Social sciences in the recent past have become quite specialized in terms of the problems and responses covered in their purview. The origin of Criminology as specialized branch of learning was a part of similar process. Early Criminology, better known as Classical Criminology , emerged as part of protest against the prejudiced and discriminating legal practices that were prevalent in the contemporary society of the early eighteenth century. Modern Criminology has grown to be an advanced field of learning and practice. Emphasis in Criminology, in the interpretation of crime and criminality, has continuously been changing from classical to physiological, environmental to psychological, and sociological to interactionist approaches. Criminology has been defined as the study of crime, the causes of crime (etiology), the meaning of crime in terms of law, and community reaction to crime. Not too long ago, criminology separated from its mother discipline, sociology. Although there are some historical continuities, it has since developed ways and methods of thinking about crime and criminal behaviour that are uniquely its own. Criminology today receives inputs from all basic disciplines in social and behavioural sciences in explaining the problem of, and response to, crime. Many international fora recommend the introduction of Criminology in the teaching framework of universities. Particularly, the International Penitentiary Congress (1890, 1925), International Congress on Penal Law, First International Congress on Criminology, and later UNESCO have stressed the need for developing Criminology as a teaching discipline. This helped in the introduction of Criminology as a discipline in various leading universities of the world. Researches in Criminology are increasingly being utilized for policy purposes. India also received impetus from these developments, and criminology gained recognition in the Indian academe.
II. Teaching of Criminology in India Teaching of Criminology -- in the form of a special paper -- started in various departments of Law/Psychology/Sociology/Social Work/Anthropology in many universities. Introduction of Criminology in the training courses at the Jail Officers
Part of a Chapter of Sociology and Social Anthropolgy edited by Yogesh Atal, Pearson (2009). The paper is a part of Forth Survey of Indian Council of Indian Social Science Resaerch, New Delhi 2 Professor, National Law University, Delhi (email@example.com) 3. The paper is circulated for background reading to the participants of 35 All India Criminology Conference organized by the Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai ( March 23-25, 2012)
Training School at Lucknow in 1940 was a significant landmark in the growth of this subject in India. The University of Saugar (now Dr Hari Singh Gour University) was the first University in the country to establish a full-fledged Department of Criminology and Forensic Science way back in 1959. Many institutions/ Colleges/Universities started Criminology as specialization or independent course. Mentionable in this regard are: Christian College, Indore (1950), Madras School of Social Work (1952) Tata Institute of Social Sciences (1954), Mumbai (Department is discontinued in 2005 but specialization continues), Bhagalpur University, Bhagalpur (1956), Institute of Social Sciences, Agra University (1957), Kashi Vidya Peeth, (started in 1963 and discontinued now), Madras University, Chennai (1965), Karnataka University, Dharwad, (1970), Mysore University (college level). Later, the University of Lucknow, Banaras Hindu University (now discontinued), Bundelkhand University (2002 ), M. S. University at Thirunelveli ( 2003), and the National Institute of Criminology and Forensic science Delhi ( affiliation to Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Delhi) (2004) have introduced post graduate level teaching in Criminology and Forensic Science. Amity-- a private University in New Delhi-- has also started (2000) teaching in criminology and Forensic science. In several other universities/ institutions courses on criminology are being organized by the departments of sociology, social work and the like. Teaching courses at the University of Lucknow and BundelKhand University are of self-financing in nature. These courses are mostly conducted by the part time faculty or faculty hired from other social science disciplines. Thus, criminology is taught both in: (I) Academic Institutions; and in (II) Training Institutions (1) Teaching of Criminology in Academic Institutions: There are five levels of teaching in criminology in India: (a) Independent departments of Criminology: There are independent departments that provide postgraduate degree in criminology. They are: Department of Criminology and Correctional Administration, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai ( 1954); Department of Criminology, University of Madras, Chennai (1965) Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, M S University, Thirunelveli (2003). Postgraduate courses in Criminology are also conducted by other social sciences departments. For example, the Department of Social Work at Lucknow conducts such a course. (b) Joint departments of Criminology and Forensic Science: Dr Hari Singh Gour University and Karnataka University, have departments of Criminology and Forensic Science, which offer courses for both graduate and post graduate degree in criminology. The Institute of Forensic Science
and Criminology of the Bundelkhand University and the National Institute of Criminology and Forensic Science, Delhi offer only post graduate level courses. (c) Diploma Courses: The Faculty of Law, University of Lucknow, and the Jaipur Law College of the University of Rajasthan run Diploma Courses. More recently, the departments of Law at Utkal University, Manipur University, Aligarh Muslim University, Panjab University, Panjabi University, University of Jammu, Guru Ghasidas University (Bilaspur), and Jai Narayan Vyas University (Jodhpur) have introduced diploma courses in Criminology. (d) Criminology as optional paper: The post graduate departments of sociology, social work, psychology, law and National Law Universities in the country also have the subject of Criminology as an optional paper in their curricula. (e) Distance Education courses: There are correspondence courses in Criminology. The Department of Criminology and Forensic Science, Dr Hari Sing Gour University conducts a Post Graduate Diploma in Criminology and Police Administration. The Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice Administration, M. S. University (Thirunelveli) also has a correspondence course in criminology and police science. (2) Criminology in training institutions: There are specific training institutions where criminology forms a part of the training programmes for the functionaries of criminal justice administration. They include: National Institute of Criminology and Forensic Science, New Delhi, National Institute of Social Defence, New Delhi, Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi, SVP National Police Academy, Hyderabad, State police academies, training colleges and schools, jail training schools and regional correctional institutes also have a fairly wide coverage of criminology. The inputs of criminological relevance form part of such training programmes. The inclusion of inputs is based on the requirement of various courses. The above account makes it clear that criminology as part of curricula of various social science disciplines continued without any further significant development. In its journey of some seven decades, not many departments were opened. However, some departments were discontinued; this development conveys some critical signals. Institutional Development and Publications: It was encouraging that the Bureau of Police Research and Development (BPRD), Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), New Delhi started funding researches in criminology.
It initiated a Fellowship scheme for doctoral students. The BPRD began publishing useful data, and also started two journals for criminological writings -- The Indian Police Journal and Police Vigyan (in Hindi). The LNJN National Institute of Criminology and Forensic Science (NICFS), New Delhi is another organization that gives training in the administration of criminal justice. The NICFS publishes The Indian Journal of Criminology and Criminalistics. The Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) has also been instrumental in funding criminological projects and extending doctoral fellowship to the students. It has covered in all its Surveys of Research work related to Criminology. The Fulbright foundation has included Criminology in its Fellowship Programme. Besides, the University Grants Commission, and the Commonwealth Commission also grant funds to carry out research in foreign countries. Professionalization More than its independent character, criminology in this country has developed as integral part of the social sciences. The curriculum of sociology at post graduate level embraces criminological areas like sociology of deviant behaviour, juvenile delinquency, conflict, social disorganization and the like. Contents of social problems segment of sociology curriculum also carry the issues of criminological relevance. The interface of criminology with psychology and anthropology is quite significant. Psychology and anthropology contributed a great deal to abnormal or criminal psychology and to the analysis of constitutional provisions. The interdisciplinary direction in criminology is a major characteristic of this discipline. Methodology used in criminological studies is basically sociological. In addition, psychological testing, anthropological measurements, and social work-specific field studies are also carried out in criminological studies. In the West, certain criminology-specific methods and approaches (new criminology, critical criminology, victimology, environmental criminology, to name a few) are being developed and employed. Professionalization of criminology as subject is clearer in certain sectors. Criminological contents, for instance, form part of training of criminal justice personnel. Private security industry and detective services also rely on criminological inputs. However, this has not bolstered the subject, as end-users of criminology did not develop any direct channel of making use of trained manpower in this area. One index of professionalization of the discipline is formation of an Association of professionals and publication of journals devoted to a given speciality. In this regard, there are useful developments in Indian Criminology. There is now a professional body named Indian Society of Criminology (ISC). The ISC publishes a refereed Journal Indian Journal of Criminology. Indian Society of Victimolgy (1994) is another forum for criminologists. In 2003, a forum as RC 18 on Sociology of Crime and Deviance has been constituted under the auspices of the Indian Sociological Society. The Indian Social Science Association has also supported work on criminology.
The National Crime Records Bureau, New Delhi brings out a Journal called Crime in India that contains crime statistics. The National Institute of Social Defence, New Delhi also carries out many activities of criminological interest. This Institute publishes Social Defence that carries articles of criminological interest. It becomes clear that the support and infrastructure to criminological pursuits is quite limited. There are limited funding opportunities for criminological researches in India. The publication of journals in this area is also limited. Connecting Criminological Research with earlier Surveys: Jatar (1979;1980), Shukla (1981) and Khan (1984) have studied problems and issues affecting the growth of Criminology in India. There were some sporadic efforts (Panakal 1973; Gupta 1974; Menon 1978; Shrivastava 1994) focusing on the teaching and learning in criminology. So far, there have been three efforts, in the framework of ICSSR Survey of Research in Sociology and Social Anthropology, to document criminological studies. The first trend report was part of Social Work Research (Ranade, 1974). The report on Sociology of Deviant Behaviour (1985 by K. S. Shukla) was done for the Second ICSSR Survey. In the third ICSSR Survey a report was included on Crime, Delinquency and Correctional Methods (prepared by D. R. Singh, 2000). The three survey reports, mentioned above, have covered the works conducted in criminology till 1994. The present report intends to cover the post 1994 period in criminological studies. Here, a brief recapitulation of these Survey Reports will be in order. The first Survey Report (Ranade,1974) was not fully devoted to criminological studies as it was mainly a survey of researches in Social Work. It, however, contained a few studies of criminological interests conducted before 1969 in India. This covered basic text books and articles published on criminological topics. Criminology in India, at that point of time, was evolving and therefore there were not many empirical studies. The Second Survey Report on Sociology of Deviant Behaviour covered the period 1969-79. Besides documenting important research works, this Report reflected upon various factors affecting the quantum and quality of research in this discipline. This publication also dealt with certain other issues significant in the development of this discipline. It presented not only an extensive range of works in criminology but also developed insightful arguments and observations unfolding the development of teaching and research in this area. It brought forth the issues and areas affecting the growth of this subject in India. The scheme of classification of topics in this work was: deviance among men, women, juveniles, suicide, de-notified communities, drug addiction, youth unrest, and correction. The report noted the dearth of doctoral and post doctoral works in
criminology (ibid: 223), lack of sociological interpretation of the phenomena hindering the growth of this discipline, and over reliance on foreign tools and techniques in the absence of indigenous methodologies (ibid: 224). The Report, inter alia, suggested that crime and deviance need to be linked and seen in broader context of mainstream sociological thinking. It suggested that social structural, functional, and social change related perspectives should be used in the interpretation of crime and deviance. It also recommended longitudinal and interdisciplinary studies on crime. While the focus in the Second Survey was on deviance, the Third Survey focused on crime, delinquency, and correctional methods. This report covered the works undertaken between 1979 and 1994. The set of problems and context were quite changed as compared to the earlier report. Several new areas like victimology, collective violence, organized criminality, were covered in this Survey, thus enlarging the scope of the subject. Compared to earlier surveys, this report refrained from specifically commenting or critically analyzing the general scenario concerning teaching, research and practice of criminology. The report in the closing paragraphs (ibid: 51), however, concluded the researches in the area of crime, delinquency and correctional methods are almost sketchy . The report found absence of theory building, monitoring and evaluation studies, time series and prediction studies in criminology. Lack of proper utilization for research in policy purposes was also highlighted in this Report. The Present Report: The present report forms part of the Fourth Survey of Research in Sociology and Sociology commissioned by the Indian Council of Social Science Research, New Delhi. The works published in the period from 1995-2003 have been given space in this endeavour.3 The collection of data for this exercise was tedious. Unlike other disciplines, criminological studies existed in almost all social sciences and therefore involved a wider search. To collect necessary information, a proforma was circulated to the social science departments in various universities/ institutions in the country. In addition, with the help of directory of social scientists, individual scholars were contacted to obtain their list of publications. Unfortunately, in both the cases, there was a poor response rate; only about 20 per cent responded. To refurbish the situation, all the major libraries in New Delhi, Mumbai, and some other places were visited.4
I would like to acknowledge that it is a modest attempt to incorporate majority of publications relevant to this exercise. It is possible that some studies may have been inadvertently left out.
The major libraries consulted included National Social Science Documentation Center, New Delhi, Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi, Bureau of Police Research and Development, New Delhi, LNJN National Institute of Criminology and Forensic Science, New Delhi, University of Delhi, Association of Indian Universities, New Delhi, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai, Dr H S Gour University, Sagar etc.
III. Research Trends
The task of trend analysis in criminological studies is rather difficult primarily due to the fact that studies do not follow a uniform approach in terms of concepts, orientation, and method as they do not stem from a single discipline. It may be reiterated that the entire gamut of works published in India during the specified period could not be covered. In the present section, an attempt has been made to explain and analyse the trends in criminological studies based on 465 studies covered in this survey.
Table: 1.1 Natures of Studies
Non Empirical Total
Table 1.1 presents the nature of studies in terms of empirical or non-empirical conducted during 1995-2003 in India. As evident from the data, a sizeable number of studies (60.21 percent) were of non-empirical nature. There were 39.78 percent studies in the category of empirical. Though we do not find exact comparable data in the previous survey on this subject but it can safely be said that the extent of empirical studies in criminology has increased during this period. This is despite the fact that the number of journals in this area has not increased significantly.
Table. 1.2 Major Subject Heads in Criminological Studies
Emerging Patterns of Crime Crime Categories Criminal Justice Administration Correction Victimo Logy Juvenile Delinquency Human Rights Crime Prevention and Control
Table 1.2 classifies the total 465 works surveyed in this exercise. The data present a varied picture. Studies in victimology were the most preferred choice (23.44%) of criminologists during this period. Almost half of these (12.33%) focused on women victimization. Considerable amount of researches (22.15%) remained confined to various forms of crimes. Collective violence (9.3%), drug addiction (4.2%) and criminality by women (3.5%) received greater attention. Several new forms of crimes forming a pattern were also seen to have escalated (12.33%) considerably. Mounting interest of criminologists in human rights ( 11.61%) has been a prominent trend during the period of this study. Criminal justice, correction and crime prevention have also been adequately represented while the studies on juvenile delinquency have been relatively on a low priority (3.44%) for criminologists. The trends shown above are explainable in terms of contemporary developments. Focus of criminologists on victimological studies specially women victimization and human rights issues is an emerging trend in criminology Victim-oriented studies, for instances, substantially increased during this period as several new legislations addressing the needs and problems were brought in and existing laws were altered in the interests of victim. The judicial and social activism as well as the movement of civil society foe victim has also promoted victimological studies in this period Community policing and crime prevention has also started gaining attention in this decade owing to considerable emphasis of law enforcement agencies on such practices. Table: 1.3 Year wise growth of Literature in Criminology Year 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Frequency 58 45 47 27 58 53 63 86 28 Percentage 12.47 9.70 10.10 5.8 12.47 11.39 13.54 18.49 6.02
Table 1.3 shows the yearly growth of literature in criminology in India during 1995-2003 (nine years). Except for the years 1998 and 2002, the number of publications was upward of 8 per cent. In 1998, the percentage fell to 5.8 but went on rising and was as high as 18.49 per cent in 2002. In 2003, this percentage came down to 6.02. Table : 1.4 Form of Studies Categories Journal articles Books Doctoral/ other Dissertations Inst.Publications/ Monographs Total Frequency 295 65 98 11 465 Percent 63.44 13.97 21.07 2.36 100
Table 1.4 depicts the form in which the studies have appeared. In most cases (63.44 percent), the studies were in the form of papers in various journals. The doctoral and other dissertations have also had a significant share of 21.07 percent in total publications (N= 465). The books covered a percentage of only 2.36 in this context. The Report of Second Survey of Research (pp.223) had expressed concern over the decline of number of doctoral dissertations. The increasing trend in this category of study in the present survey is therefore a remarkable development. It also emerges from the analysis that most studies on subjects of criminological interest were conducted by social scientists hailing from sister disciplines like sociology, psychology, Law, social work. A sizeable amount of literature has also been produced by criminal justice professionals including police officials, lawyers and judges. The writings in this category invariably remained impressionistic. The research projects sponsored by Government agencies have also contributed a good deal to criminological literature. Criminological Studies: The growth and development of sociology of deviance in the framework of Indian sociology is a significant development. The keenness of sociologists in this country to understand the social reality of crime specially in the face of rapid socio
political changes have prompted the undertaking of research and studies in the area of criminology. The sociologists have, to some extent, applied the theoretical concepts of sociology in studying criminology in India. This application produced some rudimentary knowledge about dynamics of criminality. Sociologists could not go far from this stage to capture the worldwide trends in criminology. Notably, criminology during this period was taking a new turn in the world as newer and specific theories were being evolved to understand and analyze criminality. This gap is still seen in criminology. While this subject has reached a status of completely independent science in most countries of the world, in India that stage has not yet arrived.
Below we present summaries of trends of research in terms of different themes covered by researchers. A . Studies related to Emerging Patterns in Crime and Deviance Criminology in India has seen drastic change in the 1990s as far as content, focus, methods and research priorities are concerned. Earlier surveys conducted in criminology have shown that the focus of research was mainly on correctional studies and juvenile delinquency. These themes still occupy a major place but many new areas have emerged. For example, issues relating to victimology, Human Rights, child abuse, women victimization, cyber crime, economic crimes and criminalization of politics and the like were focused extensively in criminological researches. This section intends to focus on a range of issues figured in the studies under the period of review. Many aspects of criminalization of politics have been analyzed by Bhan (1995). The focus of the study was on role of competitive politics and use of money and muscle power in the arena of political process in India. As an aspect of crime and deviance, corruption was studied by Sahai (1995) who explored linkage of corruption with politics. Examining various aspects of habitual offenders, Babji (1995) highlighted the legal and sociological factors. The patterns of crime distribution over space and their linkages have been analyzed and interpreted by Jose (1995). Krishna (1995) analyzed some psychological approaches in the study of criminal behaviour. Causes of crime are quite specific in India as observed by Rustamji (1996). Bhadauria (1996) looked into the personal profile of 200 history sheeters in U.P. Measures like adequate aftercare and NGO action have been suggested in this study to rehabilitate the history sheeters. Ahuja (1996) discussed various aspects and remedies of the problem of youth and crime. Trivedi and Tiwari (1997) made a study on habitual offenders. Sindwani and Choudhary (1996) made a comparative analysis of metropolitan crime rates in the cities of New Delhi and Houston(USA). Latha, D'souza and Bhatt (1996) described the role of social support groups in case of suicide attempts. Millicans (1998) compared attempted suicides and homicides in 10
regard to socio-psychological and pathological factors. Based on a sample of 300 cases, the study concluded that while property disputes were in the roots of homicides, depression and tension led to suicides. Malik (2000) ascertained motives behind homicides in a study conduced on 270 inmates of Hisar Jail in Haryana. Sizeable respondents expressed that they were not actually involved in the cases for which they were implicated. Bajpai (1997c) discussed the implications of liberalization of economy on crimes and policing. A study by Mitra (1997) focused on the growth of crime in major urban communities by attempting a comparison in the crime pattern in the cities of Mumbai and Montreal (Canada). Hussainat (1998) examined leisure and its association with crime and found considerable relationship between the two variables. Parvez (1998) brought together a range of approaches and views in the explanations of criminal behaviour with a special focus on psychological profile of organized violence involving a sample of 143 respondents from Bangalore and Delhi. Criminal behaviour was also explained through psychological approaches. Verma (1999) observed that police statistics about crimes remains too superficial as it does not show the extent of crimes and criminals. Mohan and Priyadarshini (1999) assessed the relationship between assertiveness and experience of eve teasing in females. Conducted on 102 respondents, they did not find any relationship between the two variables. In a study on a sample of 140 respondents in Durgapur, Mitra (1999) found no significant relationship between overall development and crime. On the contrary, an unbalanced development was found to have resulted in circumstances giving rise to crime. Premlata (1999) studied the attitudes among criminal and non-criminal populations toward crime. A personality study of women heroin addicts by Habib (1999) was conducted in Mumbai on a sample of 280 addicts and non-addicts. The two groups showed considerable difference in terms of their socio-economic status, family background, and moral values. Sivamurthy (1999) made study on patterns of crime. His study on theft in temples of Tamilnadu and concentration and dispersion of crimes in Tamilnadu highlighted several aspects of the problem. S.P. Singh (2002) prepared an Encyclopedia of Criminology. The varied practices of handling offenders in pre and post independence India have been discussed by Raj (2000). The need for an action-oriented approach to respond to crime in cities was suggested by Mitra (2000). A range of motives behind criminal homicides were discussed in a study by Malik et al (2000). The nature and characteristics of criminal propensity amongst prisoners in the Indian jails were highlighted by Sanyal (2000). The role of judiciary and citizens against corruption in public offices has been studied by Acharyulu (2000). Satya Pal Sing (2001) suggested broad electoral reforms, fast track courts and implementation of the recommendations of National Police Commission to break the nexus between politicians and criminals. Nath (2001) enumerated the nuances of industrial security. Different forms of ragging among male students in hostels of the medical college in Chennai were studied by Ramdoss and Srinivasan (2000). Focusing upon a sample of 100 students, the paper revealed that 61% of the respondents were subjected to ragging. It also examined the reporting behavior of the victims of ragging and evaluated the impact of Tamilnadu Prohibition of Ragging Act, 1997.
The issue of deviance among street children was studied by Thilagraj and Priyamvadha (2000). Based on a sample of 706 children in Chennai, it was revealed that these children had the habit of smoking, drinking, drug addiction, gambling etc. The influence of peer group was also found in generating deviance among them. There is a typological edge to the sterotypological "hardened criminal" but at the same time there are many alternative responses, which are overtly silent in similarly expressed behavior patterns. These were the observations in a paper on typology of hardened criminals by Pretti (2000). Investigating as to why people commit crimes, Verma (2000) studied 500 female offenders adults and juveniles -- and concluded that family size, education level, income and breaking of social ties were found to be major factors behind crimes. The dawn of 21st century also witnessed the incidence of cyber deviance. Crimes using information technology and computer softwares are increasingly becoming the concern of law enforcement agencies. Rising trends in crime and corruption in the context of present day digital age have been explained in a book by Sahai (2000). Nand & Tiwari (2000) discussed some of the aspects of this issue in their papers. Agrawal (2002) suggested preventive and investigative measures in controlling cyber crimes and recommended creation of cyber sensitive police. Amarnathan (2002) was of the view that technological advancements have a bearing on the emerging forms of crime. Sharma (2002) presented a case study on forgery in which the criminal manipulated the computer. Homosexual behaviour and its causes have been analysed by Sudhakar, focusing on 100 inmates in Borstal institution. Lali (2001) found the prevalence of stress among prison officials. Xavier (2002) revealed the impact of sexuality and criminally motivated advertisements on adolescents. Dreze and Khera (2000) examined the case of gender crime in India. Bose and Krishanamurthy (2002) presented a profile of crime and violence in India. A study on relationship between design and chances of burglary (Sivamrthy 2000) concluded that independent houses, first floors of apartment complexes, and private housing colonies are easy targets for burglary. The rising trend in organized crime involving youth in the city of Mumbai was studied by Sarkar (2002). The study adopted the perspective of political economy of crime . Commenting on the linkages between development and crime, Chattoraj (2002) observed that crime prevention planning should be research based. In his book Development without Disorders, Bajpai (2002 i) examined criminogenic aspects of development. This volume looked into the implications of development for crime in diverse contexts. Irfan and Khan (2002) found significant differences amongst 288 truants and non truants in their achievement motivation in respect of certain socio-economic variables. Thilagraj (2002) studied youth crime vis-à-vis police. Vadackumchery in his writings on crime and society (1999), police and crimes (2002), and on human behaviour and law enforcement reflected on a wide range of issues. Prasad (2003) depicted the status of crime and punishment in Sanskrit drama of Mrichhkatikam. B. Crime & Deviance i. Drug Addiction
The pattern of drug abuse is shaped by several factors, according to Misra (1995) who studied 300 cases in the city of Lucknow. Nahar (1995) made a sociological analysis of the problem amongst youth in the city of Indore. A similar study was conducted among college students in the city of Jabalpur (Sharma 1995). The effects of social structure and social process of drug addiction were examined by Shyam Lal (1995). A project survey on drug abuse in Mumbai was carried out by D. R. Singh (1995). Nagi (1996) analyzed the factors responsible for rising trends in drug addiction in the North Eastern states of India. Habib (1998) examined personality correlates of 280 women heroin addicts and non addicts in Ghazipur of U.P. Pande (1997) carried out a study on 250 abstainers and relapsers in Delhi and found significant differences on various variables in the two groups. Some other pertinent studies on the subject of drug abuse are those by Sharma (1996), Sukul (1997), Bedi & Bajpai (1997). In an opinionated study, Sain (1995) discussed the environmental pollution related aspects of drug addiction. Aggrawal (1995) suggested socio-psychological interventions to cure the problem of drug abuse. Suman and Nagalakshmi(1997) found the impact of alcoholism quite damaging on interpersonal perceptions of spouses. Mehra (1995) explained the role of peer group in influencing drug and criminal behaviour. A study on some de-addiction centres in Delhi by Rajesh Kumar (2000) found sociological factors causing relapse in drug addiction. D. R. Singh (2000) assessed drug addiction situation in Goa. Anuradha ( 2001) noted that there are particular social and personality characteristics of alcoholics and drug addicts. Stanley (2001) observed the effects of alcohol in creating complications in marriages. ii. Violence: In a paper, Bajpai (1996) explored the role of state and of social and economic policies in the persistence of violence in the state of Bihar. The Paper focussed on the policies and implementation of official programmes in the context of rising forms of agrarian violence. Nirmala and Daniel (1998) highlighted public perceptions of violence. The issue of tribal violence was delineated in a book by Sushila Bhan (1999). The work focussed on the impact of ethnic violence on youth in Kokrajhar, Assam. Excessive use of force, and different forms of domestic violence can have telling effects on the victims and can turn them violent; this was shown in a study by Dave et al (2001). Goel (2001) discussed cases of violent clashes and caste riots. The author highlighted the steps initiated by the Tamilnadu Government and police to restore peace among scheduled castes and backward class people involved in caste clashes. Some counter measures to contain suicide bombers in the context of attack on Indian Parliament on December 13, 2001, and attacks on the World Trade Center Tower were discussed by Rudra ( 2001a, 2001b). Rudra (2002) is of the view that unbridled influx of migrants from various Asian countries has resulted in demographic imbalances, which are causing social tension. He illustrated this point by discussing the case of insurgency in North Eastern states.
iii. Terrorist Violence In the last three decades of the twentieth century, there was considerable growth in terrorist violence in India. Social scientists and criminal justice professionals brought out scores of papers, books, project reports and articles in the popular and professional journals on this issue. However, these publications are largely impressionistic and opinionated. In his book on terrorism, Ghosh (1995) highlighted emerging forms of terrorism such as kidnapping, abduction, extortion, bombing etc. around the world and specially in India. The data used in this study are from secondary sources. Sehgal (1995) discussed the genesis of terrorism and its expression in the context of human rights. Jain (1995) was of the view that terrorism is a product of bad politics and not necessarily a result of socioeconomic injustice. The issue of victims of terrorism is relatively least explored. Bajpai (2002 g) studied these insecured people in terms of the impact of terrorism as may be perceived and experienced by the people living in the terrorist affected regions. Tripathy (1995) wrote on the human aspects of inhuman killings. Sinha (1995) presents an overview of crimes affecting state security. His analysis is based on a survey of the recent trends in emerging forms of terrorism. Information was collected from a small sample of 53 respondents representing students, professionals, and non-professionals. There was a consensus against surrender to terrorism and in favour of making the law enforcement machinery honest and efficient. Mention may be made of studies on Narco-terrorism (Dixit 1996), on true stories of terrorism in the West (Ajaib Singh 1996), on international terrorism (Parera 1997), on dimensions of terrorism and violence (Avasthi 1997), on tackling insurgency and terrorism (Sarkar 1998), and on terrorism and political development (Kaushal 1998). In the subsequent years, terrorism continued to attract criminal justice professionals. Gill (2000) analyzed many aspects of terrorism and its impact on the internal security scenario in India. Jahangir (2000), Oberoy (2000), and Sehgal (2000) discussed terrorism and Guerrilla warfare and global trends in terrorism in their respective books. Dang (2000) and Singh (2000) analysed terrorism in Punjab and global situation of terrorism respectively in their publications. Similar works highlighting international terrorism and formal legal instruments (Gupta 2001), insurgency and counter insurgency (Asthana and Nirmala, 2001), and trends in terrorism in new millennium also appeared. The studies by Mishra (1999) and Akbar (1999) focussed on various aspects of terrorism and its control. Based on a sample of one hundred police officials, (Nayak 2001) did impact analysis of insurgency and extremism. There are studies that focused on terrorism in the contexts of human rights, polity and democracy. Such studies include: Fadanvis (2002),Ingle and Ingle (2002), Shrives (2002), Bhuranand Katyal (2002), Parasnis (2002), Sharma (2002), Sirpurkar (2002), Kumar (2002), Rajhans and Paul (2002), Ram (2002), Raghvan (2002), Parasher (2002), Patil (2002) Pruthi(2002), Sovani (2002), Kamath (2002), Chitkara and Sharma (2002). Iyer (2002) explored the nature, extent and factors in left extremist violence in Bihar. Chander (2003) delineated various facets of cyber terrorism.
iv. Organized and Economic crimes Criminologists and criminal justice professionals have carried out scores of studies on organized and economic crimes. An article published by A. K. Singh (1999) discussed the issue of kidnapping for ransom. The article traces the kidnapping in historical perspective and explored the profile of victims of kidnapping. Satya Pal Singh (2001) on key issues in economic crimes. The loopholes in economic policies are normally exploited by economic offenders. The author suggests strict enforcement of regulations. Tripathi (1997) analysed the menace of white collar crimes and stressed the need for a separate court of law for such offences. There are certain new forms of organized economic criminality. The case of money laundering is especially mentionable in this regard. A paper by Jain (2000) highlighted as to how money laundering was being used for illegal gains. The paper suggested the raising of awareness level of law enforcement agencies about this crime and stressed the need for stringent laws. The measures to combat organized criminality in India have also been suggested by Nair (2002). The author advocated the need for overhauling the law enforcement machinery in terms of resources, training and skills. He also proposed the measures relating to judicial and law enforcement practices. The problem of economics crimes, especially fraud and scams, can be handled by pro activism on the part of police. Shyam Sunder (2002) explained the process of proactive community policing and effective implementation of laws and regulations. An empirical study by Sarkar (2002) on the issue of combating organized crime in Mumbai city found inadequacies in the laws in term of its effectiveness in dealing with offenders. Sarkar (2003) also studied the involvement of youth in hardcore crimes in Mumbai in her doctoral dissertation. A study by Sivamurthy (2003) on 509 victims of burglary in Chennai concluded that offenders avoid commission of crime in public view and surveillance of the victims residences did not make much difference to offenders. v. Women Criminality Parmar (1995) conducted a study on the sociological aspects of female criminality in Gujarat. Dealing with psychological aspects of criminal behaviour among women, Dang and Sharma (1995) found that female offenders had higher score on neuroticism than the normal persons. Thomas (1995) studied the cases of women criminals in Tamilnadu. Dhanlakshmi (1996) presented a sociological and behavioural analysis of convicted female offenders in Hyderabad central jail. Trivedi and Tiwari (1996) studied socio-economic profile of 104 female offenders. Rao (1996) studied the problem of girl trafficking from Nepal to brothels in India. Recently, incest has also emerged as crucial aspect of victimization. Sahram (1996) analyzed some case studies of fathers raping their minors. Chouksey (1997) conducted a study of 200 prostitutes in Gwalior, Raipur, and Indore. Sabastian (1997) approached the question of prevention and control of prostitution from a socio-legal standpoint.
Sarangi and Sen (1998) studied bride burning cases to reflect on psychological characteristics of female accused (25 cases). Sharma (2001) studied 225 female offenders and analysed familial, social and other factors contributing to criminal behaviour. Maniyar (2002) made an intensive study on the life styles of women criminals. Arun Kumar Singh et al (2002) did a comparative study of female criminals and non criminals (165 cases in all) for assessing their relative levels of adjustments and poor adjustment amongst female criminals. The same authors, in another study conducted on 200 male and female offenders in Bihar, looked into achievement, motivation and aggression. Verma (2003) analysed personality traits, value orientation, criminal tendency and other features of women criminality. C. Criminal Justice Administration: The problem and issues relating to police, prosecution, and correction have been key themes in criminological studies throughout the Survey period. Criminologists and practitioners have paid considerable attention to criminal justice administration in India. However, studies in police administration or judicial administration have not been included in this part as they fall beyond the scope of this survey. While examining the case of battered wives, Kochar (1995) emphasized the need to bring changes in legal statutes, training of police officials, and in social attitudes. Pritee Sharma (1995) covered a sample of 250 magistrates, lawyers, and police officials to examine the role of courts in crime prevention and control. The issue of expenditures and delay in justice dispensing was highlighted in this study. An edited book comprising articles on criminal justice was brought out by Shrivastava (1995). Kumar and Stanley (1995, 1996) reflected on the state of criminal and correctional administration in India. Diaz (1996) found decriminalization of offences as a way to decongest courts from spilling over cases and delay in disposal of the same. Thilagraj and Prasanna (1998) traced the opinions of criminal justice and non-criminal justice professionals towards corruption in a study conducted on 190 respondents in Chennai. Bhatia (1998), in her doctoral dissertation, identified the causes of marital discords. Focusing on 243 cases in Delhi, the study reviewed the functioning of family courts and mode of settlements in resolving the discords. Juvenile justice system has been a frequent subject in criminological studies. Ved Kumari (1996) presented a plea for review of the Juvenile Justice Act. Chattoraj (1999) suggested way and means to effectively implement the Juvenile Justice Act. Lalnunthara (1996) carried out an evaluation of juvenile courts in Mijoram. Krishnamurthy (1996) discussed the issue of role conflict and tension experienced by women police. Pandey (1996) studied the status of adolescent offenders in criminal justice administration. Broad issues pertaining to police, court, people, and justice have been documented by Vadacumchery (1997). The status and problems of victims vis-à-vis criminal justice systems were specially studied by Das (1997), Rajkumar (1997), and Arumgaswamy (1997). Chakraborty (1997) edited six volumes covering a vast range of articles written by various authors relating to diverse themes relative to criminal justice administration viz. social defence, correctional services, correctional institutions, probation system,
juvenile justice system, etc. Mathur (1997) suggested ways to curb the stress experienced by the police officials. Sharma (1998) delineated various facets of criminal justice administration in India along with the performance and problems in this system. The interrelationship of police, people and criminal justice administration was highlighted by Vadackumchery (1999). A critical analysis of juvenile justice system was made by Muthuswamy (1999). Qureshi (1999) studied variations in police discretion in the United Kingdom and in India. A work highlighting the relationship between the police and the magistrates was carried out by Sangalik (2000). Mishra (2000) studied the history of relationship between police and jail administration. A critical analysis of juvenile justice system was made by Muthuswamy (1999). Kethireni and Klosky (2000) discussed the impact of juvenile justice reforms in India. Rahman (2000) listed new challenges that criminal justice would face in the 21st century. Kumar (2000) compiled an encyclopaedia of laws relating to Women. A study of probation service in the context of criminal justice policy has been conducted by Chakraborty (2001). Kumar (2001) discussed the issues affecting the performance of criminal justice system in India. There are studies highlighting discretion in sentencing policy (Das, 2001) and juvenile court system (Mohammed, 2001). Panda (2002) and Rao (2002) dwelt on the question of revamping criminal justice system in India. Kaur (2002) found that the police in India faces conflicting socio-legal values that hamper delivery of justice to women. Bajpai (2002 f) analysed restorative justice as an emerging conflict management solution. Jand (2003) evaluated the role of forensic science in the administration of criminal justice in Punjab. D. Correctional studies Correctional administration is a key area in criminological studies. This section covers empirical studies conducted on this subject. Rana (1996) looked into the nature of crime and punishment during Manusmriti period. The issue of under- trial prisoners giving rise to overcrowding in prisons has been analyzed by Raj (1996) who identified the causes and suggested remedies. Chakraborty (1995) made a study on the efficiency of the probation system in West Bengal. Literacy among prisoners and resultant ego strength was analyzed in a paper by Bharadwaj (1995). Problems of prisoners having AIDS were highlighted by Soamsundaram and Sumithra (1997). Datta and Kunte (1998) studied adolescent inmates and their future aspirations. The study covering a sample of 60 inmates, boys and girls, revealed that the institutions offer very little to the inmates to respond to their psycho-social needs. Factors responsible for the runaway children (on a sample of 100 cases from Delhi) were studied by Tandon & Suri (1998). In a follow-up article, Tandon (1999) wrote about policies and programmes for the runaway children. A critical analysis of shortcomings in the correctional institutions in India was mader by Sumitra and Sahasundaran (1998).
Khurana (1999) showed as to how practices like Vipassana5 and meditation can help in the mental wellbeing of under-trial prisoners. In another study on the effects of Vipassana meditation on 296 prisoners in Tihar Jail in Delhi, Khurana et al (2002) found that this practice significantly contributed to the subjective wellbeing of the prisoners and made them more responsible. Malewarkar (2002) analysed various aspects of prison administration in Karnataka. Focusing on 500 inmates in various central jails of Madhya Pradesh (M.P.), Gupta (1999) studied work programmes in jails and found that the inmates did not exhibit enough interest for various trades. The jobs learnt by them were also found to be of little value in their rehabilitation. Rajshekhran (2002) made a plea for humanizing the conditions of living in prisons. Al- Sahi(2000) studied comparative modes of treatment in three countries viz., United Kingdom, United Arab Emirates and India. Tiwari (2002) assessed the status of medical services in prisons. The system of visit by part time doctors was found to be lacking in quality of service. The HRD climate, innovations, work involvement, job satisfaction, flexibility and role clarity were observed to be significant predictors in the study of organizational commitment carried out by Sharma and Sarangi (2002) on a sample of 180 prison staff from the selected jails. In another study, the same authors (2003) emphasized the scope of participatory management in prisons by involving prisoners for job deliveries. Arun Kumar et al (2002) made a study of four hundered male and female offenders on achievement and aggression and found high degree of aggression among the males. Relevant in this context are also some articles and books that cannot be classified as research studies. Important among them are mentioned below. Diaz (1995) discussed concept and practice of probation. The practices of probation in the legal and conceptual contexts have been analysed by Raina (1996). The role and importance of observation homes for juveniles was shown by Razdan (1995). Vadackumchery (1998) discussed the interrelationship of crime, police and correction. Treatment issues concerning adolescent abuse were discussed by Nirmala and Venkatswamy (1999). Muthuswamy (1999) examined the functioning and efficacy of probation and prison administration. Diaz (1999) also analysed probation system as part of social defence. There are typical legal problems relevant to women inmates. Ghadia (2000) studied women prisoners in M.P. Tiwari (2000) found the prevalence of torture ranging from maltreatment to physical punishment in prisons. In another study (2000) he observed that the prison reforms in India have remained an unfinished task mainly due to the inadequate implementation of the recommendations that were made by various committees or commissions appointed from time to time by the Government of India. Roy (2000) and Sen (2000) raised the issue of privatization of prisons. In her insightful book, It s always Possible, Kiran Bedi (2001) explored the possibility of revamping the prisons by introducing correctional and rehabilitation programmes and improving the management of prisons. Sharma(2002) emphasized treatment as a way to react to crime and criminals. Choudhary (2002) discussed in a book the Indian prisons, prisoners, law and correctional processes. Nair (2003) analysed the legal aspects of prison administration.
It is a Buddhist technique of observing complete silence (Maun) for a given period.
F. Victimology Studies on victimology started gaining ground in India in the1990s. Several aspects concerning victims of crimes received attention during this period. Srivastava (1997) reflected on the theoretical and policy perspective of victimology in India. D.R.Singh (1998) presented an overview of the growth of victimology in India. Bose (2000) analysed theoretical issues and assumptions of victimology. Jain and Jain (2000) felt the need to reform existing laws so that crime victims are duly compensated. Das (2001) elucidated the position of crime victims in the system of criminal justice with special reference to compensation. Studies addressing to different kinds of victimization can be classified under following heads: i. Child victimization, ii. Women Victimization, iii. Sexual Violence, and iv. Dowry related Victimization. i. Child victimization: The problem of victimization of children in different contexts continued to receive greater attention. Kesharwani's study (1996) discussed physical and emotional components of the problem along with factors contributing to their victimization. Focusing on 167 boys and girls in Rajasthan, this enquiry concluded that the family environment, structural stress, and parent sub culture play a crucial role in this regard. Kakkar (1996) examined the relationship between child abuse and juvenile delinquency. Discussing several other aspects of child abuse like need for law reforms, Aasha Bajpai, (1996) discussed systemic factors. Nirmala and Anand (1998) found parents abusing children have certain specific personality traits. They express a tendency towards extroversion and psychoticism. Abusive mothers express neuroticism. Some psycho social aspects of turning a child into a prostitute were discussed in a paper by Shukla and Rastogi (1999 ). The same problem has been adumbrated from socio- legal perspective by M.N.Singh (1999). There are scores of non empirical and suggestion offering studies on this theme. For example, Shrinivas (1995) and Pagadola (1995) dealt with various issues concerning child victimization and specially teen age pregnancy. Kewalramani (1996) studied sexual victimization of children. Victimization of female children in folksongs (Punia et al 1996) and rights of unborn child (Khan,1996) have also been studied. Other important papers relate to child sexual abuse (Jaswal 1997; Gupta 1997), victims of abuse of power (Tiwari 1997), child prostitution (Singh 1999; Kaur 2000), and female infanticide (Guruswami, 1997). Certain features of child victims and their problems were explored in a book by Gupta and Chocklingam (2000). The issues having a victimological bearing were discussed in a paper by Bose (2000). Devasia and Devasia (1999) presented a human rights perspective in explaining the issues in victimology. Upadhyay and Tripathi (2000) analysed social-epidemiological aspects of victims of homicides in Varanasi. Puri (2000) examined the law, procedure and methods of investigation in cases of crimes against children. The article suggests the need for a comprehensive legislation to curb the problem. Child abuse as an organized crime was discussed by Chouhan (2000). Children
continued to gain focus in victimological works in the post-2000 period. A set of papers pertaining to child abuse were brought out in the form of an edited book by Gupta, Chocklingam and Guharoy (2001). Thilagraj (2000), Devi Prasad (2001), Helen (2001), Mehta & Toswal (2001), Nair (2001), and Gupta (2002) also dealt with juvenile victimization in different settings. Some studies on domestic violence are also mentionable here. Shrivastava (1995), Kumar & Rani (1996), and Mathur (1997) focused on various dimensions of domestic violence and victimization. ii. Women Victimization: The category of victimization of women received considerable attention in researches and publications. Activism of NGOs in matters related to liberation of women, setting up of national/state level commissions on Women; and some extraordinary judicial pronouncements on the part of higher judiciary have brought the issue of Women victimization into sharp focus. Kumar and Rani (1996) portrayed the clash of social and legal perspectives in a study on offences against women. Mukerjee (1997) studied the phenomenon of crime against women in the social and spatial context. Kudchedkar s book (1998) contained essays on rape, prostitution, domestic violence, child abuse, and foeticides. A study by Pattanaik and Chattoraj (1999), on violence against women, analysed the problem in the context of changing role of women. Shrivastava (1999) inventoried common forms of crime against women. Mukhopadhyay (2000) identified comparative geographical properties of crime against women in the cities of Calcutta and Toronto. The work offered interesting findings pertaining to the concentration, diffusion and perpetration of crime and host of other factors distributed over space. Vadackumchery (2000) reflected on the relationship between police, women, and gender justice. iii. Sexual Violence: Usharani (1995) studied psychological correlates of rape victimization. Focusing upon 100 rape victims in Chennai and neighbouring districts, it was shown that there was a negative correlation between rape trauma syndrome variables and situational comprehension. Sharma (2002) noticed the problem of rape under the garb of false promise of marriage and suggested the need for change in the legal outlook. In a research study, Bajpai (2002 h) found that the psychological consequences -- like level of anxiety, adjustment, depression and self-concept-- have undergone crucial changes. The study was based on 112 cases of rape in rural and urban areas of Sagar District. Rekha and Thilagraj (1999) reported that the factors supporting the incidence of female infanticide in the rural areas of Tamilnadu. The authors found the preference of son over daughter and related superstitions as one of the factors in the perpetuation of the problem. Srinivasan (1996) studied 1,250 cases of infanticide and found that the practice was not much prevalent amongst SC/ST groups; it was rather frequent in Vannia and Gounder communities which do not belong to these sections. A similar study in Tamilnadu on the same subject was also conducted by Guruswamy (1999). Victimization of women is also expressed in terms of wife battering. Thilagraj and Pavitra (1999) found the changing extent and patterns of wife battering in cases of working and non-working women. The nature, pattern, and context of sexual harassment of women in educational institutions have been studied by Aasha Bajpai (1999).
There are also writings that are different than research studies, but have important bearings on the problem. Ahuja (1998) delineated emerging forms and varying patterns of violence in India. Parker (1998) used the term corporation of superior prostitute in studying Anglo-Indian legal conception of temple dancing girls during1800 through 1914. Mohanty (1998) outlined victimological implications of rape victim cases. A coordinated approach involving all social institutions to alleviate sufferings of victims has been suggested in this work. Pant (2001) talked about rape and the law in the context of society. The legal expositions coming into conflict with social norms and values were highlighted in this work. Indian society seems typically silent over the issue of domestic violence. The issue has recently started getting limelight. It is considered as one of the most under reported crimes in India. The reasons to this are now known to everybody. A few works like those by Asraf (1997), Mitra (1997), Roy(2000), Dave (2001), Subhash Chandra Singh (2001), Sriram (2001), Bhatti and George (2001), Pattnaik (2001), Gandhi (2001), and Verma ( 2002) reported similar issues. iv. Dowry related Victimization Theories explaining the incidence of dowry deaths were highlighted by Natrajan (1995). Consequences of dowry practices culminating into bride burning have been presented in a broader socio-legal context in a book by Umar Mohammad (1998). This work was devoted to identifying causes, factors, and strategies to control the problem. Findings of the study are based on 208 cases of bride burning. Kusum (2003) looked into the issue of harassed husbands as an unexplored area. v. Other cases of victimization There are some more and mixed forms of victimization. For instance, victimization of aged people has also acquired serious proportions in the recent past. Tandon (2000, 2001) presented the case of older person. A sample of 2,020 elderly persons was taken in this study to highlight several aspects of the problem. Thilagraj and Priyamvada (2002) inquired into various aspects of victimization of aged people. vi. Legal and other Interventions Studies in this section are those focusing upon the ways and means to combat victimization. Pandit (1995) raised a legal debate and concern for cruelties against wives and their right to maintenance. Begum (1996) found the need to have stringent laws to curb the problem of harassment of married women by husbands, in-laws and relatives. Gandhi (1997) examined the legal and procedural issues in cases of violence against women under sections 498 A and 304 of the IPC. A study on the same subject was also carried out by Goel (1997) who observed that the recourse to legal action results in the breakdown of relationship. Redressal centres have been suggested as alternatives. Saxena (1995) critically examined the role of protective laws in cases of crimes against women. This book suggested the revamping of criminal justice practices in favour of women and also stressed the need to introduce changes in laws. Chakraborty (1998) adopted a legal approach in the explanation of domestic violence in Indian setting. Kumar (1998) identified jurisprudential foundations of gender justice with a human rights perspective in case of crime against women. Senthilathiban and Kaliappan (1999) stressed the need to have psychological services in this regard. Effects of post victimization can considerably be alleviated by
therapies and counselling. How does the addiction of heroin affect the women addicts and non addicts? A comparative study by Habib (1999), on a sample of 280 persons, found that the two groups varied on super ego strength and feeling of guilt, fear, inferiority, depression etc. Panchel (1999) stressed the need to alter ourselves to solve the issue of sexual violence against women. Gupta (2001) suggested community collaboration for solving women s problems. Women support cells to cater to victims have been suggested in this paper. Gonsalves (2001) presented a human rights perspective for tackling women s problems. Venugopal Rao (2001) felt the need of women empowerment in social, economic and political fields to restore gender justice. Mitra (2002) recommended the need to take a pre-emptive action by the police in cases of dowry deaths. This empirical study analysed variations of incidence of dowry death between segments of society. The work suggested the improvement in education and general empowerment of women. Priyamvadha (2002) found majority of respondents in her study voting against women pornography and vulgar display of women in print and electronic media. It is necessary to develop a humanistic approach to victims of sexual violence and the women need to be trained in self-defence, felt Tripathy and Mohanty (2002). Sanyal (2002) suggested education and social awakening as ways to curb the problem of domestic violence. Joshi (2003) advised to probe deeply into the subtleties of this problem. Tandon (2003a,b) also discussed the ways and means to deal with the problem of domestic violence. vii. Victim and Criminal Justice System: The studies dealing with problems encountered by victims of crime in the criminal justice process are of recent origin. Based on an empirical exercise, Bajpai (1997e) highlighted in his book, Victims in the Criminal Justice Process: Perspectives on Police and Judiciary, the problems faced by 300 crime victims (from Sagar, Jabalpur, Bhopal of M.P.) in their interaction with police, prosecution and judiciary. Besides, revealing that victims faced scores of problems in this regard, the study suggested a comprehensive blueprint for victim-assistance in India. Bajpai (1997a) suggested a model scheme for victim assistance in India. The study stressed the need to consider victims of violence initially for interim compensation and later for state compensation through a structure specially created at state and district level. The issue of non- reporting of criminal victimization is a core problem. Psychological factors contributing to victimization have been examined by Rautray (2001). Choudhary (2002) discussed rights of victims against terrorism and the criminal justice administration. Let us also look at some other non-research publications on this issue. The untoward experiences faced by the victims of crimes are highlighted by Patnaik (1997). Jain and Jain (2000) felt the need to reform the existing laws enabling crime victims to get compensation. Das (2001) elucidated the position of crime victims in the system of criminal justice with special reference to compensation. Vadackumchery (2001) examined the role of police towards victims of crime. Shekhar (2003) found the law enforcement officers as victims of stress. G. Juvenile Delinquency
A study of the profile and background characteristics of inmates of Juvenile Homes was conducted by Harnath and Prasad(1995). Vagrancy and children with no parental care are considered in pre-delinquency stages. In his study on street children in Visakhapattnam, Harnath(1996) revealed the role of various factors in the persistence of this problem. The role of police vis-à-vis juvenile delinquency has always been crucial. Vadakumchery (1996) discussed the bottlenecks in the enforcement of juvenile laws by the police. Tiwari (1998) took an overview of the functioning of juvenile justice administration. A study on juvenile delinquency with anthropological focus was conducted by Rahman (1999). Nalwa (1999) probed into the relationship between delinquency proneness and perception of parental child rearing practices. Based on 524 cases of delinquents, the study found that differences were significant in the areas of economic support, nutrition, clothes, puberty, health care etc. The two variables had significant relationship. Datta (1999) studies delinquent girls in Assam. Pushpa Kumar (2002) carried out a study on the status and circumstances of juvenile delinquency with special emphasis on juvenile court and children s home in Indore. Sharma (2000) did his study in Assam on the issues relating to juvenile delinquents and the role played by correctional institutions. Kanade (2002) adopted a psychological perspective in analysing the problem of juvenile delinquency. Sudhakar (1998-99) did a study on the socioeconomic background of street children in the city of Visakhapattnam. Rai (2003) felt that traditional approaches in combination with modern methods of treatment can help curb juvenile delinquency. Raval (2003) investigated juvenile delinquency in the frame of justice administration. H. Human Rights It is not intended here to document all research relating to Human Rights. The studies bordering criminological issues are proposed to be covered in this exercise. Human Rights issues having interface with criminal justice administration have attracted considerable attention in the recent past. Human rights activism has been particularly directed against police in this country. This can be confirmed by looking at scores of academic and popular writings published in recent decades. Emergence of Human rights publications in social sciences and particularly in criminology was inspired by certain developments at the national level. The roots are traceable to terrorism and its handling on the part of police and the paramilitary forces. Human rights issues were raised against the way the police during the terrorism phase in Punjab went after terrorists, suspects, and even innocents. Earlier, the Blue Star Operation in Amritsar and anti-Sikh riots in Delhi and elsewhere threw several issues bringing the highhandedness of police and paramilitary forces to centre-stage of human rights activism. The credit also goes to the higher judiciary that started stocktaking of the excesses allegedly done by police agencies in various regions. Path breaking judgments were delivered by the courts upholding the rights of accused, suspects and prisoners. The courts were particularly harsh against torture, custodial maltreatment, and violations during the pre-trial phase. The issues relating to human rights became an area of research interest after the creation of National Human Rights Commission that came out heavily on the perpetrators of violations and devised enforceable working guidelines in fragile situations. The Commission also propagated the culture of human rights by encouraging academicians and voluntary agencies to undertake studies and seminars on the issues of human rights. Academic
aggression was also expressed, in the forms of writings against laws like TADA(Terrorists and Disruptive Activities Act) and POTA (Prevention of Terrorists Activities). The laws were revised, police practices were modified, and new pressure groups emerged on the scene. In addition, the UGC has specially encouraged the introduction of educational programmes in human rights at the University level. Because of all this, post -1990 period witnessed a flux of publications in this area. Chitnis (2002) explored the problem of terrorism affecting Human Rights of the people. Gokhale (2002), Deosthale (2002), Fadnandis (2002) and Mishra (2002) discussed various aspects of terrorism in the context of Human Rights issues. Thilagraj (2002) edited a number of papers pertaining to Human Rights in the context of administration of justice. Sahai (2002) discussed terrorism in the context of human rights and the need to change laws to effectively deal with the problem. Gupta (2003) examined terrorism in the context of police and human rights. As stated earlier, human rights issues assume critical significance in the context of policing. In fact, most publications of criminological interest come under this class. Bajpai (1995 j) focused upon the nature and remedies for crimes committed in police custody. His paper scanned the loopholes and limitations of the existing laws hindering the successful prosecution of offenders in custodial crimes. The tendency of police indulging in this form of deviance has particularly been discussed in this study. In another study, Bajpai (1995 k) suggested the need to be realistic regarding Human Rights vis-à-vis their enforcement in the ground level situation. Bajwa (1995) made a study of implementation and violation of human rights in different situations. Gupta (1995) wrote on the judicial attitudes towards the rights of child. Nain and Joga Rao (1996) carried out an experiment to find out whether human rights sensitization could improve the efficiency of the police. Vadckumchery (1996, 1997, 2000) wrote on various aspects concerning police and human rights. So did Sarumaih (1996). S K Singh (1996) discussed the problems associated with Human Rights violations. Similarly, Kumar (1996) analysed the problems faced by the police in the enforcement of Human Rights. Mathew (1996) critically examined the issues of crime, Human Rights, and national security. Devasia (1996) talked of Human Rights in the perspective of social justice for women empowerment. Chockalingam (1996) highlighted the specific nature of problem of victims of terrorism. Post victimization effects and need for assistance to victims have been stressed in this paper. The case of Human Rights violation in Assam has been studied by Quddais (1996). Bose (1996) expressed concern over the constantly rising forms of torture. Bajpai (1997d) explained Human Rights law enforcement in the context of emerging challenges. Bajpai (1997a ) also developed a Human Rights Sensitization Programme for police. Singhvi (1997) observed that custodial crimes can be prevented, if the recommendations of various commissions/committees appointed to look into the police issues are duly implemented. In a study conducted on 150 police officials, the author showed the areas requiring proper training focus on Human Rights matters. Tiwari (1997) suggested ways and means to tackle child marriages. A rather new area of prisoners' rights has been discussed in a paper by Choudhary (1997). The rights of children were enumerated and analysed by Tiwari (1997). Why do the police go brutal? Sen (1997) tried to find answer for the malady. Devasia and Devasia (1998) discussed issues relating to women in the contexts of human rights and social justice.
Scores of violations of Human Rights by the police tend to take place during the police custody. Saksena (1999) made an in-depth analysis of preventive detention. Human Rights of children and women were critically examined by Pachauri (1999, 1999). A social justice approach to Human Rights has been adopted in a publication by Narsimhan (1999). Bajpai (2000) examined the incidence of 'informal arrest . In a study of 65 arrestees, the author found that the role of legal provisions, police leadership, and perceptions of police officials toward Human Rights are crucial in the genesis of this kind of police behaviour. Makhan Singh (2000) investigated incidence of custodial violence against suspects and arrested persons through a sample of 200 investigative Police officials, and came to the conclusion that the main reasons behind the problem are fatigue, stress, and working conditions in the police organization. Sharma (2000) identified arrester s powers to arrest. Bajpai (2001) highlighted the reasons and scenario behind slacked and inadequate enforcement of laws relating to Human Rights. The author took a police perspective to explain the practical problems coming into the way of effective Human Rights law enforcement. Gudihal (2001) made a study of torture in the international and national contexts. Scrutinizing the status of custodial jurisprudence, K.P. Singh (2001) observed that over emphasis on human rights of accused and offenders -- without arming the criminal justice system against its likely misuse under the cover of human rights -- does not seem rational. Bawa (2001) made a critical assessment of laws of arrest and emphasized the need to bring change in them. The state of human rights observance in police in Karnataka has been reviewed by Tadasad (2001). Women prisoners are deprived of several kinds of rights during their imprisonment. A broader approach to women prisoners and Human Rights has been adopted in a doctoral work by Arun Kumar (2002). Joshi (2002), probing human rights in criminal justice, observed that no reform was possible in criminal justice without appreciating human rights dimension in it. Deepa Singh (2002) carried out extensive analysis of Human Rights violations in police custody. She (2002) scanned the directives of courts requiring handcuffing in certain categories of offenders. Azad (2002) also presented a case study on the same subject. Chourasia (2003) critically reviewed police training in Madhya Pradesh. Fatima (2003) investigated various features of police atrocities and custodial violence. The same subject has also figured in a study by K.P.Singh (2003). Rajan (2003) focused on economics of crimes. I. Crime Prevention and Control Crime Prevention is a major facet in criminological studies. Crime prevention assumes several forms. It may be crime specific. It may also be technique and methodology specific. The former is seen in case of drug addiction, juvenile delinquency crime by women and victimization etc. The latter is seen in cases of community based initiatives, therapeutic and reformative exercises, community policing etc. The studies based on empirical data in India are very few and far between in this field. A cursory look at trends in crime prevention studies makes it clear that crime prevention as a technique has not been fully utilised in India. There are several reasons for lack of basic research in this area and translation of ideas into practice. The police are not primarily a preventive institution. Resultantly, there are hardly any takers of idea of crime prevention proposed by criminologists. This underlines the hiatus that persist between criminologists and law
enforcement agencies. Consequently, the utilization of research for policy purpose in this country has been woefully meagre. We may now take a look at the studies on crime prevention in India. Kumar and Stanley (1995) presented the issues and problems in implementing and planning crime control. Philip (1995) described about Friends of Police (FOP), a form of community policing, who voluntarily extend active support and involve themselves with most of police duties. This programme achieved considerable success in Tamilnadu. Probably, the first systematic study on community policing was carried out by Joshi and Bajpai (1996) at the Bureau of Police Research and Development, New Delhi. Apart from analysing conceptual dimensions, this study made an in-depth survey of some community policing programmes in the states of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, and Delhi. The study suggested the need to develop and institutionalize practices of community policing within the structure of police administration at the district level. Preventive treatment and rehabilitation of 'drug-addicts'/ 'alcoholics' have been studied by many scholars. A study (Patil 1995) evaluated various aspects of treatment and rehabilitation programmes for drug addicts in Goa. A similar study of anti alcohol movement in Kerala was conducted by Joseph (1995). Mukherjee (1995) has suggested a model for drug free society. The efficacy and applications of several measure of intervention to cure child abuse were discussed by Garain (1995). There exists a host of governmental and non-governmental initiatives to address problems of street children. A research report (D. R. Singh, 1995) evaluated the performance of such measures and suggested the gaps requiring immediate attention. Sharma (1996) suggested utilization of knowledge and skills available in various disciplines in the prevention and control of drug abuse. Pande (1996) focused on 250 releasers and abstainers to study their post treatment and adjustment problems. The study revealed that abstainers increased with increasing age, with a large number of abstainers being above 30 years of age. A case study by Deb (1997) on modification of deviant children found that deviance in terms of stealing got considerably declined after counselling, improvement in inter personal relationships, vocational training etc. Gokivani (1999) wrote on the subject of rehabilitation of street children. Gupta and Gupta (1999) showed as to how various kinds of psychological interventions helped prevention and treatment of drug abuse. Studying suicide and its prevention and control, Mohanty (1999) found family conditions responsible for rising rates of suicide. He found married people to be more prone to suicide. The role of community support in disaster management has been evaluated by Iyer (1999). Vithal (1999) analysed the reasons behind proneness to corruption and suggested measures to contain it. Diaz (2000) emphasized the importance of crime prevention. The problems encountered by police in the cases of investigation of theft of motor vehicles have been highlighted by Prasad (2000). He also emphasized the need to undertake preventive measures. The papers by Baba (2001) and Kumar (2000) discussed the police- people interface. Tandon (2001) stressed the importance of self-help as a new mantra for empowerment. Struggle against domestic violence and role of community based initiatives were discussed in a paper by Mitra (2001). S P Singh (2001) studied community policing organised by Rajasthan police. Lali (2001) suggested partnership of
key stake - holders in preventing and rehabilitating victims of crime. Agrawal (2001) also discussed community-policing measures in restoring peace in society. A preventive prescription for substance - abuse among youth has been suggested in a study by Nayar (2002). Chockalingam (2002) did a critical essay on the past, present, and future of crime prevention in India. A proper planning of disaster management was suggested by Das (2002) to minimise the risk to as low as reasonably practicable level (ALARP). Shyam Sunder (2002) discussed his experiences with community policing. Kurian (2002) elucidated role of community policing in solving law and order problems. Taking example of policing in Chicago, Jain (2002) discussed alternative policing strategies that may work in India. Study of service delivery and reduction in cost of service was made, in a paper by Rizu (2002). Rudrakalyan (2002) suggested measures against suicide strikes. Mitra (2002) provided a view of cities afflicted by rising crime rates. The author emphasized the need to move from rhetoric to action for formulation of effective and programmatic approach to respond crime in urban settings. Jaishankar and Chockalingam (2001) remarked that a proper analysis of crime patterns over a space can lead to meaningful conclusions for the use of effective policing. The pioneering works done at the NIJ (National Institute of Justice) in the United States on GIS (Geographical Information System ) applications and crime mapping can have useful applications in Indian context. Jaishanker ( 2002) explored the possibilities of crime mapping in India. Gandhirajan, Thilagraj and Jaishankar (2002) created, with the help of Arc View software, spatial database for gangs and their operations and concentration in Chennai city. Puspesh Kumar and Yelne (2003) depicted the typology of women resistance to violence. With the help of six case studies, the paper showed the resistance patterns of rural poor women. On the basis of their perceptions, the people can participate, suggest and discuss the appropriate modes of crime prevention. Such ideas were expressed in a paper by Tandon (2003). Mishra (2003) conducted a study on crime prevention in cases of SC/ST women in Orissa and stressed the need to improve the response of criminal justice towards them. Jaishankar (2003) suggested a new approach to community policing and crime prevention Rajan (2003 discussed economics of crime prevention.
Having surveyed over four hundred studies conducted in criminology in period of more than two decades, some identifiable trends in the growth and development of this discipline become apparent. While specific trends and direction in criminology have been shown in the preceding section, the objective here is to present some broad conclusions that are based on the understanding achieved in the light of the present survey. 1. Teaching of criminology at degree and post degree level is not extensively available as there are only a very few institutions providing teaching, research or practices in criminology. The situation has resulted in many untoward outcomes. For instance, the
academic openings and a broad network of academicians in criminology could not grow in India. 2. Criminology in India has not been able to foster a clear cut beneficiary base. Linkages between practice and profession in criminology are obscure and unexplored. 3. On account of being mainly associated with their parent disciplines, the researchers who made commendable contributions to criminology remained indifferent to the development of criminology in India. 4. The basic researches in criminology India leading to the development of theories explaining the major problems of criminality in this country have been almost nonexistent. Nor do the criminologists, in most cases, have been able to prescribe polices and programmes oriented research findings. 5. Criminology in India also lacked international focus and recognition. 6. Combined together, criminology is largely perceived as discipline with restricted avenues and limited vertical mobility in career advancement in India. The forgoing account brings out certain factors crucial to the growth and development of criminology in India. Firstly, criminology is yet to emerge as a major independent discipline, though the subject is more than fifty years strong in this country. Secondly, the subject initially grew as an adjunct to major social science discipline, even later it remained dependent on the academicians hailing from other parallel disciplines. Thirdly, the subject could not be started in many universities. Resultantly, trained manpower and students in this area were very few and far between. Fourthly, this position has also restricted the possible employment avenues in this discipline. The vicious circle, hence, continued. Fifthly, the teachers/faculty, who were initially instrumental in the teaching and research in this area, brought with them the concepts and methodology of their parent disciplines. They invariably utilized their background training in criminology. There were hardly any efforts to evolve basic and foundational criminology with its own methodology. Sixthly, the syllabi of this subject in different institutions do not follow a standard pattern. Besides, the number of criminologists with basic orientation in terms of degree and affiliation in criminology is extremely low. A good amount of researches in criminological issues are conducted by sociologists, psychologists and legal scholars. This position has been both facilitating and impeding for the growth of this subject. On the one hand, the process resulted in making this subject a dynamic discipline with an interdisciplinary orientation and, on the other hand, criminology suffered in creating its own identity as independent and mainstream discipline. The researches on criminological topics conducted by the scholars of sister subjects have invariably failed to connect their research with prevailing criminological theories and concepts. Besides, these scholars hardly have any direct academic commitment to criminology as they have been vacillating conveniently between criminology and their parent discipline. This apart,
researchers in criminology have considerable discouragement due to difficult and daunting data collection conditions involving contacting criminals, and prisoners, visiting jails, police personnel interviews and similar other problems.
Research Gaps: A brief account of research gaps as identified in the survey is given below: 1. Although the studies in correction are rising but there are areas forming research gaps. For instance, little is known about impact of imprisonment, prison subculture, prison violence, privatization of prisons, efficacy of prison personnel etc. 2. Similarly, there are unanswered and unexplored areas in criminal justice administration. These include: process of criminal justice on a continuum, sentencing behaviour of judges, failure of prosecution, cost effectiveness of criminal justice, victim based justice, restorative justice, restitution and the like. 3. Research based understanding about organized crime, economic crimes, kidnapping, racketeering etc. is far from being satisfactory. 4. Violence in all forms is the order of the day in India. The subject has been under researched in terms of explaining its undercurrents and processes. 5. Research gaps are also visible in terms of connecting the findings with theories in criminology. 6. Researches, in many cases, followed superficial texture of the problem and subtle elements have not been brought forth prominently. 7. Considerable deficiencies are noticeable in methodologies of criminological studies. The advanced methods of data analysis and quantitative applications by using standard software are mentionable here. There are hardly any methodological innovations seen in criminological studies. 8. There was a visible penury of research contributing to and evaluation of policies in Indian context. 9. The nature of research covered in this exercise shows that there has been hardly any study precisely contributing to theory formulation in criminology or evaluating any existing theory in criminology.
10. Despite escalating problems of violence and terrorism and other forms of criminality, there are absolutely no particular indigenous expositions, concepts and theories for our contexts. 11. The presence of Indian criminology in terms of publications on the World Wide Web (www) or Internet is almost nonexistent. Agenda for Future Research priorities in academic discipline are relative and time specific. These need to be seen at two levels: one, at the international level to understand the trends and emphasis in research. This is significant from the standpoint of academic growth of the subject in the international context. Second, the discipline ought to address the problems of contemporary nature with possible contribution in policy and planning. Going by this, it would be logical to suggest that the research priorities in criminology must be guided by the gaps in research suggested in the preceding section. Following areas are worth considering as priorities in criminological researches. 1. Basic research contributing to indigenous understanding of major forms criminality 2. Evolving data base and information based on non government sources 3. Areas like victims of kidnapping, terrorism, organized crimes involving secondary victimization, restitution, restorative justice, system as victim, political criminology unraveling nexuses, vulnerability of political processes for criminalization, radical criminology, action criminology, pragmatic criminology, social tolerance of deviance, decriminalization, economics of crime and justice, impact of imprisonment, forensic psychology, Environmental criminology including crime profiling, GIS applications and crime mapping, situational crime prevention, alternatives to imprisonment, community sentence, continuum of criminal justice process, fear of crime, victimization survey, risk of victimization are in need of systematic research attention and form priorities in research in criminology in the times ahead. 4. Need is also to make the criminological literature produced in India available on the Internet. 5. A look at the performance of criminology and concerned institutions abroad (viz., U.S., UK, Australia) can provide the needed insight in developing this subject in India as a vibrant discipline with amazing potential. 6. To grow and sustain, teaching and research in criminology need to be made widely available like any other social science subject. Looking Ahead: To develop and sustain Criminology as a discipline of learning and applications, there is need to work on the gaps and problems identified in the research survey. The UGC, ICSSR and the Institutions already working in this area are required to display greater concern for this subject. The UGC think of establishing centers for
excellence in criminology. The matter can also be taken up with the Government agencies and organization for considering the subject in their recruitment process. The need is also to take up the matter with the UPSC for its inclusion in the Civil Services. The UGC or Ministry of Human Resource Development can do the needful into this matter. The bodies like Indian Society of Criminology must act in this direction. The UGC and ICSSR may consider of greater and separate funds allocation for researchers in Criminology. The developing of standard syllabi in criminology may also be given attention to. In nutshell, criminology in India is surely coming of age. Quality and quantity of research in criminology has shown improvement. Criminology in India has grown to be a multi disciplinary subject in true sense. Despite shortcomings found and expressed in the present Report, Criminology as a subject of learning and research has tremendous promise and potential for a country like India. If nurtured and developed in a correct way, it can contribute to the larger objective of safe living and order in the society.
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