complicated and A21 = ( Lm / τ r ) I

have difficulties in low speeds or zero speeds. Besides they A22 = − (1/ τ r ) I + ω r J

are sensitive to the motor parameters variation in motor

running particularly stator resistance and rotor resistance B = 1/ (σ Ls ) I

deviation. It is demonstrated that the rotor speed and the rotor C = [I 0]

resistance are not synchronously estimated [10]. Therefore I , J are unit matrix and skew symmetric matrix

some authors prefer to observe the stator resistance in respectively.

sensorless induction motor drives [11-13].

This paper proposed a scheme for sensorless induction ª1 0 º ª 0 −1º

I =« » , J = «1 0 »

motor drive based on MRAS. In this scheme, an adaptive ¬ 0 1 ¼ ¬ ¼

full-order observer is used to observe stator currents and rotor Rs , Rr are stator and rotor resistance.

flux, and the error between estimated stator current and real

Ls , Lr are stator and rotor self-inductance.

Manuscript received May 11, 2008.

Zicheng Li is with the School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Lm is mutual inductance.

Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430074, China (phone:

+86-1397-1460031; fax: +86-027-87540924; e-mail: lizich@sohu.com). τ r = Lr / Rr is rotor time constant.

Shanmei Cheng and Kai Cai are with the Dept of Control Science and

σ = 1 − Lm / Ls Lr is leakage coefficient.

2

Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan

430074, China (e-mail: dapolo@smail.hust.edu.cn).

235

978-1-4244-1787-2/08/$25.00

c 2008 IEEE

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ω r is motor angular velocity. us ªi º ªA A12 º ª is º ª B º is

p « s » = « 11 + u

Since rotor speed ωr is included in matrix A12 and A22 , (1) ¬ϕ r ¼ ¬ A21 A22 »¼ «¬ϕ r »¼ «¬ 0 »¼ s

+ e

can be selected as a reference model. If speed estimated value

ωˆ r replaces real speed ω r and motor parameters keep

+ p [ iˆs ϕˆ r ]

T

[iˆ s

ϕˆ r ]

T

iˆs

invariable, the adaptive full-order observer of speed B ³ C

identification system can be expressed as follows: +

p« »=« »« »

Aˆ 22 ¼ ¬ϕˆ r ¼

+ « » us (3)

¬ϕˆ r ¼ ¬ A21 ¬0¼ ωˆ r

f (is − iˆs )

Where, “^” signifies the estimated value. Fig. 1. The block diagram of MRAS

According to the theory of MRAS, we can consider the

motor (1) as a reference model and the observer (3) as an

adjustable model. Since stator currents are easy to be III. ADAPTIVE SCHEME FOR SPEED ESTIMATION

measured, the stator current is selected as the error feedback As a MRAS, the stability is first to be considered. The (6)

value. Therefore, the error between the states is and iˆs can be can be simplified as

used the system error e . The error equation is defined by e = Am e + Ad (t ) xm (7)

subtracting (3) from (1) as Where,

p (is − iˆs ) = A11 (is − iˆs ) + A12ϕ r − Aˆ12ϕˆ r + G (is − iˆs ) (4) Am = A11 + G ˈ Ad (t ) = {Lm /(σ Ls Lr )} (ω r − ωˆ r ) , xm = J ϕˆ r .

Where, G is the observer gain matrix, which decides the A Lyapunov’s function [14] is selected as

stability of equation (4). Furthermore, actual rotor flux can’t T

V = e Pe + t r { Ad (t ) F (t ) Ad (t )}

−1

(8)

be directly measured. From equation (1), we can obtain the Where, P , F are both positive symmetric matrixes. The

rotor flux as follows:

derivative of V to time is as follows:

pϕˆ r = A21is + A22ϕˆ r (5)

V = e ( A P + PA )e + 2t { A (t )[ Pex − F A (t )]} (9)

T T T T −1

m m r d m d

Because is can be measured directly, rotor flux can be

It makes Am be Gourvatz matrix by configuring matrix G so

obtained from (5), and we usually think ϕ r is equal to ϕˆ r . So that matrix P can be gained by Lyapunov’s equation

(4) is rewritten as follows: T

Am P + PAm = −Q (10)

p (is − iˆs ) Where, Q is arbitrary positively definite matrix. The follow

= A11 (is − iˆs ) + G (is − iˆs ) + ( A12 − Aˆ12 )ϕˆ r equation is chosen to make V be negative definite

= ( A11 + G )(is − iˆs ) + ( A12 − Aˆ12 )ϕˆ r Pexm − F A d (t ) = 0

T −1

(11)

= ( A11 + G )(is − iˆs ) +{Lm /(σ Ls Lr )} (ω r − ωˆ r ) J ϕˆ r (6) An adaptive control law [13] about Ad (t ) is obtained

Thus, the error between the states is and iˆs can be used to t

FPex dτ + A (0)

T

(12)

A (t ) =

d ³ 0 m d

a speed adaptive control mechanism which gains and adjusts From (7) and (12), we can obtain as follows:

estimated speed ωˆ r . At the same time, the estimated speed {Lm /(σ Ls Lr )} (ω r − ωˆ r )

ωˆ r is introduced in the adjustable model and the estimated t

³ FP (i − iˆ )ϕˆ J dτ + Ad (0)

T T

=

stator current iˆs is changed consequently. While speed

s s r

0

t

adaptive mechanism should guarantee that the system error e = ³ FP{ϕˆ rα

(i − iˆ ) −ϕˆ ( i − iˆ )}dτ + Ad (0)

sβ sβ rβ sα sα

(13)

0

would approach zero if estimated speed ωˆ r is asymptotic to Obviously, (13) can be equivalent as follows by a PI

control equation

real speed ωr . Fig. 3 shows the total MRAS diagram. Where

ωˆ r = f (is − iˆs ) is the expression of the estimated speed. ωˆ r = ( k PS + k IS / s ) {ϕˆ ( iˆ − i ) − ϕˆ ( iˆ − i )} (14)rα sβ sβ rβ sα sα

estimator and 1/S is the integral operator. Therefore,

according to Lyapunov’s theory we can conclude that a right

matrix P is gained from (13) if a random positive matrix Q

is given and global asymptotic stability of the system is

guaranteed if adaptive gain F is positive matrix and input us

is random parted continuous function. (14) can be used to

th

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estimate rotor speed conveniently. TABLE I

CONSTRUCTED MOTOR SPECIFICATION

Rotor resistance 2.62[¡]

From (4), if rotor speed w is invariable, it can be described:

Stator inductance 210[mH]

p(is − iˆs ) = A11is − Aˆ11iˆs + A12 (ϕ r − ϕˆr ) +G (is − iˆs ) Rotor inductance 210[mH]

(15) Mutual inductance 200[mH]

From (1) and (3), we have Rated voltage 380 [V]

p(ϕr − ϕˆr ) = A21 (is − iˆs ) + A22 (ϕr − ϕˆr ) (16) Rated frequency 50 [Hz]

Number of pole 4

When ϕ r is nearly equal to ϕˆr , it can be expressed Rated speed 1450[rpm]

ϕ r − ϕˆr = − A22 −1 A21 (is − iˆs ) (17)

Fig. 3, 4 and 5 are simulation results of rotor speed, stator

Substituting (17) into (16) gives current, and electromagnetic torque at 50 rad/s. Fig. 3

p(is − iˆs ) = ( A11 − Aˆ11 )is − A22 −1 A21 A12 (is − iˆs ) indicates that the estimated and real speed track each other in

both steady state and dynamic operation. Fig. 4 shows that

+G (is − iˆs ) (18) just like speed the estimated stator current coincides with the

From (1), it can be simplified as real one and Fig. 5 reveals the high performance of torque at

startup.

p(is − iˆs ) = (G − A22 −1 A21 A12 ) (is − iˆs )

− (is / σ Ls )( Rs − Rˆ s )

60

(19)

So, (6) can be rewritten by (19), where 50

A (t ) = ( R − Rˆ ) /(σ L )

40

real

d s s s

Speed (rad/s)

estimated

Therefore, according to the same Lyapunov’s theory, stator 30

rotor speed 20

10

V. SIMULATION RESULTS 0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

The proposed above speed adaptive estimation is applied to Time (sec)

the indirect FOC of an IM drive. Fig. 2 shows an overall Fig. 3. Estimated and real of rotor speed waveforms at 50 rad/s

control diagram of the sensorless induction motor drive

system based on slip frequency FOC. 10

*

+ isq +

*

u sq

* ua 5

ωr

*

Speed Current

controller controller Coordinate u *

ωˆ r isq PWM

inverse b

inverter 0

transform

isd +

* *

Current u sd uc

*

Stator current (A)

controller

Slip isd

frequency -5

calculation real

u sa isa

+ + ω1

estimated

θ Park Clark

³ transform transform u sb isb -10

Speed Adjustable

M -15

ϕˆ sα ϕˆ s β u s β is β

estimator model

ωˆ r

-20

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Time (s)

Fig. 2. The overall diagram of sensorless vector controlled system

Fig. 4. Estimated and real stator current waveforms at 50 rad/s

The simulation is performed for the verification of the

above control scheme. It is simulated by a sampling period of

25 μ s .

Table I shows the induction motor specification used in

simulation system. The PI gains of the speed adaptive scheme are:

KPS = 0.02, KIS = 500.

th

2008 Asia Simulation Conference — 7 Intl. Conf. on Sys. Simulation and Scientific Computing 237

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18 2

16

1.6

14

12

1.2

10

Te (N.m)

Te (N.m)

8 0.8

6

0.4

4

2

0

-2 -0.4

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Time (sec) Time (sec)

Fig. 5. Real torque waveform at 50 rad/s Fig. 8. Real torque waveform at 10 rad/s

Fig. 6, 7 and 8 are simulation results of rotor speed, stator

In the condition of same motor parameters, simulation is

current, and electromagnetic torque at 10 rad/s. From these

carried out for stator resistance estimation. The PI gains of the

figures, estimated and real speeds track each other by almost

stator resistance estimation scheme are: KPR = 0.06, KI R= 50.

zero error at very low speeds.

When the rotor speed is 50 rad/s, the stator resistance is

12 increased by 50% above the nominal value. Fig. 9 and 10

show the rotor speed and stator current waveforms in the case

10

of without stator resistance estimation. Obviously, the

estimated speed and stator current fluctuate because of stator

resistance change. However, Fig. 11 is the simulation results

8

real of rotor speed after adding stator resistance estimation

according to (20). Compared to Fig. 9, Fig. 11 indicates that

Speed (rad/s)

estimated

6

estimated speed can trace the real speed by adding stator

resistance estimation.

4

60

2

50

0 40

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

estimated

Time (sec)

real

Speed (rad/s)

30

Fig. 6. Estimated and real of rotor speed waveforms at 10 rad/s

4 20

3 10

real

estimated

2

0

1

Stator current (A)

-10

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

0 Time (sec)

-1

at 50 rad/s

-2

-3

-4

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Time (sec)

th

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[5] S. D. Huang, Y. N. Wang, J. Gao, et al, “The vector control based on

6 MRAS speed sensorless induction motor drive,” Conference of the 5th

ICA, Hangzhou, China, pp. 4550-4553, 2004.

4 [6] F. J. Lin, R. J. Wai and P. C. Lin, “Robust speed sensorless induction

motor drive,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no.

2

2, pp. 566-578, 1999.

0

[7] R. Cardenas, R. Pena, G. Asher, et al, “MRAS observer for doubly fed

induction machines,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Energy

Stator current (A)

[8] M. N. Marwali and A. Keyhani, “A comparative study of rotor flux

-4 based MRAS and back EMF base MRAS speed estimators for speed

sensorless vector control of induction machines,” IEEE Proceedings of

estimated

-6

real

IAS Annual Meeting, pp. 160-166, 1997.

[9] X. H. Nian, T. Wang, J. Wang, et al, “Adaptive Stator Resistance

-8 Estimation Method for Speed Sensorless DTC Controlled IM Drives,”

IEEE Proceedings of IPEC, pp. 214-221, 2007.

-10

[10] H. Tajima, G. Guidi and H. Umida, “Consideration about problems and

-12

solutions of speed estimation method and parameter tuning for

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 speed-sensorless vector control of induction motor drives,” IEEE

Time (sec)

Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 1282-1289,

Fig. 10. Stator current waveforms without stator resistance estimation 2002.

at 50 rad/s [11] M. Rashed, F. Stronach and P. Vas, “A new stable MRAS-based speed

and stator resistance estimators for sensorless vector control induction

60 motor drive at low speeds,” IEEE Proceedings of IAS Annual Meeting,

pp. 1181-1188, 2003.

[12] L. Zhen and L. Y. Xu, “Sensorless field orientation control of induction

50 machines based on a mutual MRAS scheme,” IEEE Transactions on

Industrial Electronics, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 824-831, 1998.

[13] G. Guidi and H. Vmida, “A novel stator resistance estimation method

40

real

for speed-sensorless induction motor dirivers,” IEEE Transactions on

Industry Applications, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 1619-1627, 2000.

Speed (rad/s)

estimated

30

[14] X. T. Liu, “Applied adaptive control,” Northwestern Polytechnical

University Press (in Chinese), 2003.

20

10

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Time (sec)

at 50 rad/s

VI. CONCLUSION

This paper has proposed a method of speed estimation for

sensorless induction motor drives based on MRAS. The

proposed speed and stator resistance identification schemes

are educed from and proved by the Lyapunov’s criterion and

applied to an indirect oriented induction motor control

without speed sensors. The performance of the proposed

scheme is verified by simulation results particularly in very

low speeds.

REFERENCES

[1] G. Griva, F. Profumo, R. Bojoi, et al, “General adaptation law for

MRAS high performance sensorless induction motor drives,” IEEE

Proceedings of PESC’01, pp. 1197-1202, 2001.

[2] C. M. Ta, T. Uchida and Y. Hori, “MRAS-based speed sensorless

control for induction motor drives using instantaneous reactive power,”

IEEE Proceedings of IECON’01, pp. 1417-1422, 2001.

[3] K. Ohyama, G. M. Asher and M. Sumner, “Comparative experimental

assessment for high performance sensorless induction motor drives,”

IEEE Proceedings of ISIE’99, pp. 386-391, 1999.

[4] C. schauder, “Adaptive speed identification for vector control of

induction motors without rotational transducers,” IEEE Transactions

on Industry Applications, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 1054-1061, 1992.

th

2008 Asia Simulation Conference — 7 Intl. Conf. on Sys. Simulation and Scientific Computing 239

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