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ME2135 FLUID MECHANICS II
Part 2: Viscous Flow
Tutorial Solutions
11. The boundary layer velocity profile:
)
4
η
2
η
4
η
( λ
2
η
η
2
3
U
u
3 2 3
+ − + − =
where
δ
y
η= and λ is a pressure gradient parameter.
At the separation point: 0
y
u
0 y
=


.

\

∂
∂
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ − + − =
∂
∂
3
2
2 3
2
δ 4
y λ 3
δ
y λ
δ 4
λ
δ
y
2
3
δ
1
2
3
U
y
u
6 λ
4
λ
2
3
0
δ 4
λ
δ
1
2
3
U
y
u
0 y
− = ∴ → − = → =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ =


.

\

∂
∂
=
Hence:
3 2 3 2
3
η 2 η 3 η
2
3
η 3 η
2
3
2
η
η
2
3
U
u
− = − + − − =
( )
2
δ
2
η
η η δ dη η 2 3η 1 δ dy
U
u
1 δ*
1
0
4
3
1
0
3 2
δ
0
=
(
¸
(
¸
+ − = + − =

.

\

− =
∫ ∫
( since η = y/δ Æ dy = δ dη )
( )
( )
δ 1286 . 0 δ 2
7
4
5
9
2
1
1
η 2 η
7
4
η
5
9
η
2
1
η δ dη ) 12η 4η (9η η 2 η 3 δ
dη ) η 2 (3η 2η η 3 δ dy
U
u
1
U
u
θ
1
0
6 7 5 4 3
1
0
5 6 4 3 2
1
0
2 3 2 3 2
δ
0
=

.

\

+ − − − =
(
¸
(
¸
+ − − − = − + − − =
− − − =

.

\

− =
∫
∫ ∫
Hence, the boundary layer shape factor at the separation point
888 . 3
1286 . 0
5 . 0
θ
δ
H
*
= = =
Note: H = 3 for a linear velocity profile.
2
12. Freestream velocity U = 0.1 m/s. For water at 20°C : ν = 1.0 x 10
– 6
m
2
/s
From Blasius Solution:
Ux/ν
5.0
Re
5.0
x
δ
x
= =
Æ
U
νx
5
Ux/ν
x 5.0
δ = =
For point 1 (x
1
, y
1
):
At x
1
= 1 m: Re
x1
= U x
1
/ν = 0.1 x 1/1 x10
– 6
= 1x 10
5
< Re
xtr
where Re
xtr
= 5 x 10
5
Hence, the b. l. flow is laminar at x
1
and therefore:
mm 15.81 cm 1.581 m 10 1.581 m
40
10 x 5
m
10 x 4
1 x 5.0
Ux/ν
x 5.0
δ
2
2
5
1
= = × = = = =
−
−
From Blasius Solution:
x ν
U
y η =
and
U
u
' f =
Hence at point 1 (x
1
, y
1
):
162 . 3 10 10 10
1 10 1
0.1
10 10
x ν
U
y η
5 2
6
3
1
1 1
= = =
× ×
× = =
−
−
−
From the Table of Blasius Solution:
η f '
3.0 0.8460
η
1
Æ 3.162 f
1
' = ? Æ use linear interpolation
3.5 0.9130
b
a
c
3.0
3.162
3.5
0.8460
d
0.9130
f ′
η
'
1
f
3
From the sketch above:
b
d
c
a
d
c
b
a
= → =
This will give: f
1
' = 0.8460 + a = 0.8460 +
b
d
c
= 0.8460 +
0.8460)  (0.9130 x
3.0)  (3.5
3.0)  (3.162
= 0.8460 +
0.067 x
(0.5)
(0.162)
= 0.8677
Hence, at point 1(y
1
= 10 mm):
u
1
= f
1
' U = 0.8677 x 0.1 m/s = 0.08677 m/s ≈ 87 mm/s (Answer)
For point 2 (x
2
, y
2
):
At x
2
= 4 m: Re
x2
= U x
2
/ν = 0.1 x 4/1 x10
– 6
= 4 x 10
5
< Re
xtr
Hence, the b. l. flow is laminar at x
2
and therefore:
mm 31.62 cm 3.162 m 10 3.162 m
40
10 x 20
m
10 x 4
4 x 5.0
Ux/ν
x 5.0
δ
2
2
5
2
= = × = = = =
−
−
Following the previous method:
581 . 1 5 . 2 10 5 . 2 10
4 10 1
0.1
10 10
x ν
U
y η
4 2
6
3
2
2 2
= = × =
× ×
× = =
−
−
−
From the Table of Blasius Solution:
η f '
1.5 0.4868
η
1
Æ 1.581 f
2
' = ?
2.0 0.6298
Using linear interpolation: f
2
' = 0.4868 +
0.4868)  (0.6298 x
1.5)  (2.0
1.5)  (1.581
= 0.4868 + 0.02317
= 0.51
Hence, at point 2 (y
2
= y
1
=10 mm):
u
2
= f
2
' U = 0.51 x 0.1 m/s = 0.051 m/s = 51 mm/s (Answer)
4
13. The transitional Reynolds number Re
x,tr
= 5 x 10
5
.
For the boundary layer flow along the flat plate to remain laminar at the
maximum possible velocity of the air: the length of the plate ( l ) = the
distance from the plate leading edge (LE) to the position of transition x
tr
.
From the expression of Re
x,tr
(=U.x
tr
/ν), we can obtain the maximum
possible velocity of the air U:
m/s 3 m/s
2.5
10 5 10 1.5
10 5
ν
U
5 5
5
=
× × ×
= × × =
l
Since l = x
tr
Æ Re
l
= Re
x,tr
= 5 x 10
5
, hence at x = l = 2.5 m:
mm 17.7 0.01768m m
707.107
12.5
m
10 x 5
2.5 x 5
Re
x 5
δ
5
x
= = = = =
(Answer)
When U is further increased ( > 3 m/s), transition will occur on the plate (or
will move upstream from the plate trailing edge (TE). Hence, the boundary
layer along the plate will consist of laminar and turbulent parts, separated by
the transition. For the expression of the overall C
D
for the plate in terms of C
Dl
and C
Dt
Æ see Lecture Notes: 3.15 Boundary Layer with Transition (p.74).
5
14. From Blasius solution for laminar boundary layer along a flat plate at zero
angle of incidence:
x
Re
5.0
x
δ
=
or
∞
=
U
x ν
5 δ (since Re
x
= U
∞
x/ν)
Given: U
∞
= 25 m/s, x
1
= 1m and δ
1
= 0.1 cm
For the same ν and U
∞
at x
2
= 4 m:
2
1
2
1
x
x
δ
δ
=
Æ
4
1
δ
0.1
2
=
Æ δ
2
= 0.2 cm
Is this laminar assumption realistic ?
∞
=
U
x ν
5 δ
1
1
Æ


.

\

=
∞
U
x ν
25 δ
2
1
1 x 25
) 001 . 0 ( x 25
x 25
δ U
ν
2
1
2
1
= =
∞
= 1 x 10
6
m
2
/s
Re
x= 4m
= U
∞
x/ν = 25 x 4/ 1 x 10
6
= 100 x 10
6
= 10
8
Note: Re
xtr
= 3 x 10
5
to 5 x 10
5
∴ At x = 4 m, the laminar boundary layer assumption is not realistic.
Even at x = 1 m Æ Re
x= 1m
= 25 x 10
6
, the laminar boundary layer
assumption is far from realistic.
6
15. (a) In a turbulent flow, the velocity component u(t) is written as u (t) = u' u +
where u is the time average of u(t) defined as:
∫
=
T
0
dt u(t)
T
1
u
and
u'
is the fluctuating part of u. T is a time increment large enough to
eliminate all time dependence from
u
. Show that
u'
= 0 and .
x
u
x
u
∂
∂
=
∂
∂
Solution: See Lecture Notes: 3.8 Turbulent Flow and Time Averaging (p. 57)
Since
u' u u + =
Æ
u u u' − =
Time averaging:
u u u' − =
∫ ∫ ∫
+ + +
− = =
T t
t
T t
t
T t
t
o
o
o
o
o
o
dt . u
T
1
dt u.
T
1
dt ). u  (u
T
1
u'
0
T
T u
u = − =
x
u
u.dt
T
1
x
.dt
x
u
T
1
x
u T t
t
T t
t
o
o
o
o
∂
∂
=
(
¸
(
¸
∂
∂
=
∂
∂
=
∂
∂
∫ ∫
+ +
7
15. (b) A version of the incompressible laminar boundary layer equations is
given in the following:
2
2
y
u
ρ
µ
x
p
ρ
1
y
u
v
x
u
u
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
− =
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
(1) and
0
y
v
x
u
=
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
(2)
Use the Reynolds averaging procedure to obtain the equations in turbulent
version.
Solution: See Lecture Notes: 3.9 Equations of Motion for Turbulent Flow (p.59)
Multiply the continuity eqn. (2) by u, and add to the eqn. of motion (1) :
2
2 2
y
u
ρ
µ
x
P
ρ
1
y
uv) (
x
) u (
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
− =
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
(3)
Introduce: u' u u + = , v' v v + = , and ' P P P + = into Eqns. (3) and (2):
y
) v' (u'
y
) v (u'
y
) v' u (
y
) v u (
x
) u' (
x
) u' u (
2
x
) u (
2 2
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂


.

\

∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
− =
2
2
2
2
y
u'
y
u
ν
x
P'
ρ
1
x
P
ρ
1
By time averaging each term, we obtain:
2
2 2
2
y
u
ν
x
P
ρ
1
y
) v' u' (
y
) v u (
x
) u' (
x
) u (
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
− =
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
(4)
Similarly, for the continuity equation:
0
y x
v u
=
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
(5)
Multiplying Eqn. (5) by u and substracting from Eqn. (4) gives:
y
v' u'
x
u'
y
u
ν
x
P
ρ
1
y
v
x
u
2
2
2
u u
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
− =
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
.
x
u'
y
v' u'
then layer, boundary the in
x y
Since
2
∂
∂
>>
∂
∂
∂
∂
>>
∂
∂
Hence:
y
v' u'
y
u
ν
x
P
ρ
1
y
v
x
u
2
2
u u
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
− =
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
8
16. Solution :
See Lecture Notes pp. 68 – 72:
“Universal” velocity distribution in turbulent boundary layer can be
represented by power law (as suggested by Prandtl) of the form:
n
1
τ
τ
ν
y u
C
u
u

.

\

=
(3.29)
where C and n are constants depending on the flow Reynolds number and geometry.
For Flat Plate Boundary Layer Flows at Zero Angle of Incidence:
n Re
x
=

.

\

ν
.x U
C
7 5 x 10
5
– 10
7
8.74
At y = δ,
∞
= U u → ∴
7
1
δ
y
U
u

.

\

=
∞
− Power law relation
However, this profile does not hold in the immediate vicinity of the wall, since at
the wall it predicts du/dy = ∞. Hence, we cannot use this profile in the definition of
shear stress at the wall τ
o
(or τ
w
), to obtain an expression for
w
τ in terms of δ, as for
laminar boundary layer flow.
Blasius found that for smooth surfaces, the result
4
1
2
o
δ U
ρU 0.0225 τ


.

\

=
∞
∞
ν
(3.33)
can be used for turbulent flow consideration. This was determined by Blasius for
pipe flow, and was later confirmed for flat plate for Re
x
= 5x10
5
to 10
7
.
Applying the momentum integral equation, that is, Eqn. (3.7):
dx
dθ
ρU τ
2
o ∞
=
(
¸
(
¸


.

\

− =
∫
∞ ∞
∞
δ
0
2
dy
U
u
1
U
u
dx
d
ρU
or
(
(
¸
(
¸


.

\

− =
∫
∞ ∞
∞
δ
0
2
2 o
dy
U
u
U
u
dx
d
U
ρ
τ
Substituting Equations (3.32) and (3.33) into Equation (3.7), we then have:
9
(
(
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

−

.

\

=


.

\

∫ ∞
∞
∞
δ
0
7
2
7
1
2
4
1
2
dy
δ
y
δ
y
dx
d
U
δ U
U 0225 0
ν
.
Canceling
2
U
∞
and integrating, we obtain:
dx
dδ
72
7
δ
9
7
δ
8
7
dx
d
δ U
0225 0
4
1
= 
.

\

− =


.

\

∞
v
.
After separating the variables, it becomes:
dδ δ 4.32 dx
U
4
1
4
1
=


.

\

∞
v
Integrating gives:
C δ
5
4
32 . 4 x
U
4
5
4
1
+

.

\

=


.

\

∞
v
Assuming that δ = 0 at x = 0 (that is, the turbulent boundary layer is assumed to
start from the leading edge), then C = 0 and hence:
5
1
5
4
U
37 0 δ


.

\

=
∞
v
x .
Rearranging:
5
1
x
5
1
37 0
x U
37 0
x
δ
−
∞
=

.

\

= Re .
.
v
(3.34)
Using Equation (3.33) we obtain the skin friction coefficient in terms of δ:
4
1
2
o
f
δ U
0450 . 0
ρU
2
1
τ
C


.

\

= =
∞
∞
v
Substituting for δ, we obtain:
( )
5 1
x
f
Re
0.0576
C = (3.35)
local skin friction coefficient
By using the same method as before, it can be shown that the average skin friction
coefficient is given by:
∫
=
=
=
L x
0 x
f F
dx C
L
1
C which is equal to C
D
(see Section 3.5)
Hence:
( )5
1
L
D
Re
072 . 0
C = for 5 x 10
5
< Re
x
<10
7
(3.36)
10
17. Solution
See Lecture Notes: 3.11 Turbulent Boundary Layer Equations (p. 64)
Consider a 2D, steady, incompressible, turbulent flow. The timeaveraged x and y
components of the NS eqns. are:
y
v' u'
x
u'
y x
u
ν
x
P
ρ
1
y
v
x
u
2
2
2
2
2
u u u
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
−


.

\

∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
− =
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
y
v'
x
' v u'
y
v
x
v
ν
y
P
ρ
1
y
v
v
x
v
u
2
2
2
2
2
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
−


.

\

∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
− =
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
Making the usual boundary layer approximations (as in the case for laminar
boundary layer) with respect to the mean flow gives:
y
v' u'
x
u'
y
ν
x
P
ρ
1
y
v
x
u
2
2
2
u u u
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
− =
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
…..…..….(1)
and
y
v'
x
' v u'
y
P
ρ
1
0
2
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
− =
…….…...………...(2)
y
v'
y
P
ρ
1
that so
x
' v u'
y
v'
then
x y
Since
2 2
∂
∂
− =
∂
∂
∂
∂
>>
∂
∂
∂
∂
>>
∂
∂
Hence:
C v'
ρ
P
2
+ − =
where at the wall and at the boundary layer edge:
(x) P (x) P P and 0 v'
o
2
∞
= = =
Hence:
2
v'
ρ
) ( P
ρ
P
− =
∞
x
………………………...…...….. (3)
Thus, unlike laminar boundary layer, there is a slight variation of pressure across
turbulent boundary layer flow, due to velocity fluctuations normal to the wall.
11
See Lecture Notes: 3.12 Turbulence Models (p. 67)
To solve the turbulent equations of motion (in conjunction with the continuity
equation), representations of turbulent stresses in terms of u and/or v , w are
required. Hence, the so called “turbulence models” are required.
Example: Turbulent boundary layer equation differs from the laminar boundary
layer equation by the term
' ' v u
y ∂
∂
−
only, that is, by ' ' v u
t
ρ τ − =
To solve the turbulent boundary layer equation together with the continuity
equation:
0 =
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
y
v
x
u
, a turbulent model to represent ' ' v u ρ − in terms of u
and/or v , is required.
12
18. (a) For oil: ρ = 891 kg/m
3
and µ = 0.29 kg/ms
i) For stream parallel to the long side of the plate: L = 1.10 m
) 10 5 (
x tr
Re is which 20277
µ
ρUL
L
Re
5
× = < = = →
Hence, laminar boundary layer on the plate, and
00933 . 0
20277
328 . 1
Re
328 . 1
C
x
D
= = =
A U
D
2
2
1
ρ
=
Æ
D 2
1
C A U ρ D
2
=
(for one side)
D
total
= 2D (for both sides of the plate)
= 2 x 0.00933 x ½ x 891 x 6
2
x 0.55 x 1.10 N = 181 N (Answer)
ii) For stream parallel to the short side of the plate: L = 0.55 m
x tr
Re is which 10139
µ
ρUL
L
Re < = = →
Hence, laminar boundary layer on the plate, and
01318 . 0
10139
328 . 1
Re
328 . 1
C
x
D
= = =
D
total
= 2 C
D
½ ρ U
2
A (for both sides of the plate)
= 2 x 0.0132 x ½ x 891 x 6
2
x 0.55 x 1.10 = 256 N (Answer)
[ that is, (256 – 181)/ 181 = 41% more than i) ]
13
(b) For water: ρ = 998 kg/m
3
and µ = 0.001 kg/ms
i) For stream parallel to the long side of the plate: L = 1.10 m
Æ tr x
6
L
Re 10 59 . 6
µ
L U ρ
Re > × = =
Hence, turbulent boundary layer on the plate, and
m 083 . 0 x 10 5
µ
x U ρ
Re
tr
5 tr
tr x
= → × = =
( Æ x
tr
/L = 0.083/1.1 = 7.5 %)
D
total
= 2 ½ ρ U
2
A C
D
(for both sides of the plate)
( ) { } N  55 . 0 C x x C x U ρ
t D tr
l
D tr 2
1
2
× + =
where:
( )
0019 . 0
000 , 500
328 . 1
Re
328 . 1
C
2 / 1
x tr
l
D
= = =
and
( ) ( )
003116 . 0
000 , 590 , 6
072 . 0
Re
072 . 0
C
5 / 1 5 / 1
L x
t
D
= = =
=
Hence: D
total
(for both sides of the plate) = 65.69 N (Answer)
If the laminar portion of the boundary layer is neglected:
D
total
= ρ U
2
A C
Dt
= 68.69 N (for both sides of the plate)
% 57 . 4
69 . 65
69 . 65 69 . 68
Error =
−
=
14
ii) For stream parallel to the short side of the plate: L = 0.55 m
Æ tr x
6
L
Re 10 295 . 3
µ
L U ρ
Re > × = =
Hence, turbulent boundary layer on the plate, and
m 083 . 0 x 10 5
µ
x U ρ
Re
tr
5 tr
tr x
= → × = =
( Æ x
tr
/L = 0.083/0.55 = 15 %)
where:
( )
0019 . 0
000 , 500
328 . 1
Re
328 . 1
C
2 / 1
x tr
l
D
= = =
and
( ) ( )
00358 . 0
000 , 295 , 3
072 . 0
Re
072 . 0
C
5 / 1 5 / 1
L x
t
D
= = =
=
D
total
(for both sides of the plate) = 72.24 N (Answer)
If the laminar portion of the boundary layer is neglected:
D
total
= ρ U
2
A C
Dt
= 77.82 N (for both sides of the plate)
% 7 . 7
24 . 72
24 . 72 82 . 77
Error =
−
=
the b. y1): At x1 = 1 m: Rex1 = U x1/ν = 0.162 −6 ν x1 1 × 10 × 1 From the Table of Blasius Solution: η 3.9130 f1' a 0.0 x 1 4 x 105 m= 5 x 10 −2 40 U νx m = 1.0 x Ux/ν = 5.81 mm From Blasius Solution: η = y and f ' = u U Hence at point 1 (x1.0 Re x For point 1 (x1.1 x 1/1 x10– 6 = 1x 10 5 < Rextr where Rextr = 5 x 10 5 Hence.5 f' 0.9130 use linear interpolation f′ 0.0 3. From Blasius Solution: For water at 20°C : ν = 1.0 η1 3.581× 10 − 2 m = 1.0 x Ux/ν = 5 νx U δ = x 5. Freestream velocity U = 0.1 = 10 × 10−3 = 10−2 105 = 10 = 3. y1): η1 = y1 U 0.162 3.8460 c d b 3.581 cm = 15. l.0 Ux/ν δ = 5.12.162 3.5 η 2 . flow is laminar at x1 and therefore: δ1 = 5.0 x 10– 6 m2/s = 5.1 m/s.8460 f1' = ? 0.
at point 1(y1= 10 mm): u1 = f1' U = 0.5 η1 1.1 m/s = 0.162 × 10 − 2 m = 3.8460 + (3.From the sketch above: a c c = → a= b b d d c b d This will give: f1' = 0.62 mm Following the previous method: η2 = y 2 U 0.5) = 0.0) x (0.08677 m/s ≈ 87 mm/s (Answer) For point 2 (x2.6298 .6298 (1.1.4868 f2' = ? 0.162) x 0.51 x 0.8677 (0.02317 = 0.067 = 0.4868 + Hence. y2): At x2 = 4 m: Rex2 = U x2/ν = 0.0 x Ux/ν = 5.581 2.0) (0. at point 2 (y2 = y1 =10 mm): u2 = f2' U = 0.9130 .0.1 = 10 ×10 − 3 = 10 − 2 2.162 cm = 31.4868 + 0.4868) (2.051 m/s = 51 mm/s (Answer) 3 .162 .0 f' 0.581 −6 × 4 ν x2 1× 10 From the Table of Blasius Solution: η 1.1.3.5 .8460) (3.0.581 .8677 x 0. flow is laminar at x2 and therefore: δ2 = 5.51 Using linear interpolation: f2' = 0.5) = 0.5 = 1. the b. l.8460 + a = 0.1 x 4/1 x10– 6 = 4 x 10 5 < Rextr Hence.8460 + = 0.5) x (0.1 m/s = 0.0 x 4 4 x 105 m= 20 x 10 −2 40 m = 3.8460 + Hence.3.5 × 10 4 = 2.0 .
For the boundary layer flow along the flat plate to remain laminar at the maximum possible velocity of the air: the length of the plate ( l ) = the distance from the plate leading edge (LE) to the position of transition xtr. For the expression of the overall CD for the plate in terms of CDl and CDt see Lecture Notes: 3.01768m = 17.5 (=U. separated by the transition. From the expression of Rex. the boundary layer along the plate will consist of laminar and turbulent parts.74). hence at x = l = 2.15 Boundary Layer with Transition (p.7 mm 707.5 m = 0.5 × 10 × 5 × 10 m/s = 3 m/s U = × 5 × 10 l 2. transition will occur on the plate (or will move upstream from the plate trailing edge (TE). The transitional Reynolds number Rex.tr = 5 x 105.5 5 x 105 m= 12.tr = 5 x 105.tr possible velocity of the air U: 5 5 ν 5 = 1.xtr /ν).5 m: δ= 5x Re x = 5 x 2.107 (Answer) When U is further increased ( > 3 m/s).13. we can obtain the maximum Since l = xtr Rel = Rex. Hence. 4 .
From Blasius solution for laminar boundary layer along a flat plate at zero angle of incidence: δ = x 5.001 )2 1 ν = = = 1 x 106 m2/s 25 x1 25 x 1 Rex= 4m = U∞x/ν = 25 x 4/ 1 x 106 = 100 x 106 = 108 Note: Rextr = 3 x 105 to 5 x 105 ∴ At x = 4 m.2 cm Is this laminar assumption realistic ? δ1 = 5 ν x1 U∞ νx δ12 = 25 U ∞ U∞ δ2 25 x (0. the laminar boundary layer assumption is not realistic. the laminar boundary layer assumption is far from realistic. Even at x = 1 m Rex= 1m = 25 x 106.1 cm For the same ν and U∞ at x2 = 4 m: δ1 = δ2 x1 x2 0.1 = δ2 1 4 δ2 = 0.14. 5 .0 νx or δ = 5 Re x U∞ (since Rex = U∞x/ν) Given: U∞ = 25 m/s. x1 = 1m and δ1 = 0.
∂x ∂x Solution: See Lecture Notes: 3. (a) In a turbulent flow. T is a time increment large enough to eliminate all time dependence from u .dt = ∂x ∂x T ∫ t o +T o ∂u u. dt = 0 o u uT T 1 t ∂u = ∫t T ∂x o +T o ∂u ∂ 1 t . dt − − o 1 t T ∫t o +T u.u). Show that u' = 0 and ∂u = ∂ u .8 Turbulent Flow and Time Averaging (p. the velocity component u(t) is written as u (t) = u + u' 1 T u is the time average of u(t) defined as: u = ∫0 u(t) dt and where T u' is the fluctuating part of u.15. dt = o 1 t T ∫t = o +T u. 57) Since u = u + u' u' = u − u Time averaging: u' = u − u u' = 1 t T ∫t o +T (u .dt = ∂x 6 .
(b) A version of the incompressible laminar boundary layer equations is given in the following: ∂v ∂u ∂u ∂u 1 ∂p µ ∂ 2u + = 0 (2) (1) and u +v = − + ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ρ ∂x ρ ∂y 2 Use the Reynolds averaging procedure to obtain the equations in turbulent version. >> >> ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x Hence: ∂u ∂u 1 ∂P ∂2 u ∂ u' v' u + v = − + ν 2 − ∂x ∂y ρ ∂x ∂y ∂y 7 . of motion (1) : ∂ (u 2 ) ∂(uv) 1 ∂P µ ∂2u + = − + ∂x ∂y ρ ∂x ρ ∂y 2 (3) Introduce: u = u + u' . and P = P + P' into Eqns. (2) by u. v = v + v' . then .9 Equations of Motion for Turbulent Flow (p. we obtain: 1 ∂P ∂ 2u ∂(u 2 ) ∂(u'2 ) ∂(u v) ∂(u' v') + ν + + + =− ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ρ ∂x ∂y 2 Similarly. (4) gives: ∂u ∂u 1 ∂P ∂2 u ∂ u' 2 ∂ u' v' u + v = − + ν 2 − − ∂x ∂y ρ ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂ ∂ ∂ u' v' ∂ u' 2 Since in the boundary layer.59) Multiply the continuity eqn.15. (3) and (2): ∂(u u' ) ∂(u'2 ) ∂(u v) ∂(u v' ) ∂(u' v) ∂(u' v' ) ∂( u 2 ) +2 + + + + + ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂y ∂y ∂ 2 u ∂ 2 u' 1 ∂P 1 ∂P' = − − + ν 2 + 2 ∂y ρ ∂x ρ ∂x ∂y By time averaging each term. Solution: See Lecture Notes: 3. and add to the eqn. (5) by (5) u and substracting from Eqn. for the continuity equation: (4) ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y Multiplying Eqn.
Solution : See Lecture Notes pp. This was determined by Blasius for pipe flow.x ν C 8. Applying the momentum integral equation.33) into Equation (3. Blasius found that for smooth surfaces.0225 ρU ∞ U δ ∞ 1 (3.29) where C and n are constants depending on the flow Reynolds number and geometry.7): 2 τ o = ρU ∞ δ dθ u 2 d = ρU ∞ ∫ dx dx 0 U ∞ u dy 1 − U∞ or 2 δ u u τo 2 d ∫ = U∞ − U dy ρ dx 0 U ∞ ∞ Substituting Equations (3.7). to obtain an expression for τ w in terms of δ. Hence. For Flat Plate Boundary Layer Flows at Zero Angle of Incidence: n 7 Rex = U. this profile does not hold in the immediate vicinity of the wall. u = U ∞ → ∴ = − Power law relation U∞ δ However. that is. the result 2 ν 4 τ o = 0. we cannot use this profile in the definition of shear stress at the wall τo (or τw ).74 1 5 x 105 – 107 u y 7 At y = δ. as for laminar boundary layer flow. Eqn.16.33) can be used for turbulent flow consideration. (3.32) and (3. 68 – 72: “Universal” velocity distribution in turbulent boundary layer can be represented by power law (as suggested by Prandtl) of the form: u u = C τ uτ ν 1 y n (3. and was later confirmed for flat plate for Rex = 5x105 to 107. we then have: 8 . since at the wall it predicts du/dy = ∞ .
5) L x =0 Hence: CD = 0.37 (3.37 x 1 4 5 1 4 1 v U ∞ 5 1 Rearranging: δ = x 1 − = 0.0225 U ∞ U δ = U ∞ dx ∫ δ − δ dy ∞ 0 and integrating.0576 Cf = (Re x )1 5 τo 1 (3.34) v Using Equation (3.0225 U δ ∞ 1 4 = d 7 7 7 dδ δ − δ = dx 8 9 72 dx After separating the variables. then C = 0 and hence: δ= 4 5 0.33) we obtain the skin friction coefficient in terms of δ: v 4 Cf = = 0. it becomes: v 4 U dx = 4.32 δ 4 + C U 5 ∞ Assuming that δ = 0 at x = 0 (that is.072 ( 1 Re L 5 ) for 5 x 105 < Rex <107 (3.35) local skin friction coefficient By using the same method as before.36) 9 .37 Re x 5 1 U∞x 5 0. we obtain: 1 4 v 0. the turbulent boundary layer is assumed to start from the leading edge). it can be shown that the average skin friction 1 x =L coefficient is given by: CF = ∫ Cf dx which is equal to CD (see Section 3. we obtain: 0.0450 U δ 1 2 ∞ ρU ∞ 2 Substituting for δ.2 Canceling U ∞ 1 2 δ y 7 y 7 2 ν 2 d 0.32 δ dδ ∞ Integrating gives: v 4 x = 4.
Solution See Lecture Notes: 3.….. steady.. 10 .………. due to velocity fluctuations normal to the wall. 64) Consider a 2D.…. (3) ρ ρ Thus.and ycomponents of the NS eqns.11 Turbulent Boundary Layer Equations (p. unlike laminar boundary layer.. there is a slight variation of pressure across turbulent boundary layer flow...…... turbulent flow..17. are: ∂ 2 u ∂ 2 u ∂ u' 2 ∂ u' v' 1 ∂P ∂u ∂u u − + ν 2 + 2 − = − +v ∂x ∂y ∂y ρ ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂2 v ∂2 v ∂v ∂v 1 ∂P +v = − + ν 2 + 2 u ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ρ ∂y ∂ u' v' ∂ v'2 − − ∂x ∂y Making the usual boundary layer approximations (as in the case for laminar boundary layer) with respect to the mean flow gives: 1 ∂P ∂ u' v' ∂ 2 u ∂ u' 2 ∂u ∂u u − + ν 2 − = − +v …. incompressible.(2) ρ ∂y ∂y ∂x and 1 ∂P ∂ v'2 ∂ u' v' ∂ ∂ v'2 ∂ so that = − Since then >> >> ρ ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y Hence: P = − v'2 + C ρ where at the wall and at the boundary layer edge: v'2 = 0 and P = Po (x) = P∞ (x) Hence: P ( x) P = ∞ − v'2 ……………………….…. The timeaveraged x.…....(1) ρ ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x 1 ∂P ∂ v'2 ∂ u' v' 0= − − − …….
a turbulent model to represent − ρ u 'v' in terms of u ∂x ∂y and/or v . 11 .12 Turbulence Models (p. Example: Turbulent boundary layer equation differs from the laminar boundary layer equation by the term − ∂ u 'v' only. that is. w are required. is required. the so called “turbulence models” are required. 67) To solve the turbulent equations of motion (in conjunction with the continuity equation).See Lecture Notes: 3. representations of turbulent stresses in terms of u and/or v . by ∂y τ t = − ρ u 'v' To solve the turbulent boundary layer equation together with the continuity equation: ∂u ∂v + = 0 . Hence.
and CD = 1.328 10139 = 0. laminar boundary layer on the plate.0132 x ½ x 891 x 62 x 0. laminar boundary layer on the plate.55 x 1.10 N = 181 N (Answer) ii) For stream parallel to the short side of the plate: L = 0.328 20277 = 0.55 m → ReL = ρUL = 10139 which is < Rex tr µ Hence. (256 – 181)/ 181 = 41% more than i) ] (Answer) 12 . (a) For oil: ρ = 891 kg/m3 and µ = 0.55 x 1.01318 Dtotal = 2 CD ½ ρ U2 A (for both sides of the plate) = 2 x 0.18. and CD = 1.00933 x ½ x 891 x 62 x 0.328 Re x = 1.29 kg/ms i) For stream parallel to the long side of the plate: L = 1.10 = 256 N [ that is.00933 = D 1 ρU2 A 2 D = 1 2 ρ U 2 A C D (for one side) Dtotal = 2D (for both sides of the plate) = 2 x 0.10 m → Re L = ρUL = 20277 which is < Re x tr (= 5 × 105 ) µ Hence.328 Re x = 1.
(b) For water: ρ = 998 kg/m3 and µ = 0.0019 Re x tr (500.072 = = 0.69 = 4.328 = = 0.10 m Re L = ρ UL = 6.083 m µ ( xtr /L = 0.69 13 .590 .328 1.55 N l { } where: C D = l 1.69 − 65.69 N (for both sides of the plate) Error = 68.000 )1 / 5 ) Hence: Dtotal (for both sides of the plate) = 65. turbulent boundary layer on the plate.000)1/ 2 and CD = t ( 0.59 × 10 6 > Re x tr µ Hence.001 kg/ms i) For stream parallel to the long side of the plate: L = 1. and Re x tr = ρ U x tr = 5 × 105 → x tr = 0.072 0.69 N (Answer) If the laminar portion of the boundary layer is neglected: Dtotal = ρ U2 A CDt = 68.57 % 65.083/1.5 %) Dtotal = 2 ½ ρ U2 A CD (for both sides of the plate) = 1 2 ρ U 2 x tr C D + (x x tr ) C D t × 0.1 = 7.003116 Re x = L 1 / 5 (6.
ii) For stream parallel to the short side of the plate: L = 0.295 .82 − 72.328 1.000) and C D = t ( 0.82 N (for both sides of the plate) Error = 77.24 14 .55 m Re L = ρ UL = 3. and Re x tr = ρ U x tr = 5 × 10 5 → x tr = 0.00358 Re x = L 1 / 5 (3.083 m µ ( xtr /L = 0.072 0.24 = 7.55 = 15 %) where: C D = l 1.0019 1/ 2 Re x tr (500.328 = = 0.24 N (Answer) If the laminar portion of the boundary layer is neglected: Dtotal = ρ U2 A CDt = 77.072 = = 0.083/0.7 % 72.295 × 10 6 > µ Re x tr Hence.000 )1 / 5 ) Dtotal (for both sides of the plate) = 72. turbulent boundary layer on the plate.
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