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Best Practice

SABP-A-012 10 September 2006 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit

New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

Previous Issue: New Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011 Revised paragraphs are indicated in the right margin For additional information, contact Nour Eldin, Mahmoud Bahy Mahmoud on 966-3-8736045 CopyrightSaudi Aramco 2006. All rights reserved.

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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit Issue Date: 10 September 2006 Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011

SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

Table of Contents Page 1 Introduction 1.1 1.2 1.3 2 Definition Purpose and Scope Intended Users 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 6 6 24 31 35 35 36 54 72 90

New Projects Energy Assessment 2.1 2.2 2.3 Project Phases Energy Efficiency Optimization Tasks Description Solution Approach

Energy Assessment Methodology 3.1 3.2 3.3 Energy Assessment Procedures during Project Study Phase Energy Assessment Procedures during Project Proposal Phase Quick Guidelines for Efficient Energy System Design

4A

Appendices for Short-cut Assessment Tools 4A.1 4A.2 4A.3 4A.4 4A.5 Steam and Power Model Pinch Method for utilities Targeting and Selection Cogeneration Targeting and Drivers Selection Cooling Water and Refrigeration System Targeting Tri-generation

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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit Issue Date: 10 September 2006 Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011

SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

Introduction Energy conservation in Saudi Aramco became everyones business. It is mandatory for each existing process facility to find cost effective solutions to save energy and achieve more with less in their facilities. It is also equally important for each new project to be designed and operated in an energy-conscious manner. A vital contribution towards the success of the company wide energy conservation policy comes through documenting the company best practices in methodology; tools and applications in the field of energy efficiency optimization. Besides, capturing the knowledge of the in-house expertise in such field and distributing such knowledge among our facilities and engineering services departments. Hence, a consistent effort has been exerted in Saudi Aramco to produce Best Practices to help our engineers achieve their energy efficiency optimization mission through the design and building of energy conscious facilities following the same new paradigm implemented in the existing facilities. This particular Best Practice document introduces a brief methodology for grassroots projects energy assessment, associated with short-cut tools that can help satisfy the above mission. The first and most important thing to learn and apply from this quick review methodology for energy efficiency optimization in grassroots project is that; Our Big Picture Includes Process and Utility Plants It is important during the early phase of any project that we see its big picture. In this document when we talk about project phases we mean only the following three phases; project studies phase, design basis scoping paper preparation, and project proposal phases. We need to make sure that the system-approach that take into consideration the process(es), hot and electricity utilities, and the cooling and refrigeration utilities needs is utilized. This approach has to prevail on the current state-of-art sequential subsystem by sub-system approach during the project study phase. Removing some degrees of freedom from our options subjectively shall be avoided as much as possible. During feasibility study phase, it is absolutely necessary to investigate different combined process and utilities system schemes.

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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit Issue Date: 10 September 2006 Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011

SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

1.1

Definition The term Energy Assessment refers to the methodology of collecting and analyzing available energy utilities related process data without losing the context of the whole process needs in order to establish the big picture of the energy requirements for a particular facility and identify component-basedenergy efficiency optimization opportunities from the operating cost point of view and capital cost of energy and process sub-systems point of view too. Striking the right balance between such costs will define the close-to-optimum solution of the energy problem in the design of any new plant. In grassroots projects available data are mostly uncertain, time is critical and there are infinite combinations of options. Therefore, the energy assessment process of any new project has to be conceptual, fast but rigorous-oriented with the right level of details at each phase of the project.

1.2

Purpose and Scope The purpose of this best practice document is to describe a methodology for the quick review of new projects from energy efficiency optimization point of view. Besides, introducing short cut tools by which quick assessment for energy efficiency improvement can be conducted. Its scope include quick energy assessment methodology in a step-by-step manner, simple models for data representation, and short cut tools for evaluating process schemes for energy efficiency optimization.

1.3

Intended Users This Best Practice manual is intended for use by project and process engineers in Saudi Aramco, who are responsible for process &facilities planning, process engineering and energy systems engineering. This particular document will enable them to conduct quick review of new projects from energy efficiency optimization point of view to make sure that they are planning for and designing of new energy-conscious facilities in Saudi Aramco.

New Projects Energy Assessment 2.1 Project Phases In Saudi Aramco our projects have four main phases. These phases are the project study phase, design basis scoping paper phase, project proposal phase and finally expenditure request approval and completion phase.

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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit Issue Date: 10 September 2006 Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011

SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

During each of these phases it is important to develop the appropriate level of details in our modeling and assessment techniques to be able to render at the end of all project phases a facility which is going to be optimal. This process shall proceeds in a way that does not hinder next phase decisions from being optimal too. It is the same philosophy used in dynamic programming approach where while the flow of information details goes from left to right on the time and information maturity scales of new projects, the optimization process starts from right to left. 2.2 Energy Efficiency Optimization Tasks Description Energy Efficiency Optimization objective aims to specifying the near-optimal design that minimizes the new plants energy consumption at minimum deficiency in energy supply of the utility systems to the plants process at minimum capital cost. Following that, the task will be to list all possible design options/actions/modifications necessary to achieve the specified/desired process target(s). This includes identification of all related engineering activities in a minimum possible time using uncertain plant data and without any interruption to the overall project schedule. Currently, the scope of the energy efficiency optimization of new projects assessment include the power, heating and cooling systems that are mandatory to satisfy certain process demands along the life of the project. 2.3 Solution Approach Nowadays in Aramco for the sake of simplicity and timely results, decomposition and heuristic techniques are adapted in lieu of the timeconsuming but more beneficial Mathematical Programming/Optimization Techniques. The evolutionary approach can be adapted versus the more time consuming revolutionary approach. The old projects data base shall be fully utilized to facilitate the energy review process and result in merits. The plants energy utility needs shall be defined with reasonable level of flexibility and the energy utility system; electricity, fuel, steam and other energy-related utilities shall be defined one by one to find the near- optimal consumption of such utilities that guarantee minimum deficiency in the utility supply to plant processes subject to controlled minimum capital cost. The company reliability figures shall prevail at least for the time being.

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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit Issue Date: 10 September 2006 Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011

SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

On the macro level the energy system components are generation, distribution and utilization. The objective will be to minimize waste in energy fresh resources and capital in these three components. This can be done via the continuous upgrade of the efficiency of energy system components in generation, distribution and utilization. However, the utilization component has a unique feature, where its boundaries are not completely dictated by the process. Therefore, the room of improvement in this component can have tangible impact on the process capital cost in addition to energy utility system cost. 3 Energy Assessment Methodology 3.1 Energy Assessment Procedures during Project Study Phase Preliminary review of similar old process designs, system drawings and data analysis Understand the Big Picture of the old plant and the new plant-wide operations Understand process energy needs and utility systems preference of both the old and the new plants Understand the interaction between the process and hot utility system Understand the interaction between the process and the cold utility system Establish your desired objectives Targeting for the new project (power, steam, fuel, water) Identify All Opportunities for energy savings in the old project/existing facility Define Obvious Quick-hit savings (e.g. better plot plan, considering cogeneration scheme,etc.) Prepare do and do not do list for the new project during the study phase Challenge every process step in the old design to generate new process alternatives for the sake of a lower energy systems capital and operating costs From the available data, establish at least two or more process design schemes Propose scope for the second level of the review process that includes more definitive assessment with some economic analysis including the simulation of the defined process schemes. Propose plant-wide energy-utility strategy
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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit Issue Date: 10 September 2006 Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011

SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

Discuss your findings with the project study team

There are three essential tasks that need to be conducted during the review of the old project schemes in order to draw useful conclusions for the new project process and utility design (A) Data analysis, Models building and establishing Targets (B) Insights, Opportunities and Estimated savings potential (C) Screen and Formulate Improvement Strategy These tasks can be explained in details as follows: 1. Site survey through templates, checklists and interviewing of process owners/proponents to gather the right amount of data that enable the energy team build the plants big picture and understand the goals and the constraints of the facility 2. Define the criteria for focusing on potential areas of interest (when to be rigorous and get to the second level of details) 3. Develop site energy/utility nominal design/normal operation models with the appropriate level of details in a high level generic path diagrams for, power, fuel, H2, steam, water, nitrogen and air. Preliminary purpose of these models will be to understand what is going on in the energy utility system, locate the energy consumption elephants (ECEs) in both process and utility plants and generate insights for energy saving opportunities 4. Add more depth in the level of details of the energy utility model for each ECE and/or other criterion of focus 5. Define the effect of disturbances and uncertainty on the energy utility system models a. b. c. d. Sources of disturbances Site energy utility balance under disturbances Nominal and dynamic targeting of energy utility systems Check that the big picture depicted for the process and the utility plants is correct with enough degree of confidence before you proceed _ Identify main processing issues that affect utility utilization _ Link utility-utility interactions _ Integrate and qualitatively optimize site utilities

6. Target (order of magnitude targeting) a. b. c.

7. Integrate core processes among themselves and with utilities


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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit Issue Date: 10 September 2006 Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011

SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

8. Develop a comprehensive initiatives list via identifying and estimating energy utility savings opportunities 9. Develop word strategies for realizing savings for the new facility goals, analysis of the results and the mapping of the opportunities onto the new facility strategy Power and Heat Supply Decision The following example addresses the problem of using cogeneration or not using cogeneration to satisfy the process heat and power supply to the process. The example below is an actual study conducted by one of our external consults. It shows that for process heating and power supply requirements, it is important to consider as much as possible number of options and economically screen them before you decide where to go for this issue. Option 1 Base Case Steam raised in boilers at 150 psig, power purchased from SEC and all equipment on electric drives. Initial steam demand estimate is given below. Summer
Year Water Cut % 1 11.1 30 51 Desalter Heater MMBTU/h 14 39 126 153 Stabiliser Reboiler MMBTU/h 167 169 173 173 Summer Duty MMBTU/h 181 208 299 326 Mlb/h 198 227 327 357 Stripping Steam Mlb/h 30 30 30 30 Other Users Mlb/h 95 95 95 95 Total Steam Demand Mlb/h 323 352 452 482 MMBTU/h 295.2 321.7 413.1 440.5

2011 2015 2022 2030

Winter
Year Water Cut % 1 11.1 30 51 Desalter Heater MMBTU/h 113 210 531 600 Stabiliser Reboiler MMBTU/h 178 185 197 201 Winter Duty MMBTU/h 291 395 728 801 Mlb/h 318 432 796 876 Stripping Steam Mlb/h 30 30 30 30 Other Users Mlb/h 95 95 95 95 Total Steam Demand Mlb/h 443 557 921 1001 MMBTU/h 404.9 509.1 841.8 914.9

2011 2015 2022 2030

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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit Issue Date: 10 September 2006 Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011

Estimated Power Demands

Power requirement Aquifer WIPs Formation WIPs ESPs Other GOSP Utilities Total Power

Water Cut Year MW MW MW MW MW MW

1% 2011 75 9 6 46 5 139

1% 2012 75 9 7 46 5 140

6% 2013 75 9 9 46 5 143

9% 2014 75 9 12 46 5 145

11% 2015 75 9 14 46 5 147

14% 2016 75 33 17 46 5 175

17% 2017 75 33 21 46 5 178

19% 2018 75 33 25 46 5 182

22% 2019 93 33 29 46 5 205

24% 2020 93 33 33 46 5 210

27% 2021 93 33 38 46 5 215

30% 2022 93 33 44 46 5 220

32% 2023 93 33 49 46 5 226

35% 2024 93 33 55 46 5 232

38% 2025 93 33 62 46 5 238

40% 2026 93 33 69 46 5 245

43% 2027 93 50 76 46 5 269

46% 2028 93 50 83 46 5 276

48% 2029 93 50 91 46 5 284

51% 2030 93 50 99 46 5 292

SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit Issue Date: 10 September 2006 Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011

SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

The steam demand ranges from 323 Mlb/h for summer 2011 to 1001 Mlb/h for Winter 2030. Minimum criteria to be used for phased installation of equipment is 7-10 years, however from the above table it can be seen that >50% of final capacity is required by 2015. Therefore, 100% capacity installation is required from 2010. 4 x 50% units will be installed each with capacity of 500 Mlb/h, giving N+2 intallation in year 2030. It is assumed that one boiler will be down for maintenance at any one time and that the steam load will be shared equally between the remaining boilers. Refer to tables below showing steam demand and boiler turndown. During summers the required steam demand can be met by a single boiler. However it is assumed that the load is shared by two boilers to allow speedy ramp-up should one boiler trip. It is possible to share this load over 3 boilers but the boilers would be operating at close to 20% turndown. Summer
2011 Total Steam demand Running boilers (N+1) Production per boiler Turndown Mlb/h % Mlb/h 323 2 161.5 32% 2015 352 2 176.0 35% 2022 452 2 226.0 45% 2030 482 2 241.0 48%

Winter
2011 Total Steam demand Production per boiler Production per boiler Turndown Mlb/h % Mlb/h 443 2 221.5 44% 2015 557 3 185.7 37% 2022 921 3 307.0 61% 2030 1001 3 333.7 67%

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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit Issue Date: 10 September 2006 Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011

SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

Operational cost factors will be based on power import and fuel consumption as shown in the following table:
Operation Cost Factors Power Import, Power Import, Fuel, Fuel, Summer Winter Summer Winter 2011 139 139 410 563 2015 147 147 447 708 2022 220 220 574 1,170 2030 292 292 613 1,272

MW MW

MMBTU/h MMBTU/h

Option 1a Steam Generation at 750psig This option looks at raising steam at 750 psig (52 bara) and letting down through steam turbine drivers for the compressors. The GOSP gas compressors power demands are constant throughout the life of the plant; therefore 100% steam capacity would be required from 2010.
Compressor K-100A/B K-101/2 A-C K-103 A/B Description Atmospheric Compressor HP compressor Propane Compressor Power per item MW 12,500 9,960 3,159 Total operating power 12,500 19,920 3,159

It is estimated that 35 MW of power is available from 454 t/h (1001 Mlb/h) steam through 750 100 psig pass-out turbines. This matches the operating duty for all the running gas compressors.

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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit Issue Date: 10 September 2006 Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011

SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

Stand-by machines will be electric motors.


BOILERS 750 psig 1001000 lb/h

4 ST Drivers for Compressors 2 x 10 MW 35 MW 1 x 12.5 MW 1 x 3.2 MW 100 psig

60 psig Condensing turbine

Condensate

Excess steam in the summers and during the early years can be used to generate electricity via a condensing steam turbine generator and hence reduce the amount of purchased power required further. Refer to tables below: Summer
2011 Steam Produced Steam for Process Heating Excess Steam Power produced Mlb/h Mlb/h Mlb/h hp 1001 323 678 24726 2015 1001 352 649 23668 2022 1001 452 549 20021 2030 1001 482 519 18927

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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit Issue Date: 10 September 2006 Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011

SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

Winter
2011 Steam Produced Steam for Process Heating Excess Steam Power produced Mlb/h Mlb/h Mlb/h hp 1001 443 558 20350 2015 1001 557 444 16192 2022 1001 921 80 2918 2030 1001 1001 0 0

Operational cost factors will be based on power import and fuel consumption as shown in the following table.
Operation Cost Factors Power Import, Power Import, Fuel, Fuel, Summer Winter Summer Winter 2011 85 88 1,279 1,279 2015 94 100 1,279 1,279 2022 170 183 1,279 1,279 2030 243 257 1,279 1,279

MW MW

MMBTU/h MMBTU/h

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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit Issue Date: 10 September 2006 Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011

SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

Option 2 PWIPs with individual CGTs & WHRUs Base Case : Power Water Injection Pumps (PWIP) are electric motor driven and installed in 2 phases. Each PWIP is limited to 400MBPOD or a motor size of approx 25,000 hp with 4 PWIPs installed in Phase 1 and a 5th installed in 2019. This option considers same capacity and phasing of PWIPs as base case, however each PWIP is connected to a combustion gas turbine (CGT) with a waste heat recovery unit generating low-pressure steam. Refer to sketch below:
Fuel & Air

CGT GE Frame 5

WIP

25,000 hp

138.9 Mlb/h WHRU From other WHRUs 300 Mlb/h Base load from Boilers

To Users

All other drivers are electric motor with power purchased from SEC. Back-up steam production by 3 x 50 % boilers is required in case WHRUs fail, i.e., 3 x 500.5 Mlb/h boilers (3 x 227 t/h) (number of back-up boiler tbc) Assume that back-up boilers are operating at 30% turndown. In the summers & early years it is assumed only one back-up boiler is running at turndown, in order to minimize heat bypassed to GT/WHRU exhaust.

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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit Issue Date: 10 September 2006 Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011

SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

Each PWIP is coupled to a GE Frame 5 CGT complete with a WHRU, which can produce up to 139 Mlb/h steam. In 2018 at end of Phase 1 total steam that can be generated by WHRUs is 556 Mlb/h. With back-up boilers operating at 30% turndown there is excess heat from the WHRUs which is discharged to the GT exhaust. In 2030 when 5 PWIPs are installed total steam production from WHRUs will be 695 Mlb/h. 306 Mlb/h steam made up from boilers.
Summer
2015 No PWIPs Power Produced Steam from WHRUs Steam from Boilers Process Steam req'd hp Mlb/h Mlb/h Mlb/h 4 2030 5 No PWIPs Power Produced Steam from WHRUs Steam from Boilers Process Steam req'd hp Mlb/h Mlb/h Mlb/h

Winter
2015 4 2030 5

100000 125000 556 150 395 695 150 482

100000 125000 556 150 705 695 305 1001

Installation requirements: 2010-2018 4 x Frame 5 GE CGTs direct drivers for PWIPs complete with WHRU [555.6 Mlb/h steam + 100,000 hp (74MW) Power] 3 x 500 Mlb/h back-up boilers 2018-2030 1 additional Frame 5 GE CGT complete with WHRU [694.5 Mlb/h steam + 125,000 hp (93MW) Power] Other considerations: In years 2010 to 2015 there will be excess heat available from WHRU. This can be used to raise excess LP steam that can be used for BFW preheat or Crude preheating or by-passing the WHRU to stack. Operational cost factors will be based on power import and fuel consumption as shown in the following table (excess heat loss via GT Stack is also included):

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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit Issue Date: 10 September 2006 Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011

SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

Operation Cost Factors Power Import, Power Import, Fuel, Fuel, Summer Winter Summer Winter

2011 64 64 1,222 1,222 389 267

2015 72 72 1,222 1,222 360 151

2022 126 126 1,480 1,575 399 -1

2030 198 198 1,480 1,677 369 -1

MW MW

MMBTU/h MMBTU/h

Excess Heat from GT Exhaust, Summer Excess Heat from GT Exhaust, Winter

MMBTU/h MMBTU/h

Option 2a PWIPs with individual CGTs & WHRUs This option is same as Option 2 except 4 off larger PWIPs (and associated GT Direct Drives) are installed in year 2010. The best GT match is Siemens SGT-700 for the new PWIPs duty. The Siemens GT operates at higher power output and lower steam production. Refer to sketch below:
Fuel & Air

CGT SGT-700

WIP

30,345 hp

115 Mlb/h WHRU From other WHRUs 541 Mlb/h Base load from Boilers

To Users

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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit Issue Date: 10 September 2006 Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011

SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

All other drivers are electric motor with power purchased from SEC. Back-up steam production by 3 x 50% boilers is required in case WHRUs fail, i.e., 3 x 500.5 Mlb/h boilers (3 x 227 t/h) (number of back-up boiler tbc) Assume that back-up boilers are operating at 30% turndown. In the Summers & early years it is assumed only one back-up boiler is running at turndown, in order to minimise heat bypassed to GT/WHRU exhaust. Each PWIP is coupled to a Siemens GT-700 complete with a WHRU, which can produce up to 115 Mlb/h steam. In 2018 at end of Phase 1 total steam that can be generated by WHRUs is 460 Mlb/h. With back-up boilers operating at 30% turndown there is excess steam or heat lost with by-pass of WRHU to the stack.
Summer No PWIPs Power Produced Steam from WHRUs Steam from Boilers Process Steam req'd excess/ (make-up) 2018 2030 4 4 121380 121380 460 460 150 150 395 482 215 128 Winter No PWIPs Power Produced Steam from WHRUs Steam from Boilers Process Steam req'd excess/ (make-up) 2018 2030 4 4 121380 121380 460 460 250 541 705 1001 5 0

hp Mlb/h Mlb/h Mlb/h Mlb/h

hp Mlb/h Mlb/h Mlb/h Mlb/h

Installation requirements: 2010-2030 4 x Siemens GT-700 complete with WHRU [460 Mlb/h steam + 123,000 hp (92 MW) Power] 3 x 500.5 Mlb/h back-up boilers Other considerations: In years 2010 to 2015 there will be excess heat available from WHRU. This can be used to raise excess LP steam that can be used for BFW preheat or Crude preheating or wasted via GT stacks. Towards 2030 and in winter, two back-up boilers are required to operate @ 54%. This is due to the lower steam production from the Siemens GT-700, the closest GT size to the PWIPs power rating. Operational cost factors will be based on power import and fuel consumption as shown in the following table (excess heat loss via GT Stack is also included).
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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit Issue Date: 10 September 2006 Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011

SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

Operation Cost Factors Power Import, Power Import, Fuel, Fuel, Summer Winter Summer Winter

2011 45 45 1,135 1,135 293 171

2015 53 53 1,135 1,135 264 55

2022 126 126 1,135 1,530 162 1

2030 198 198 1,135 1,632 132 1

MW MW

MMBTU/h MMBTU/h

Excess Heat from GT Exhaust, Summer Excess Heat from GT Exhaust, Winter

MMBTU/h MMBTU/h

Option 3 Cogeneration sized for heat match One back-up boiler will be running at 30% turndown. Base heat load provided by WHRUs of the GTGs and all the drivers including PWIPs are electric motor. Central Cogen sized for process heat match remaining power purchased from SEC. 2 x 50% back-up boilers. 2030 steam demand requires 3 x GE Frame 6 CGT.
Fuel & Air

CGT GE Frame 6

GEN

72,415 hp

335.1 Mlb/h WHRU From other WHRUs 350 Mlb/h From Boilers

To Users

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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit Issue Date: 10 September 2006 Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011

SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

Total Power generated in 2030 (2 GTGs) is 108 MW. Therefore, purchase power required is 183MW. Installation. 2010- 2018 2 x GE Frame 6 CGTs complete with WHRU (only 1 operating to reduce heat waste via GT stacks) with 2 x 500.5 Mlb/h back-up boilers [670 Mlb/h Steam + (54MW) Power] ~93 MW Purchase Power required in 2018 1 more GE Frame 6 CGT complete with WHRU (with 2 operating) [670 Mlb/h Steam + (108MW) Power] ~183 MW purchase Power required Operational cost factors will be based on power import and fuel consumption as shown in the following table (excess heat loss via GT Stack is also included):
Operation Cost Factors Power Import, Power Import, Fuel, Fuel, Summer Winter Summer Winter 2011 84 84 789 789 330 86 2015 93 93 789 885 271 7 2022 111 111 1,388 1,515 561 -1 2030 183 183 1,388 1,642 516 30

MW MW

MMBTU/h MMBTU/h

Excess Heat from GT Exhaust, Sum Excess Heat from GT Exhaust, Winter

MMBTU/h MMBTU/h

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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit Issue Date: 10 September 2006 Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011

SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

Option 4 Cogen sized for PWIP Steam Turbine Drivers PWIPs driven by steam turbine, all other drivers electric motor. Central Cogen raising enough steam to drive PWIPs Back-up by 2 x 100% boilers & SEC Assume PWIP size & phasing as per option 2.
Fuel & Air

CGT GE Frame 7

GEN

171,250 hp

584.2 Mlb/h 750 psig WHRU 2336.8 Mlb/h From other WHRUs

2921 Mlb/h

WIPs 150 psig

125,000 hp

To process heating

1001 Mlb/h 150 psig 1920 Mlb/h Condensing turbine

177,415 hp

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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit Issue Date: 10 September 2006 Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011

SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

In 2018 PWIP power requirement is 100,000 hp. This requires approx 2337 Mlb/h steam from 750 175 psig pass out turbine. Power required for remaining drives is approx 155,560 hp (116 MW). In 2030 PWIP power requirement is 125,000 hp. This requires approx 2921 Mlb/h steam from 750 175 psig pass out turbine. Power required for remaining drives is approx 274,910 hp (205 MW). However, process heat requirement in 2030 is only 1001 Mlb/h (60 psig), therefore, excess steam is routed to condensing turbine to generate more power. In 2030 5 x GE Frame 7 CGTs are required to raise steam for PWIP steam turbine drives, which will generate 856,250 hp. An additional 177,415 hp is generated by the condensing steam turbine giving total available power generated = 1,033,665 hp. This is well in excess of the required 274,910 hp. Installation: 2010- 2018 4 x GE Frame F CGTs complete with WHRU [2337 Mlb/h Steam + 685,000 hp (511 MW) Power] 2 x 1001 Mlb/h back-up boilers 1 x 174,333 hp (130 MW) condensing turbine 1 additional GE Frame 7 CGT complete with WHRU [2921 Mlb/h Steam + 1,033,665 hp (769 MW) Power]

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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit Issue Date: 10 September 2006 Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011

SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

Option 5 Cogeneration sized to match total power demand No base load boilers required, as the GT system has a N+2 supply arrangement. In this option all drivers are electric motor and all power is produced by central CGTs with no back up from SEC. Therefore, N+2 CGTs are required. Steam is raised at 750 psig in WHRU and passed through a steam turbine. 150 psig steam is extracted for process heating demand. Total power requirement in 2030 is ~300 MW or 402,310 hp
Fuel & Air

CGT GE Frame 7

GEN

88,370 hp

302.5 Mlb/h 750 psig WHRU

1210.0 Mlb/h

907.5 Mlb/h From other WHRUs 87,165 hp

To process heating

1001 Mlb/h 150 psig

209.0 Mlb/h

To condenser

GTs running at 100% rate, the actual maximum power or heat demand is supplied with around 90% turndown on the GT and associated steam turbine generator.

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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit Issue Date: 10 September 2006 Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011

SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

Installation: 2010 - 2018 5 x GE Frame 7 CGTs complete with WHRU (3 operating, two standby), [907 Mlb/h Steam + 265,000 hp (198 MW) Power] 1 x 87,165 hp (65MW) condensing turbine (based on maximum of 1210 Mlb/h of steam) 2018 - 2030 1 additional GE Frame 7 CGT complete with WHRU [1210 Mlb/h Steam + 440,645 hp (328MW) Power] In summer, the plant power demand will dictate the turndown ratio of the operating GT machines, and in all cases, there will be excess heat. In winter 2015 & 2022, the heating requirement will dictate the GT turndown rates. Operational cost factors will be based on power import and fuel consumption as shown in the following table (excess heat loss via GT Stack is also included).
Operation Cost Factors Power Import, Power Import, Fuel, Fuel, Summer Winter Summer Winter 2011 0 0 1,118 1,118 455 455 2015 0 -21 1,186 1,355 427 356 2022 0 -31 1,962 2,240 410 294 2030 0 0 2,603 2,603 142 142

MW MW

MMBTU/h MMBTU/h

Excess Heat from STG condenser, Summer Excess Heat from STG condenser, Winter

MMBTU/h MMBTU/h

Excess power in 2015 & 2022, can be reduced by the installation of after burner to divert energy from power to heat. The heat loss is via condenser not GTG stacks.

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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit Issue Date: 10 September 2006 Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011

SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

3.2

Energy Assessment Procedures during Project Proposal Phase The following are the procedures which normally render an acceptable energy efficient process design in a project proposal phase: 1Data extraction for the study to be done for each stream that needs to be heated or vaporized and any stream that needs to be cooled or condensed in the base design case. As if each stream will be handled through utilities. (No integration in the base case design). Targets for energy utility to be calculated for the process with integration and without integration. The grand composite curve for the base case design shall be utilized to help show the right/optimal level of utility mix. for heating and cooling utilities. The same graph (GCC) needs also to be utilized to show the potential cogeneration opportunities and best drivers for the process, if any. List of possible design and operational modifications to be investigated to explore its impact on the utility consumption and other process units. These steps should be done for at least 6 DTmin., before selecting the right one. Of-course, in such cases a preliminary evaluation of the HENs capital cost will be needed, or whatever targeting method you use, to reach the close-to-optimum DTmin. (These calculations can be done easily using state-of-the art software(s) like SPRINT, currently available at Saudi Aramco ESU) Preliminary HEN synthesis developed will render several process initiatives for improving the design from energy efficiency point of view compared with the base case design. The process scheme produced may have some environmental, safety and control/operability constraints that may justify forbidding streams matching and warrant the removal of some streams from the heat integration schemes or even removing all of them from integration scheme; it does not matter as long as the design is pursued systematically and the techno-economical justifications are detailed and documented.

23-

456-

7-

8-

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SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

9-

One-by-one, of problem stream(s) shall be taken out from the integrated process scheme and its energy impact in Dollars is defined. In the same time an engineered solution for solving this problem/ constraint, safety; control/operability or other problem, shall be suggested and its impact shall also be roughly quantified/estimated in Dollars if possible and documented.

10- Trade-off between the energy saving impact $ and for instance the control/operability impact $ shall be calculated, documented and shown in the energy assessment study. 11-Other subjective decisions need to be mentioned and documented clearly with enough techno-economical support as much as possible to support the decisions of accepting or rejecting process initiatives for the sake of energy efficiency optimization. In general, there are very important constraints in form of early decisions taken at early stages of the project life that confine the scope of work in any energy efficiency optimization study. It will not be practical, logical and even beneficial to continue arguing about the logic or correctness of past decisions because the review process shall move on fast but with enough rigors and without losing the essence of why we are doing energy studies for new designs. In order to get the best out of any energy study, we suggest that you explore few important modifications that would have the most impact on the base case design from energy efficiency point of view and also help save significant capital cost. The following example is an actual one about an oil and gas separation project where the base case design has been studied from energy efficiency optimization point of view by an outside consultant/engineering company and has been reviewed with the comments below. The proposed comments are a result of small effort spent on an energy study review with the available information at that stage bearing in mind that only major things shall be reported back for consideration. Changes have to be practical and do not have any major change on the project schedule. However, it may help correct some of the quit clear points in the base case design.

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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit Issue Date: 10 September 2006 Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011

SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

The first most important item which is fundamental and does not even need investigation is the unnecessary recycle of the NGL stabilizer over head gas stream back to the process. This recycle in base case design is not technically useful. Such type of recycles has to be eliminated as long as these recycle streams have no separation sink. These recycle streams normally, do not only affects the size of all equipment, piping,etc., down the stream it joins resulting in huge capital waste but also has no production benefit from NGL separation point of view. It also affects energy utilities such as the refrigeration package capital and operating cost. In any case recycle streams without separation or conversion sink should not be recycled back to the process. Deleting NGL Stabilizer OVHD Recycle Example: The two graphs below show the place of the recycle that need to be demolished and an idea that need to be investigated with others by the process designers to explore the extra capital cost used due to the recycle and to enhance if possible the amount of NGL that can be recovered. Here below some ideas that can be explored along the major change of using de-ethanizer instead of NGL stripper, for instance.
Dried HP gas to export Should not be recycled TEG unit

HP gas from inlet manifold

425 Psig 445 Psig 440 Psig GOSP condensate from condensate inlet manifold Condensate Feed Drum 260 Psig

NGL Stripper
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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit Issue Date: 10 September 2006 Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011

SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

Sales Gas Dried HP gas to export Should not be recycled TEG unit Condenser HP gas from inlet manifold

425 Psig 445 Psig 440 Psig GOSP condensate from condensate inlet manifold Condensate Feed Drum 260 Psig

NGL This condenser could use the process stream that have a temperature of 50 F and the rest can come from the refrigeration package

NGL Stripper

NGL Stripper
An idea to avoid recycle and possible Increase in NGL recovery
TEG unit HP gas from inlet manifold

Dried HP gas to export

sales Gas

425 Psig 445 Psig sales Gas 440 Psig GOSP condensate from condensate inlet manifold Condensate Feed Drum 330 Psig 260 Psig

-New HP flash drum or small stripper with 20% of the feed load to recover more NGL -Smaller existing Stripper using less steam &redesigned to allow more NGL recovery instead of the heavy components loss in the top

NGL

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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit Issue Date: 10 September 2006 Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011

SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

Heat Integration between Compressors and Crude Stabilization process Example: The graph below suggests that integration between the discharge of compressors and the crude stabilization process can be done through several options upon the implementation of pinch techniques. One option is possible through a hot water system. This integration option can result in huge steam saving and savings in the fin-fans electric power loads as well as a reduction in capital. The scheme below can have different options based upon the location of the pumparound/inter-heater and the water return temperature. Note that we are only giving here a configuration while several configurations can also be produced and explored. The savings here in capital and operating cost is quite clear and there is no operability problem but simulation and more in-depth review of the process will be warranted.

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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit Issue Date: 10 September 2006 Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011

SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

Steam System Optimization Example: The graph below shows that electricity can be generated from the proposed utility system design to minimize the power purchased from the grid. In the current base case design, only 4 MW could be generated from the current situation using BPST generator.

Khurais Project Combined Heat & Power System

HRSG 4GT
*- One working to support the process by 168 Klb/hr *- One on standby *- One shutoff

3 Boilers at 50% load

573 Klb/hr

High Pressure 133 psig 428 Deg. F 573 Klb/hr

168

Klb/hr

4 MW

BPST

Mid Pressure 95 psig 365 Deg. F 716.17 Klb/hr 1.65 Klb/hr Low Pressure 40 psig 320 Deg. F 24.83 Klb/hr

Process MP Steam Demand

24.5

Klb/hr

Process LP Steam Demand

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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit Issue Date: 10 September 2006 Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011

SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

The proposed scheme below shows that via increasing the HRSG pressure and temperature, it is possible to produce about 20 MW power of electricity.

Khurais Project Combined Heat & Power System

HRSG 4GT
*- One working to support the process by 168 Klb/hr *- One on standby *- One shutoff

3 Boilers at 50% load

573 Klb/hr

High Pressure 625 psig 700 Deg. F 573 Klb/hr

168

Klb/hr

20 MW

BPST

Mid Pressure 95 psig 365 Deg. F 716.17 Klb/hr 1.65 Klb/hr Low Pressure 40 psig 320 Deg. F 24.83 Klb/hr

Process MP Steam Demand

24.5

Klb/hr

Process LP Steam Demand

The HRSG HP Steam can be utilized to drive a steam turbine generator for power recovery. The steam balance and the steam property will not be affected. In general it is recommended to produce the steam at the highest possible pressure to generate more power. The optimum steam pressure can be decided by the designer. Heat Integration of NGL Separation Section Example: The graph below suggests that simple pinch calculation might also be useful in exploring the best way to match the shown hot and cold streams in order to further minimize the utility consumption. The result may exhibit no need to modify the existing design especially after the consideration of modifying the NGL recovery and stopping the recycle, however it may worth its exploration. It is important also to consider both the NGL cold section and the refrigeration system simultaneously to minimize capital and compressor work-shaft.

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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit Issue Date: 10 September 2006 Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011

SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

Dried HP gas to export

TEG unit

HP gas from inlet manifold

425 Psig 445 Psig 440 Psig GOSP condensate from condensate inlet manifold Condensate Feed Drum 260 Psig

Cold streams to be heated

Hot streams to be cooled

NGL Stabilizer
It is important to note that the above mentioned suggestions and others in line with it can saves energy utility in form of steam consumption, electricity consumption and increase the in-situ generation of electricity to reduce the purchased power. It may also result in an increases the NGL recovery and reduces the overall process plant and utility plant capital cost due to the elimination of boilers, fin fan coolers and the reduction of the capital cost. These benefits need to be verified by process designers via simulation and economic analysis. 3.3 Quick Guidelines for Efficient Energy System Design

Consider the process and hot utility system simultaneously and Optimize the CHP system Strongly consider the use of Cogeneration if your power-to-heat ratio is rendering high cogeneration efficiency with respect to central power generation plants efficiency Do not allow the carrying through of the undesired species with main streams, (gas, water or other species) especially if heating or cooling is required along its path

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SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

Later in the project phase watch for robust condensate recovery system Do not forget Piping insulation for long distance pipelines Consider having flexible operation of main equipment to allow for its load management Optimize air compressors design Consider the use of Economizers and Pre-heater in the boilers Consider the use of turbo-expander instead of JT valves and to drive gas compressors Watch for power generation from high pressure liquids Re-consider the use of gas turbines versus the more efficient steam turbines Increase boiler steam pressure and temperature to the extent that matches process needs unless electricity generation is the controlling factor Use auxiliary turbines to minimize steam let downs Use steam in the process optimally to save capital cost Consider using air pre-heaters for combustion air Use ASD on BFW pumps Integrate the flue gases in with the rest of the process using grand composite curve developed by pinch technology( see later section) Recover valuable gases from fuel gases and fully utilize the streams pressure Minimize the H2 wheel in your plant Cool down the inlet temperature to compressors Reduce cooling medium return temperature in refrigeration cycles Consider heat rejection of the refrigeration system in process cold or even hot section, to the ambient and to another refrigerant Use highest efficiency turbines in your CHP system (thermo-flow software can help in such selection) Utilize motors instead of turbine drivers if it is more economical since they are more efficient Optimize steam use in strippers Minimize live steam utilization Consider Mechanical energy integration

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SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

Reduce natural gas consumption by understanding fuel gas sinks and constraints Reduce fuel gas use via considering energy integration Keep H2 separate from fuel gas system, also measure the composition of off-gas streams and recover C2 and C3+ Avoid unnecessary processing of off-gas Avoid unnecessary processing of wastes and inert Minimize the unnecessary production of off-gas Avoid unnecessary recycles Adjust operating pressures and optimize process interaction Optimize your piping system to minimize excessive pressure drops Re-use lowest quality water Maximize use of stripped sour water and Minimize generation of wastewater Eliminate direct water injection for cooling purposes Eliminate live steam used for re-boiling and stripping where it is only used for BTU value Minimize or eliminate live steam consumption in sour water strippers by replacing it with re-boilers Boiler blow-down could be considered for cooling tower make-up Extract the low pressure steam from the boiler blow-down Use process water effluent as a source on the next lower water quality level In general eliminate live steam usage since it becomes water and follows an energy path through the plant consuming more energy to process it Should live steam becomes necessary optimize the amount used through optimal pressure conditions Use lowest quality water possible for desalter operation Minimize water used in desalting and/or carried through to desalting Automate desalter operation, avoid water slipping through with crude during desalting/maximize the separation of free water upstream of the crude desalting (each Ib of water will require roughly Ib steam for processing) Minimize the water-wheel in the plant

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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit Issue Date: 10 September 2006 Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011

SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

Maximize utilization of treated oily-water from the waste-water treatment plant Consider adjustable speed motors/devices for pumps, compressors, .etc Increase waste heat steam generation Insulate condensate return lines, valves, flanges,etc. Cooling- tower blow-down should not be treated but segregated to sewer Boiler blow-down should not be sent to wastewater treatment but segregate to sewer In your plot-plan make sure that energy exporters are close to energy importers Avoid non-isothermal mixing of streams Use cooling water instead of air, if possible, to cool down compressors discharge

Illustrative Examples for Quick Energy Efficiency Optimization in New Design

Compression Energy % Savings Due to Decrease in compressors Inlet temperature % Energy saving in a compressor energy consumption = {1- (Tnew/Told)} * 100 Tnew is the new inlet temperature Told is the old inlet temperature Back pressure turbines energy available for integration Thermal energy available for Integration (Q) = Outlet steam flow* (Vapor enthalpyliquid enthalpy) Outlet steam flow= Inlet steam flow (1- actual wetting factor) Actual wetting factor can be assumed between (8 to 15) % % Energy saving in heat pumps/refrigeration cycles due to decrease in reject temperature W2/W1 = (T reject 2 Tc)/ (T reject 1 Tc) Treject is the temperature at which heat is rejected to the cooling medium (water) Tc is the temperature at which heat is taken into the refrigeration) cycle

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SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

4A

Appendices for Short-Cut Assessment Tools 4A.1 Steam and Power Model The basic Steam Mass Balance does not require high accuracy as long as the developed model still makes sound engineering sense. (i.e., output is much higher than input) Common engineering sense shall be used to estimate what the unknowns. For example condensate return, blow-down and flares can be defined after getting good idea about main consumers.

98+5 t/h

HP Boiler

98 t/h

HP
68 t/h 21 t/h 8 t/h
Proc. #1

0.0 t/h

0.0 t/h 1 t/h

6.28 MW
Proc. #2

HP Process Condensate

0.0 t/h chemicals


Vent Proc. #4 MP Boiler

68 t/h 27 t/h 30 t/h 9 t/h


Proc. #1

0.0 t/h

MP
2 t/h
Vent
MP Process Condensate

18 t/h 38 t/h
Deaerator

0.0 t/h 30 t/h 0.0 t/h 7 t/h


Proc. #1
Process Condensate Est. 50 % Returned

1 t/h

0.0 t/h

BFW (42+5) t/h Raw water Make-up Treatment Plant

LP
4 t/h
Proc. #3
LP Process Condensate

Effluent

5 t/h

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SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

4A.2

Pinch Technology for Utilities Targeting and Selection The purpose of this section is not to conduct a pinch study but to get some energy targets regarding the utilities consumption for a desired plant area. This can be done essentially via three methods, graphical, algebraic and using mathematical programming/optimization. In this document the only one method is going to be explained. In Saudi Aramco we have some software(s) that can be used to conduct in depth analysis. Targeting Using Graphical Method: Any heat exchanger can be represented as a hot stream that is cooled down by another cold stream and/or cold utility and a cold stream that is heated up by a hot stream and/or hot utility with a specified minimum temperature approach between the hot and the cold called Tmin.

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SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

The process exhibited below in the graph shows the situation when the two streams do not have a chance of overlap that produce heat integration between the hot and the cold.

Feed

PROCESS

Product

120

HOT UTILITY

100

80

60

40

20

0 0

COLD UTILITY

10

20

30

40

50

60

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SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

Moving the cold stream to the left on the enthalpy axis without changing its supply and target temperatures till we have small vertical distance between the hot stream and the cold stream we obtain some overlap between the two streams that result in heat integration between the hot and the cold and less hot and cold utilities. As been depicted in the graph below with shrinkage in the hot and cold lines span.

Feed

PROCESS

Product

120

HOT UTILITY

100

80

HEAT RECOVERY

60

Pinch
(MAT)

40

20

0 0

COLD UTILITY
10

20

30

40

50

60

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SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

For demonstration, all hot streams will be represented in the process by one long hot stream to be called the hot composite curve. Same thing be done for all cold streams in the process. The next step will be drawing the two composite curves/lines on the same page in Temperature (T)-Enthalpy diagram with two conditions: 12The cold composite curve should be completely below the hot composite curve, and The vertical distance between the two lines/curves in terms of temperature should be greater than or equal to a selected minimum approach temperature called global Tmin

The resulting graph is depicted below and known as thermal pinch diagram.

Net Heat Sink Above the Pinch

Opportunity for heat recovery Net Heat Source Below the Pinch

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SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

Grand Composite Curve (G.C.C)


Should Be Drawn To Scale

T* (K) 600

Total hot utility required is equal to 2620 kW Hu3 Hu2

500 Hu1 400

300

200

Enthalpy ( kW) 700 1400 2100 2800

Multiple utility targeting/selection using Grand Composite Curve (GCC) Upon maximizing heat recovery in the heat exchanger network, those heating duties and cooling duties not serviced by heat recovery must be provided by external utilities. The most common utility is steam. It is usually available at several levels. High temperature heating duties require furnace flue gas or a hot oil circuit. Cold utilities might be refrigeration, cooling water, air cooling, furnace air preheating, boiler feed water preheating, or even steam generation at higher temperatures.

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SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

Although the composite curves can be used to set energy targets, they are not a suitable tool for the selection of utilities. The grand composite curve drawn above is a more appropriate tool for understanding the interface between the process and the utility system. It is also as will be shown in later chapters a very useful tool in studying of the interaction between heat-integrated reactors, separators and the rest of the process. The GCC is obtained via drawing the problem table cascade as we shown earlier. The graph shown above is a typical GCC. It shows the heat flow through the process against temperature. It should be noted that the temperature plotted here is the shifted temperature T* and not the actual temperature. Hot streams are represented by Tmin/2 colder and the cold streams Tmin/2 hotter tan they are in the streams problem definition. This method means that an allowance of Tmin is already built into the graph between the hot and the cold for both process and utility streams. The point of zero heat flow in the GCC is the pinch point. The open jaws at the top and the bottom represent QHmin and QCmin respectively. The grand composite curve (GCC) provides convenient tool for setting the targets for the multiple utility levels of heating utilities as illustrated above. The graphs below further illustrate such capability for both heating and cooling utilities.

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SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

The above figure (a) shows a situation where HP steam is used for heating and refrigeration is used for cooling the process. In order to reduce utilities cost, intermediate utilities MP steam and cooling water (CW) are introduced. The second graph (b) shows the targets for all the utilities. The target for the MP steam is set via simply drawing a horizontal line at the MP steam temperature level starting from the vertical axis until it touches the GCC. The remaining heat duty required is then satisfied by the HP steam. This maximizes the MP steam consumption prior to the remaining heating duty be fulfilled by the HP steam and therefore minimizes the total utilities cost. Similar logic is followed below the pinch to maximize the use of the cooling water prior the use of the refrigeration.

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SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

The points where the MP steam and CW levels touch the GCC are called utility pinches since these are caused by utility levels. The graph (C) below shows a different possibility of utility levels where furnace heating is used instead of HP steam. Considering that furnace heating is more expensive than MP steam, the use of the MP steam is first maximized. In the temperature range above the MP steam level, the heating duty has to be supplied by the furnace flue gas. The flue gas flowrate is set as shown in graph via drawing a sloping line starting from the MP steam to theoretical flame temperature Ttft. If the process pinch temperature is above the flue gas corrosion temperature, the heat available from the flue gas between the MP steam and pinch temperature can be used for process heating. This will reduce the MP steam consumption. In summary the GCC is one of the basic tools used in pinch technology for the selection of appropriate utility levels and for targeting for a given set of multiple utility levels. The targeting involves setting appropriate loads for the various utility levels by maximizing cheaper utility loads and minimizing the loads on expensive utilities.

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(C) T*

T-tft

MP

CW

Refrigeration

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SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

Normally, Plants Operations have choices of many hot and cold utilities and the graph below shows some of available options. Generally, it is recommended to use hot utilities at the lowest possible temperature while generating it at the highest possible temperature. And for the cold utilities it is recommended to use it at the highest possible temperature and generate at the lowest possible temperature. These recommendations are best addressed systematically using the grand composite curve.

Hot and cold utilities


Boiler House And Power Plant Fuel

Steam Turbines

W Gas Turbines W

Hot Oil Circuit

BFW preheat

Process

Heat Pump

Furnace

Cooling Towers Air preheat Refrigeration

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SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

The graph below shows that utility pinches are formed according to the number of utilities used. Each time a utility is used a utility pinch is created. It also shows that the GCC right noses sometimes known as pockets are areas of heat integration/energy recovery. In other words it does not need any external utilities. These right noses/pockets are caused by; Region of net heat availability above the pinch Region of net heat requirement below the pinch

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SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

GCC curve can be used by engineers to select the best match between utility profile and process needs profile. For instance, the steam system shown below needs to be integrated with the process demands profile to minimize low pressure steam flaring and high or medium pressures steam let downs. Besides it helps selecting steam header pressure levels and loads.

HP Boiler

HP
Proc. #1

Proc. #2 MP Boiler

HP Process Condensate

chemicals
Vent

MP
Proc. #4 Proc. #1 Vent Deaerator
MP Process Condensate

BFW Raw water Make-up Treatment Plant

LP
Effluent Proc. #1
Process Condensate

Proc. #3

LP Process Condensate

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SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

Superimposed Utility Profile with Process Profile Nominal Case Supply-Demand Matching Problem
T

HP

MP

Process GCC

LP

BFW CW
H

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SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

The superimposed steam system on the process grand composite curve shows that while process heating needs can be achieved electricity can also be generated to satisfy process demands and/or export the surplus to the grid. The graph below shows how we can use the GCC not only to select utility type, load but also to define the steam headers minimum pressure/temperature to minimize driving force and save energy.

Qh
HP MP

LP

BFW

CW

Qc H

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SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

Grand Composite Curve can also be utilized to select the load and return temperature of hot oil circuits. The graph below shows that while in many cases the process pinch can be our limiting point in defining the load (slop of the hot oil line) and the return temperature of the heating oil. In some other cases the topology of the GCC is the limiting point not the process pinch. This is also shown in the second graph below. This practical guide to select the load and the target temperature of the hot oil circuits is also applicable to furnaces as will be shown later in this chapter.

Process Pinch temperature is the Limiting temperature for the Hot oil return temperature

T*
T supply Hot Oil

T return Process Pinch

CW

Refrigeration

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Process Pinch temperature is not the Limiting temperature for the Hot oil return temperature But the topology of the GCC curve

T*
Hot Oil CP-min T return

T supply

Process Pinch

CW

Refrigeration

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SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

Grand composite curve (GCC) can also be used to select the process refrigeration levels and the synthesis of the multiple-cycles refrigeration systems as we did in the steam system. The schematic graph below shows a simplified refrigeration system.

Schematic Diagram for multi-level Refrigeration System

Condenser

25C

CW -5C

Process 0C

Process -35C

-40C

Process -65C

-70C

Work Compressor

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The GCC as we mentioned before can be used to place the refrigeration levels as we did with steam levels. The graph below shows how we can do that.

We can place the refrigeration levels like steam levels. Maximizing the highest temperature load to minimize the lower temperature loads

Tcw

- 5 C

- 40 C - 70 C

When a hot utility needs to be at a high temperature and/or provide high heat fluxes, radiant heat transfer is used from combustion of fuel in furnace. Furnace designs vary according to the function of the furnace, heating duty and type of fuel, and method of introducing combustion air.

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4A.3

Cogeneration Targeting and Drivers Selection Steam and power balances provide the link between the process utility requirements and the utility supply. They determine the basis for cogen or no cogen decision, import power requirements or power export potential, boiler sizes, fuel consumption, steam-turbines flows, boiler feed-water requirements, steam flows in various parts of the process,etc. An easy way to explore the site power and steam optimal generation and utilization is through what is called site hot and cold composite curve. It is important to emphasize on that we recommend, on the contrary of most literatures, that you include other process steam demands in the balance calculation in order to depict more accurate picture. Constructing the site- source and sink composite curves The first step in constructing the site source-sink composite diagram is to draw the site-source composite curve and the site-sink composite curve via looking at each process grand composite curve and extract the source(s) and sink(s) streams while ignoring the pockets, areas of process heat integration, as shown in graphs below. Source streams are the ones that have negative slopes, while the sink streams are the streams that are having positive slopes.

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T*

Process A heat sink profile

Process (A) GCC


Process A heat source profile

T*

Process B heat sink profile

Process (B) GCC


Process B heat source profile

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SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

Now let us use a simple example to show that site composite curves can be drawn the same we do for drawing single process composite curves. Data for Constructing Composite Curves Stream Type Source/Hot Source/Hot Sink/Cold Sink/Cold Supply Temp (C) 170 120 50 20 Target Temp. (C) 70 30 90 110 FCp (kW/ C) 10 20 40 18

For the simple example shown in the table above, first step will be tabulating the site sources and sinks as shown. The second step in developing the sitecomposite curves now is the development of the two tables below. These two tables, list all the source and sink streams temperatures of each process (A, B,.N), extracted from its grand composite Curves like the ones shown above, in an ascending order with the cumulative enthalpy (result of adding the enthalpy of all source streams or sink streams laying together in a certain temperature interval) corresponding to the lowest hot temperature and lowest cold temperature respectively equal to zero. In every temperature interval the cumulative source/hot load is calculated using the following formula: H= FCp * (Tsupply Ttarget) In every temperature interval the cumulative sink/cold load is calculated using the following formula: H= FCp * (Ttarget Tsupply)

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Source streams temperature list T0=30 T1=70 T2=120 T3=170 Sink streams temperature list T0=20 T1=50 T2=90 T3=110

Cumulative Enthalpy (H) H0=0.0 H1=800 H2=2300 H3=2800 Cumulative Enthalpy (H) H0=0.0 H1=540 H2=2860 H3=3220

Temperature (T) - Enthalpy (H) Diagram


T

Site-source composite curve

Site-sink composite curve

30 20

H
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The site-sink/cold composite curve shall lie completely below or to the left of the site-source/hot composite curve and this can be done via dragging the sitesink/cold composite curve to the right on the enthalpy axis (H). This process shall stop at a vertical distance between the cold and the hot composite curve for a temperature equal to reasonable minimum temperature approach.

Temperature (T) - Enthalpy (H) Diagram


Site-Minimum Heating Utility

Qh =480 kW

Site-source composite curve

Site-sink composite curve

Minimum Temperature Approach 30 20 Qc=60 kW Site-Minimum Cooling Utility

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It is important to note that the construction of the grand composite curve of each process relies on a built-in Tmin between the hot composite and the cold composite curves. It is a Tmin/2 (half Tmin) lower shift in the actual hot streams temperatures and Tmin/2 upper shift in the actual cold streams temperatures. Since the heating and/or cooling utilities are going to be used as buffer for the purpose of integration among different processes it is important to have another shift in hot and cold streams temperatures, which is complete Tmin instead of half Tmin. If these curves are drawn without considering hot utility/steam as a buffer the graphs will look like the composite curves shown above. However, in order to better show site-steam generation capability from the site-source composite curve and its demand based upon the site-sink composite curve we need to plot the two composites curves as shown below.

T
Site Source Profile
Hot streams to be cooled/ steam generation/supply Cold streams to be heated/ steam Demand

Site Sink Profile

Total Site Profiles

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T
HP

Site Source Profile

MP LP CW LP

MP
Site Sink Profile

Targeting for steam Generation/Supply and Demand


The site composite curves drawn this way can be utilized to select the required utility mix and its temperature range. The site composite curve shown above to the left defines for the site, the overall cooling requirements from both enthalpy and temperatures points of view. The utility selection shall start from the topto-bottom with the intention of maximizing steam generation. As depicted in the graph, the highest temperature cooling utility in the shown case is medium pressure steam generation using process high temperature source stream(s). Again it is beneficiary for the site to maximize the use of such cooling utility (high pressure steam generation). The second highest temperature cooling utility is the generation of low pressure steam. This cooling utility has to be maximized too. The residual heat that needs to be rejected to the environment can be then handled using air or water cooling systems. The site sink composite curve to the right shows the site needs for heating utilities. The process of selecting the heating utilities on that side is a bottom-to-top marsh. We start at the lowest possible temperature heating utility and we maximize it. In our case here it is a low pressure steam utility. The next lowest-heating utility is a medium pressure steam, and also it has to be maximized. The rest of the heating utility demands can now be handled using high pressure steam.

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Studying the process heating and cooling demands should not be done in isolation of the process needs for electricity. The interaction between the process units, hot utility and cold utility systems is extremely important. Sometimes it is not very clear to the straight forward old perceived intuitions. Accurate process steam demands and generation capabilities are essential for proper targeting of the site cogeneration design. After recovering heat between process steam generation and process steam usage, the balance of the heating demand and other process steam users will be satisfied by fuel fired in the utility boilers to generate the required steam demands. Normally, very high pressure steam will be produced to produce power and use the exhausted steam in satisfying the process demand. The shaded area, in the left graph below, is a region where higher pressure steam is expanded through steam turbine to lower pressure steam to produce power. This shaded region can be used roughly to compare between the amounts of power that can be produced from a site at different scenarios. The site steam headers might also have a pinch where above it there is a steam supply deficiency and below it there is a surplus of heat/steam supply and the site needs to reject it to the environment. This is normally rejected to water or air coolers. In order to maximize the true cogeneration of power and steam from the site, low pressure steam generated is expanded to vacuum pressure steam, which is ultimately condensed using cooling water.

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While this graphical procedure can render some insights we recommend that you use algebraic method to with simple equations for steam turbine to estimate the exact amount of power that can be co-generated with steam need to satisfy the process demand. Schematic representation of the method is shown to the right of the graph below.

Fuel
VHP

Steam generated by the process

HP
E1

MP
E2

LP VP

Steam Consumed by the process

VP
E3

CW

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Back to the graphical method that can give very useful insights, the graph below can be used to as we said before in getting an idea about amounts of power that can be produced from a site in different scenarios.

T Fuel
VHP

VP

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In steam turbine situation, the larger the flow of steam through the turbine, the greater is the amount of power that will be produced and the larger the pressure difference and hence the larger the saturation temperature difference across the turbine, the greater the potential for power generation. Such power generation is proportional to the Carnot Factor for a heat engine (Th-Tc)/Th, where Th and Tc are the heat input and the heat reject temperatures respectively in degree k. Therefore, the shaded areas in the above graph can be considered to be approximately proportional to the amount of power that can be generated by steam turbines in the utility system. The heat and power scheme shown in the graph above represent the process maximum heat recovery scenario in a site that is pinched. It is important to note here that this scenario might not be the optimal scenario for the site heat and power satisfaction economically. Therefore, it is a scenario but not the scenario. This fact might be against the intuition we built in last decades that in our process designs we need to maximize heat recovery against heat exchanger capital cost via minimizing the heat supply from the utility and heat rejection to cold utility to get optimum designs. Putting power supply for drivers in the process and for other usage in the big picture changes the old intuition and the optimality of maximum heat recovery versus HEN design. In addition, when other elements get into the big picture too such as water and refrigeration system the intuition might change again. This fact is due to the decomposition of the process-utility system to sub-systems with high interaction. For the sake of this document this point will not be further discussed but will be explained with one example shown in the graph below.

VHP

VHP VHP

VHP

=
True cogeneration

W-cond

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In the above graph, waste heat recovery in the process is not maximized as was the case in the example discussed earlier. In fact, in the above example extra amount of fuel is being fired generating more very high pressure steam in the utility boilers. You can notice that larger area between the two steams profiles have been produced which mean extra power generation capability of the site in this case. In this case the site steams profiles corresponds to a scenario in which waste heat recovery has not been maximized, can be decomposed into two parts as shown to the right of the graph above. The first part is the one that exhibit maximum waste heat recovery for a pinched site, where steam turbine are used to generate electricity after matching the site steam needs first. The second part represents an area of power generation through the expansion of steam from VHP all the way to vacuum pressure through condensing steam turbine. The first part represents what some people call true cogeneration opportunity in the site. In many cases site should not, from thermodynamics efficiency point of view, use condensing power generation in process plants since it will be less efficient than centralized standalone power stations that use condensing power generation in extremely more efficient cycles. However, for certain ranges of site power- to- heat ratios as we are showing next it can be more efficient. There are other important factors such as operability, supply security/reliability and so on which need to be taken into consideration besides thermodynamics during the design phase of utility system design. It is mandatory not only to seek thermodynamic efficiency but also local economics in selecting the optimal site power and steam system integration scenario from different schemes. The cost of imported power must be balanced against the fuel and other costs (e.g., water treatment) associated with power generation besides the operability, reliability and so on to be able to strike the right balance between cogeneration and power import or export. Having said that, depending on the process case we have we are selecting between two extreme cases. The first one in which all the power is imported from the grid or third party, and the second where all the power is generated on site. The second case can be done through true cogeneration and condensing turbines as per the above graph. The cases in between which can have infinite combination can be screened used heuristics and optimization techniques.

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Before we close this point let me emphasize again that it is important to watch for the amount of steam used by the process for purposes other than process heating and to include such steam users in the site composite curves or our algebraic balance. Site-to-Power Heat ratio: The selection of the most appropriate cogeneration system for any site depends entirely upon what is called power-to-heat ratio. This term, in most of the literatures, is defined as follows:

Rsite = Wsite / Qsite (1)


Where; Rsite = Site power-to-heat-ratio Wsite = Power demand of the site (from external source) Qsite = process heating demand of the site (from external source) It is important to note here that process steam used in process activities other than process heating needs to be included in the Qsite term calculated as follows:

Qsite =

FiredHeaters

Qp + Qp + others
SteamMains

Where Qp = Individual process heating duties The efficiency of with which power is generated in a plant can be estimated as follows:

power = W gen / Q fuel


Where;

power = Power generation efficiency


W gen = Site power generation Q fuel = Site fuel demand for power generation

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The efficiency of with which steam is generated in a plant can be estimated as follows:

boilers = ( H steam H BFW ) * m steam / Q fuel boilers


Where,

Q fuel boilers =

Fuel consumption in boilers for steam generation

boilers =

Boiler(s) efficiency (including stack, walls and blow-down losses)

( H steam H BFW ) = Specific enthalpies difference of the steam


generated and boiler feed water in the utility steam boiler

m steam =

Flowrate of steam generated in the utility steam boiler

Let us now define the cogeneration efficiency The cogeneration efficiency

cogen of a system, where the fuel is fired in the

utility system and some of the energy produced is used to generate power, some provides useful process heat and some is lost, can be defined as follows:

cogen = (Wgen + Qsite ) / Q fuel cogenerati on

................. (2)

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Now let us plot cogeneration efficiency (2) versus site power-to-heat ratio (1)

Power-to-Heat Ratio Curve

cogen

Rpinch

Rsite

This plot can render very useful information about the cogeneration or no cogeneration decision as an option in supplying power and process heating to any new facility.

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The graph shows when cogeneration efficiency starts to decrease at certain power-to-heat ratio known as R
pinch

Power-to-Heat Ratio Curve_ True Cogeneration

cogen
central
Import

Rpinch

Rsite

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The second site power-to-heat ratio graph above shows when cogeneration efficiency becomes less than the central power generation efficiency. Such information can be used to decide for certain facility the power-to-heat ratio at which, it is better to import electricity than generating it on-site. It is important to note here that this curve is using thermodynamics to select between the cogeneration and no cogeneration option in supplying new facility with its need of power and process heating, when to choose one over the other and if possible to what extent we shall have cogeneration as a very good option with clear merits. However, things in new project studies do normally depend upon economics rather than thermodynamics. Having said that, the curve can be used to screen all options and reject the ones that are quite clear to be thermodynamically unattractive and leave the cases which do deserve rigorous economic evaluation.

Power-to-Heat Ratio Curve_ Power Export

cogen
Export

central
Rpinch

Import

Rsite
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The site power-to-heat ratio graph also shows the true-cogeneration range and when thermodynamically exporting power will be attractive. Selection of Driver: One of the major decisions in any new project is the source of the power supply to the project. Is it going to be completely from the grid? Or vise versa, on-site generation and zero dependence on the grid. Is it going to be partially produced at site and the rest is coming from the grid? How does the split scheme will look like? Can we generate our power needs and some extra capacity at site and wheeling to the grid, other company facilities or exporting power to other users and so on. Studying these alternatives needs a decision regarding not only process heating needs but also process and utilities drivers types. Drivers are essential in any oil and gas facility. They are required to drive gas compressors, refrigeration compressors, air compressors, pumps, fans, mixers and other equipment. The most frequently used are motors, steam turbines, gas turbines, diesel generators and turbo-expanders. Many factors need to be taken into consideration for the selection of most proper combinations of drivers. These factors include difficult trade-off between capital cost, operating cost, flexibility, reliability, environmental issues and operations preferences. Another important choice regarding power supply to new project is how we are going to supply power to the process equipment? Whether to generate power and distribute it for use in electric motors to run such equipment or to place direct drivers or let some of equipment use motors and the others use direct drivers. The allocation is an important degree of freedom that can help in the whole process optimization. In brief most of the times some of the equipment will run directly using steam and gas turbines and the rest will run through motors. There are some pros and cons for each selection. A direct drive, steam turbine driving water injection pump, can be cheaper compared with a large steam turbine producing power, distribution of the power and utilizing the power in an electric motor to drive the water injection pump. On the other hand, a large single generator can serve many electric motors and drives many of the process plants equipment such as compressors, pumps, fans and so on. The direct drivers are not very flexible since they are linked to specific equipment and its hot exhaust might not find the right sink in the process. Generally the best solution is usually a combination of electric generators and direct drives.

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4A.4

Cooling Water and Refrigeration Systems Targeting The graph below simply depicts basic features of a typical closed loop cooling water system. The main elements of the system are the cooling water tower and water-process heat exchangers network. Cooling water from the cooling tower is pumped to heat exchangers where process waste heat is rejected to the environment. The cooling water gets heated in the process-water heat exchangers network and returned to the cooling water tower. The hot water returned to the tower is cooled mainly by the evaporation of water as it flows down the packed water cooling tower. The hot water flows counter currently air in the cooling tower. The packing provides enough surface area for heat and mass transfer between air and hot water. Air is humidified and heated and rises through the packing. The evaporated water leaving the tower reflects the amount of cooling made to the incoming hot water. Water is lost through evaporation and drift in the tower and a frequent blow down is also another source of losing water, that need to be compensated through a make-up mechanism. Without going in depth mathematically we can physically understand what happens inside the cooling tower and the main variables that affect its size/cost and operational efficiency. The circulated water return back to the cooling water tower with return temperature that is higher than the air temperature used in cooling down this water. The air temperature is function of its water content, too. If the air is saturated or close to saturation, it will not be efficient in cooling down the circulated water. A perfectly sized cooling tower allows water to be cooled from the circulated water temperature to desired water cooling temperature by cooling the coming water using ambient air through evaporation. Maximum evaporation takes place when water in the form of tiny quantity is exposed to the maximum air flow for the longest possible time/biggest heat and mass transfer surface area and highest possible temperature driving force between the return water and air wet bulb temperature. Air wet bulb temperature is the temperature of the entering/ambient air measured with a wet bulb thermometer, which is a one whose bulb is encased within a wetted wick. In other words it is the air temperature after being saturated with water. By evaporation water can not be cooled down below the air wet bulb temperature.

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The process of cooling through evaporation process via the removal of latent heat allows the water to be cooled below the ambient dry bulb temperature. The dry air enters the cooling tower and starts to gain moisture and enthalpy till it reaches equilibrium with water. The water can be cooled 15 F or more while air mass dry bulb temperature increases only slightly. Water can not be cooled below the wet bulb temperature of an air stream by evaporation, since this temperature is the saturation temperature of the air. Having said that, cooling towers design and operation philosophy affects our investment and operating costs, energy operating cost due to air coolers power consumption, and such costs depend heavily on two major variables, the hot water return temperature and the circulation water flowrate. Increasing the water return temperature, of-course for fixed flowrate, allows more heat to be removed from the process if needed or allows lower water flowrate that is mean smaller cooling towers. The purpose of this section of the best practice is to give brief but useful background about cooling water targeting. It enables quick estimation for cooling water loads using minimum available information especially at project studies phase. Other documents shall address in more details stuff about cooling systems components, models and operation which is not the intention of this best practice document.

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FE,T E

F2,T 2

Cooling Water Network (Qcu) Make-up water FM,TM

F0,T0 FB Cold Blow-down

F1,T1

Simple Model for a Cooling Water System


The above graph gives the basis of a cooling water system model that can be the topic of another best practice document. In brief, the performance of cooling tower is maximized by maximizing the inlet temperature to the cooling tower and minimizing the inlet flowrate. It is the intention of this section to enable the prediction of the minimum water flowrate, taking into consideration other process constraints.

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Most cooling water networks involve the use of cooling water directly from the cooling tower in each heat exchanger. This philosophy leads to a parallel configuration of the process-water coolers. The other logical way of processwater cooling systems is the series arrangement as shown in graph below. Mixed configurations can also be used to attain desired performance.

HE1

HE2

HE 3

Series Configuration

HE 1

HE 2

HE 3

Parallel Configuration

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The graph below shows a cooling duty for a hot process stream. The cooling is being supplied by cooling water stream with an inlet temperature T1. The cooling water flow is decreased resulting in an increase in the cooling water line slope (1/FCp) until the temperature difference has been minimized to the desired one. If the cooling duties are arranged in parallel, then minimizing cooling water flowrate per process-water cooler will minimize total cooling water flowrate and maximize the water return temperature.

T
Hot process stream

Tmin T2

Cold water supply line

T1

Q
In case of series configuration, increasing the cooling water return temperature and consequently decreasing its flowrate will automatically increases the cooling water performance through the reduction of its power consumption. The series and the parallel configurations have three main differences as follows: The series configuration increases the efficiency of the cooling tower/reduce its capital cost In the same time it decreases the temperature driving forces in the processwater coolers resulting in more expensive water coolers It also increases the pressure drop through cooling water network and consequently the pumping cost

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In summary, the parallel configuration shown above maximizes the flowrate of cooling water around the system and minimizes the return temperature since the return temperature from each heat exchanger to the cooling tower is limited by the minimum temperature difference of each heat exchanger. In some cases series configuration can be used as we mentioned above. In series configuration the reuse of the cooling water in second and third heat exchangers lowers the total cooling water flowrate and increases the overall return temperature to the inlet of the cooling tower. Therefore, for the same cooling load requirement, using series configuration for cooling instead of parallel configuration can increase the performance of the cooling tower and hence decrease the cooling tower size which is major equipment in the cooling water system. The graph below shows a representation of a heat exchanger using cooling water in which both the inlet and outlet temperatures of the cooling water have been maximized. This situation corresponds to minimum approach temperatures at both sides of the cooler. The shown profile is known as limiting cooling water profile. This profile provides a boundary between feasible and infeasible temperatures in the design of the cooling water network. As long as water is fed to the processwater coolers to a temperature below its limiting cooling water temperature profile it will be considered feasible.

T
Hot process stream

Tmin Tout-max

Tmin Tin-max
Feasible Region

Q
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Now we can use the limiting cooling water profile concept for drawing the composite curve of several cooling operations to obtain the limiting cooling water profiles of all the process-water cooling operations all in one graph. As shown in graph below.

T(C) 80 60 40 20 Q (kW) Cooling Water Composite Curve

T(C)

Q (kW)

The, graph to the left, is divided to several temperature intervals. Within each temperature interval, the heat duty for the individual streams is combined together to produce the cooling water composite curve. This profile, in the graph to the right, represents a single stream that is equivalent to the 4 individual streams.

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To determine the minimum flowrate of cooling water, a cooling water supply line shall be matched against the cooling water composite curve as shown in graph below.

T(C)

Cooling water composite curve

Pinch

}
Cooling water supply line For maximum re-use

Q (kW)
The cooling water supply line begins at the at the cooling water temperature coming from the cooling tower after the addition of the make-up water. (Cooling water temperature supplied to the process-water coolers) The slop of this line is 1/Fcp where F is the flowrate of the cooling water and cp is the water specific heat. Minimizing F which is the cooling water flowrate achieves our objective. It increases the slope of the line. We can continue decreasing the cooling water flowrate, increasing the slope of the cooling water supply line in graph, until we reach a situation where the line touches the cooling water composite curve. In such case there is no temperature driving force between the cooling water composite curve and the cooling water supply line. This point shown in graph is called the cooling water system pinch. The slope of the red line in the above graph can be used to calculate the theoretical minimum cooling water required for the process which has the four cooling operations tasks shown above.

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It is important to note here that the cooling water supply line shown red in the above graph specify the maximum water return temperature that render the theoretical minimum cooling water flowrate required by the process. In many cases, this cooling water return temperature is not dictated by the minimum cooling water flowrate but by the operational constraints. Such practical constraints arise from corrosion aspects in the piping and heat exchangers network, temperature limits in cooling tower packing and/or fouling of the cooling water. In addition to these constraints other optimization variables, other than minimum cooling water supply, need to be considered such as minimum pressure drop to avoid excessive pumping in the system in case of series configurations as shown earlier. It is outside the scope of this document to address such constraints and extra optimization variables since we are most of the time at conceptual phase during the projects studies phase. Refrigeration System: A refrigeration system is a heat pump in which heat is absorbed below ambient temperature. A heat pump is the reverse of a power cycle. For example, a home refrigerator removes heat from food that is just above freezing (say 5C) and ejects that heat into the room which is at ambient temperature( say 25C). The work we put into the pump to move the heat to the higher temperature degrades to heat. Degrading heat from a high temperature to a low temperature allows us to create work. Using work allows us to elevate the temperature of low grade heat. Before we talk about the integration of refrigeration cycles with the process let us examine first the refrigeration cycle using a temperature-entropy diagram.

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The figure below shows again the main components of a typical refrigeration cycle. We start examining the cycle at the exit of the condenser at point # 1.
A Typical Refrigeration Cycle
High Pressure Liquid

1 4
Condenser

High Pressure Vapor

Expansion Valve

W
Compressor

2
Low Pressure Vapor and Liquid (two Phases) Evaporator

3
Low Pressure Vapor

Here the refrigerant is a high pressure liquid, very near to saturation (i.e., about ready to boil). We reduces the pressure on the liquid by passing it through an adiabatic valve (H=0.0). It partially vaporizes at point #2. The heat required for vaporization, since we do not give it external heat, comes from the fluid itself, cooling it. We next pass this fluid through the refrigeration coils where the rest of the liquid evaporates. In doing so, it takes heat from the surroundings (from food or process). We now have a low pressure liquid/fluid, point # 3, which is all vapor and very near saturation (just ready to condense). We then increase the pressure on the fluid by compressing it. An ideal compressor operates isentrpoically (at constant entropy, S=0.0), arriving to point # 4. It has been heated up due to compression becoming a superheated vapor well above saturation. We then cool it by rejecting the heat to the surrounding or cooling medium in the process, returning ultimately to being a liquid at high pressure, point # 1.
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The graph below shows this cycle on a plot of temperature versus entropy diagram. The advantage of viewing such a cycle on temperature versus entropy and not pressure versus enthalpy is that the area enclosed in the cycle represents the ideal work needed to run the cycle. Any improvements to the cycle will show up as reductions in this area, provided that we pick up the same amount of heat in the evaporator both before and after the improvement since this amount of heat is normally the one dictated by the process needs.

Temperature- Entropy Diagram for refrigeration Cycle

T, K 4

1 liquid Vapor

Vapor and liquid

Entropy, S(J/mol K)
Refrigeration Temperature versus Entropy Diagram (Ideal Compressor)

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Understanding the above temperature-entropy diagram in the context of the refrigeration cycle components allows us to generate ideas that can help save energy. In the graphs below we will present two of such possible improvements. The first is to use a multi-stage compressor as shown below to reduce the area enclosed in the cycle which represents the idea work needed to run the cycle.

Temperature- Entropy Diagram for refrigeration Cycle

T, K

Save this area

liquid Vapor Multistage Compressor

Vapor and liquid

Entropy, S(J/mol K)
Refrigeration Temperature versus Entropy Diagram (Multi-Stage Compressor)

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In such case we compress only part way and then cool the vapor back to its saturation temperature. We compress again to the final pressure. The area saved on the right side of the above graph represents the savings in the ideal work needed to run this cycle. The second possible improvement shown in the graph below is using a let down turbine rather than a valve to drop the pressure of the high pressure liquid.

Temperature- Entropy Diagram for refrigeration Cycle

T, K
Turbine Expansion Save this area

liquid Vapor Multistage Compressor Vapor and liquid


Extra refrigeration capacity

Entropy, S(J/mol K)
Refrigeration Temperature versus Entropy (Using Letdown turbine)

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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit Issue Date: 10 September 2006 Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011

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This expansion is shown in the straight line. This step appears to increase the area enclosed which means extra ideal work will be required to run this cycle. However, it also increases the length of the line that represents the heat we pick up in the evaporator from the process. In other words we are increasing our refrigeration capacity. It is really an improvement since the area (that represent the ideal work needed to run the cycle) per unit heat we pick from the process (process demand) in the evaporator is actually reduced when we use the let down turbine. In general, we should normally use one cycle to elevate the low temperature heat by no more than 30C. If we need to increase the temperature of the heat more than that, it pays to use multiple cycles where a lower temperature cycle passes heat to the cycle above it, which in turns passes the heat to the cycle above it, repeating until the top cycle, which passes the heat to the ambient conditions. This configuration is shown in the double cycle shown in the figure below.

A Two Stage Refrigeration Cycle

Condenser

Expansion Valve Evaporator Compressor

Condenser Expansion Valve Compressor

Evaporator

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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit Issue Date: 10 September 2006 Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011

SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

Refrigeration cycles are expensive to purchase and expensive to operate. Hence, they should be run with much smaller driving forces than are typical for above ambient processes. Smaller driving forces mean we will pay more for the equipment but less for the operating costs. The evaporator/condenser that connects the two cycles in figure above requires a temperature driving force for the heat to transfer. The lower cycle must raise the heat to a temperature just above the temperature of the fluid in the upper cycle so it can transfer heat to it. If it is reasonable to use the same refrigerant in the two cycles we can eliminate this loss in temperature driving force by exchanging heat between the two cycles as shown in the figure below without this common evaporator/condenser shown in the figure above.

A Two Stage Refrigeration Cycle

Condenser

Expansion Valve Two phase fluid

Flash
Vapor

Compressor

Liquid
Compressor Expansion Valve

Evaporator

Two Stage Refrigeration Cycle with Flash Drum


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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit Issue Date: 10 September 2006 Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011

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In this figure we replace the evaporator/condenser unit with a flash drum. The two cycles trade fluid rather than just heat. The lower cycle puts vapor into the flash unit while the upper cycle feeds in 2-phase fluid. The lower cycle takes away the liquid while the upper cycle takes the vapor from the flash unit. Material balance requires each cycle to remove the same amount of refrigerant as it put into the flash unit. The lower cycle trades vapor for liquid, while the upper cycle trades vapor and liquid for vapor alone. It is as if they have traded heat. This trade is done with no temperature driving force and makes it an attractive alternative to improve a cascaded refrigeration cycle. There are many other ways to improve refrigeration cycles and what does really concerns us is to design a good refrigeration cycle that also best fit with our process using the type of insights that we got from grand composite curve. Choice of refrigerant: The choice of refrigerants in compression refrigeration is an important task. There are key factors affecting the choice. Such factors are the freezing point, latent heat of vaporization, shape of the two phase envelope, evaporator pressure and others. The freezing point of the refrigerant should be well below the evaporator temperature. The table below gives the freezing points of famous refrigerants. (Robin Smith Chemical Process Design and Integration book, 2005)
Refrigerant Ammonia Chlorine n-Butane Ethylene Ethane Methane Propane Propylene Nitrogen Freezing Point at Atmospheric Pressure (C) -78 -101 -138 -169 -183 -182 -182 -185 -210

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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit Issue Date: 10 September 2006 Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011

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It is also desirable to have a refrigerant with a high latent heat. A high latent heat will lead to a lower flowrate of refrigerant around the loop and reduce the power requirements. Evaporator operating pressure is another important factor, since it is very desirable not to operate the system at a pressure below atmospheric to avoid any possibility of air leakage to the system. Another important factor affecting the choice of refrigerant relates to the shape of the two phase region on a temperature-entropy diagram. For instance, if the slope of the saturated vapor phase line is steep, it results in lower need for superheating, decreases the heat transfer area needed for condensation. Compression Refrigeration Power Targeting: In order to be able to evaluate different design options, a quick but rigorous method for estimating refrigeration power requirements can be very useful. The benefits from setting shaft-work targets for refrigeration power prior to design of the refrigeration system is important in screening different design options through the evaluation of its refrigeration power requirements. It also helps assess the performance of the whole process prior to detailed design and draw the line regarding the integration of the process and the refrigeration system. Last but not least it helps in deciding the desired trade-off between fixed/capital cost and the operating cost. In this best practice manual a targeting procedures for compression refrigeration will be outlined for simple cycles only. For the purpose of refrigeration power targeting for multi-sage cycles, an assembly of simple cycles can be used. In such case rather than rejecting heat from the high pressure refrigerant to the ambient, it will be rejected to the process or to another refrigeration cycle. Single cycle refrigeration power short-cut targeting procedures: Given the cooling duty (Qevap), condensing temperature (Tcond) and evaporating temperature (Tevap) estimate the actual power requirement for a simple cycle refrigeration system. Use Antoine equation to calculate the saturation pressure in both the sat sat sat condenser and the evaporator P cond and P evap given both the T cond and
sat T evap as follows:

ln P sat = A B/ (C+T sat )

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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit Issue Date: 10 September 2006 Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011

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Where; A, B and C are constants specific to a refrigerant and can be look up from literature or determined experimentally T is temperature in degree (K) Once these pressures been calculated the pressure difference across the compressor and expansion valve will be estimated assuming no significant pressure drop through the heat exchangers and piping. Mass flowrate of the refrigerant (M) can be estimated from the process refrigeration need/ process heat duty that to be rejected to the refrigerant in the evaporator (Qevap) and the latent heat of vaporization of the refrigerant (ref) at the evaporator temperature(Tevap) M = Qevap/ ref Once the mass flowrate (M) is known we can determine the volumetric flowrate (F) into the compressor from the refrigerant vapor density () F = M/ F: in m/sec; M: in kg; and : in kg/m Use vendors data to estimate the compressor efficiency , if not available use the for reciprocating compressor the isentropic efficiency (Eff-isen) that can be estimated as follows using this empirical equation: (Robin Smith, Chemical process Design and Integration Book) Eff-isen = 0.1.091* [ ln (Pout/Pin)] 3 - 0.5247* [ ln (Pout/Pin)] 2 + 0.8577*[ ln (Pout/Pin)] + 0.3727 For; 1.1 < Pout/Pin < 5 Then the Refrigeration Power can be calculated for reciprocating compressors using the following formula:

W = ( / 1 ) PevapF
Where;

/ is [1 ( Pcond

/ Pevap

1 /

W = power required for compression in N.m/s Pevap and Pcond = Inlet and outlet pressure for compressor N/m

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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit Issue Date: 10 September 2006 Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011

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is =

Isentropic efficiency

F= Inlet volumetric flowrate m/s

Ratio of heat capacities Cp/Cv

In simple refrigeration cycles as we shown before, heat is rejected from the process into the refrigerant at the lowest temperature and the heat rejection from the refrigeration cycle to complete a closed loop is rejected to the ambient (cooling water or air) or to the process. In multi-stage refrigeration cycles heat rejected from one cycle can be accommodated in another. It is important to note here that refrigeration systems like steam or combined heat and power systems need to be considered in the same context with the process system for the sake of optimal integration of the two process and utilities systems. 4A.5 Tri-Generation Tri-generation is the concept of deriving three different forms of energy from a primary energy source. Tri-generation is also referred to as CHCP Combined Heating, Cooling & Power Generation. In applications presently under consideration within Saudi Aramco the derived energies would be in the form of power, steam and chilled air. The concept is related to cogeneration except that some or most of the steam generated in the HRSG is passed through an absorption chiller to produce chilled water, which can be used in process cooling and or cool the inlet air to the CGT to increase the amount of electricity that can be produced. The popularity of power turbine inlet air cooling for compressor is increasing as its benefits for producing extra power can result in a significant reduction in both capital and operating cost. In hot weather environments, cooling inlet air to the compressor of a gas turbine system is a low cost option for preventing the loss of output or even increasing it above rates site capacity. Tri-generation provides flexibility and reliability. The amounts of each of the energy products produced at any time can be adjusted to suit changing customer demand. The environment also benefits from Tri-generation, as emissions of carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas), nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides are reduced in the process. For facilities that require all three products at various times of the year, Tri-generation provides a single source for all of these energy needs.

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Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit Issue Date: 10 September 2006 Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011

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Cogeneration / Tri-generation Process


Fuel Supply Inlet Air Cooling Exchange

Exhaust Mass-flow

ELECTRICITY

Gas Turbine

Generator
PROCESS Cooling

Exhaust Gas

Absorption Chiller

STEAM TO PROCESS

HRSG
PROCESS CONDENSATE / FEED WATER

17

Tri-generation process

Tri-generation to Boost Power Generation Output

250

P o w e r O u tp u t

200 150 100

Approx 20%

Power Output without Inlet Air Cooling


50

Power Output with Inlet Air Cooling Use of Trigen


0

JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

JUL

AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

18

Tri-generation Generation output increase


Page 91 of 92

Document Responsibility: CSD/ESD/Energy Systems Unit Issue Date: 10 September 2006 Next Planned Update: 10 September 2011

SABP-A-012 New Projects Energy Efficiency Optimization Review Methodology

The above graph shows the improvement of the power generation output of approximately 20%-30% after the use of Tri-generation with in-let air cooling. In the Middle East with average temperatures over 115F during the summer months this curve highlights the in-let air cooling impact during high power demand period of the year. The cooler winter months with lower power demand have fewer benefits. In brief, Tri-generation as a process of producing three energy-utilities from one source of energy is an important concept. This approach can be very beneficial to Saudi Aramcos facilities where we usually need steam for heating and process purposes, electricity to drive equipment and cooling capacity. The scheme below shows how the absorption-stripping configuration which is an important part of the tri-generation system can be used to produce compressed refrigerant vapor which is produced via a compressor in the compression refrigeration schemes.

Compressed refrigerant vapor Solvent Compressed refrigerant vapor

W Absorber compressor
Refrigerant vapor Refrigerant vapor

Stripper

Waste Heat

Pump

10 September 2006

Revision Summary New Saudi Aramco Best Practice.

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