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A refrigerant heating type air conditioner operable in a cooling mode and a heating mode includes a first external heat exchanger which works as a condenser in the cooling mode and a second external heat-exchanger which works as an evaporator. Bypass means is disposed between a discharge side of a compressor and the second external heat-exchanger. An expansion valve is connected to an inner heat-exchanger, which works as a condenser in the heating mode, and to both the first and second external heat-exchangers. A control valve is disposed between a suction port side of the second external heat-exchanger for preventing the refrigerant from flowing to the second external heat-exchanger in the cooling mode. Pressure of the refrigerant which is trapped between the control valve and the expansion valve is increased by applying heat, by heating means, to the second external heat-exchanger. The heated refrigerant is released to the bypass means when its pressure exceeds to the pressure of discharged refrigerant from the compressor.

What is Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Refrigeration and air conditioning is used to cool products or a building environment. The refrigeration or air conditioning system (R) transfers heat from a cooler low-energy reservoir to a warmer high-energy reservoir (see figure 1). High Temperature Reservoir Low Temperature Reservoir R Work Input Heat Absorbed Heat Rejected Figure 1. Schematic representation of refrigeration system Electrical Energy Equipment: Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Energy Efficiency Guide for Industry in Asia UNEP 2

There are several heat transfer loops in a refrigeration system as shown in Figure 2. Thermal energy moves from left to right as it is extracted from the space and expelled into the outdoors through five loops of heat transfer: Indoor air loop. In the left loop, indoor air is driven by the supply air fan through a cooling coil, where it transfers its heat to chilled water. The cool air then cools the building space. Chilled water loop. Driven by the chilled water pump, water returns from the cooling coil to the chillers evaporator to be re-cooled. Refrigerant loop. Using a phase-change refrigerant, the chillers compressor pumps heat from the chilled water to the condenser water. Condenser water loop. Water absorbs heat from the chillers condenser, and the condenser water pump sends it to the cooling tower. Cooling tower loop. The cooling towers fan drives air across an open flow of the hot condenser water, transferring the heat to the outdoors.

1.2 Air-Conditioning Systems Depending on applications, there are several options / combinations of air conditioning, which are available for use: Air conditioning (for space or machines) Split air conditioners Fan coil units in a larger system Air handling units in a larger system

1.3 Refrigeration Systems (for processes) The following refrigeration systems exists for industrial processes (e.g. chilling plants) and domestic purposes (modular units, i.e. refrigerators):

Small capacity modular units of the direct expansion type similar to domestic

Centralized chilled water plants with chilled water as a secondary coolant for a
temperature range over typically 5 oC. They can also be used for ice bank formation.

Brine plants, which use brines as a lower temperature, secondary coolant for typically
sub- zero temperature applications, which come as modular unit capacities as well as large centralized plant capacities.

The plant capacities up to 50 TR (tons of refrigeration) are usually considered as small

capacity, 50 250 TR as medium capacity and over 250 TR as large capacity units. A large company may have a bank of units, often with common chilled water pumps, condenser water pumps, cooling towers, as an off site utility. The same company may also have two or three levels of refrigeration and air conditioning such as a combination of:

Comfort air conditioning (20 25 oC) Chilled water system (80 100 C) Brine system (sub-zero applications)


This section describes the two principle types of refrigeration plants found in industry: Vapour Compression Refrigeration (VCR) and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration (VAR). VCR uses mechanical energy as the driving force for refrigeration, while VAR uses thermal energy as the driving force for refrigeration.

2.1 Vapour Compression Refrigeration System

2.1.1 Description Compression refrigeration cycles take advantage of the fact that highly compressed fluids at a certain temperature tend to get colder when they are allowed to expand. If the pressure change is high enough, then the compressed gas will be hotter than our source of cooling (outside air, for instance) and the expand ed gas will be cooler than our desired cold temperature. In this case, fluid is used to cool a low temperature environment and reject the heat to a high temperature environment. Vapour compression refrigeration cycles have two advantages. First, a large amount of thermal energy is required to change a liquid to a vapor, and therefore a lot of heat can be removed from the air-conditioned space. Second, the isothermal nature of the vaporization allows extraction of heat without raising the temperature of the working fluid to the temperature of whatever is being cooled. This means that the heat transfer rate remains high, because the closer the working fluid temperature approaches that of the surroundings, the lower the rate of heat transfer. The refrigeration cycle is shown in Figure 3 and 4 and can be broken down into the following stages:

1 2. Low-pressure liquid refrigerant in the evaporator absorbs heat from its surroundings, usually air, water or some other process liquid. During this process it changes its state from a liquid to a gas, and at the evaporator exit is slightly superheated. 2 3. The superheated vapour enters the compressor where its pressure is raised. The temperature will also increase, because a proportion of the energy put into the compression process is transferred to the refrigerant. 3 4. The high pressure superheated gas passes from the compressor into the condenser. The initial part of the cooling process (3-3a) de-superheats the gas before it is then turned back into liquid (3a-3b). The cooling for this process is usually achieved by using air or water. A further reduction in temperature happens in the pipe work and liquid receiver (3b - 4), so that the refrigerant liquid is sub-cooled as it enters the expansion device. 4 - 1 The high-pressure sub-cooled liquid passes through the expansion device, which both reduces its pressure and controls the flow into the evaporator.

Schematic representation of the vapour compression refrigeration cycle

The condenser has to be capable of rejecting the combined heat inputs of the evaporator and the compressor. In other words: (1 - 2) + (2 - 3) has to be the same as (3 - 4). There is no heat loss or gain through the expansion device. Types of refrigerant used in vapour compression systems A variety of refrigerants are used in vapor compression systems. The required cooling temperature largely determines the choice of fluid. Commonly used refrigerants are in the family of chlorinated fluorocarbons (CFCs, also called Freons): R-11, R-12, R-21, R-22 and R-502. The properties of these refrigerants are summarized in Table 1 and the performance of these refrigerants is given in Table 2 below.

Vapour Absorption Refrigeration System

2.2.1 Description The vapour absorption refrigeration system consists of: Absorber: Absorption of refrigerant vapour by a suitable absorbent or adsorbent, forming a strong or rich solution of the refrigerant in the absorbent/ adsorbent Pump: Pumping of the rich solution and raising its pressure to the pressure of the Condenser Generator: Distillation of the vapour from the rich solution leaving the poor solution for Recycling The absorption chiller is a machine, which produces chilled water by using heat such as steam, hot water, gas, oil etc. Chilled water is produced based on the principle that liquid (i.e. refrigerant, which evaporates at a low temperature) absorbs heat from its surroundings when it evaporates. Pure water is used as refrigerant and lithium bromide solution is used as absorbent. Heat for the vapour absorption refrigeration system can be provided by waste heat extracted from the process, diesel generator sets etc. In that case absorption systems require electricity for running pumps only. Depending on the temperature required and the power cost, it may even be economical to generate heat / steam to operate the absorption system. Condenser

A simple schematic of a vapour absorption refrigeration system

The absorption chiller is a machine, which produces chilled water by using heat such as steam, hot water, gas, oil etc. Chilled water is produced based on the principle that liquid (i.e. refrigerant, which evaporates at a low temperature) absorbs heat from its surroundings when it evaporates. Pure water is used as refrigerant and lithium bromide solution is used as absorbent. Heat for the vapour absorption refrigeration system can be provided by waste heat extracted from the process, diesel generator sets etc. In that case absorption systems require electricity for running pumps only. Depending on the temperature required and the power cost, it may even be economical to generate heat / steam to operate the absorption system. A description of the absorption refrigeration concept is given below (references for the pictures are unknown)

Evaporator The refrigerant (water) evaporates at around 4oC under a high vacuum condition of 754 mm Hg in the evaporator. Chilled water goes through heat exchanger tubes in the evaporator and transfers heat to the evaporated refrigerant. The evaporated refrigerant (vapor) turns into liquid again, while the latent heat from this vaporization process cools the chilled water (in the diagram from 12 oC to 7 oC). The chilled water is then used for cooling purpose.

In order to keep evaporating, the refrigerant vapor must be discharged from the evaporator and refrigerant (water) must be supplied. The refrigerant vapor is absorbed into lithium bromide solution, which is convenient to absorb the refrigerant vapor in the absorber. The heat generated in the absorption process is continuously removed from the system by cooling water. The absorption also maintains the vacuum inside the evaporator

High Pressure Generator

As lithium bromide solution is diluted, the ability to absorb the refrigerant vapor reduces. In order to keep the absorption process going, the diluted lithium bromide solution must be concentrated again.. An absorption chiller is provided with a solution concentrating system, called a generator. Heating media such as steam, hot water, gas or oil perform the function of concentrating solutions.

The concentrated solution is returned to the absorber to absorb refrigerant vapor again

To complete the refrigeration cycle, and thereby ensuring the refrigeration takes place continuously, the following two functions are required. 1. To concentrate and liquefy the evaporated refrigerant vapor, which is generated in the highpressure generator. 2. To supply the condensed water to the evaporator as refrigerant (water) For these two functions a condenser is installed.

Absorption refrigeration systems that use Li-Br-water as a refrigerant have a Coefficient of Performance (COP) in the range of 0.65 - 0.70 and can provide chilled water at 6.7 oC with a cooling water temperature of 30 oC. Systems capable of providing chilled water at 3 oC are also available. Ammonia based systems operate at above atmospheric pressures and are capable of low temperature operation (below 0oC). Absorption machines are available with capacities in the range of 10-1500 tons. Although the initial cost of an absorption system is higher than that of a compression system, operational costs are much lower if waste heat is used.

Evaporative cooling in vapor absorption refrigeration systems.

There are occasions where air conditioning, which stipulates control of humidity of up to 50% for human comfort or for processes, can be replaced by a much cheaper and less energy intensive evaporative cooling.

Sprinkling Water

The concept is very simple and is the same as that used in a cooling tower. Air is brought in close contact with water to cool it to a temperature close to the wet bulb temperature. The cool air can be used for comfort or process cooling. The disadvantage is that the air is rich in moisture. Nevertheless, it is an extremely efficient means of cooling at very low cost. Large commercial systems employ cellulose filled pads over which water is sprayed. The temperature can be controlled by controlling the airflow and the water circula tion rate. The possibility of evaporative cooling is especially attractive for comfort cooling in dry regions. This principle is practiced in textile industries for certain processes.


This section describes how the performance of refrigeration / air conditioning plants and be assessed.

3.1 Assessment of Refrigeration

3.1.1 TR We start with the definition of TR. TR: the cooling effect produced is quantified as tons of refrigeration, also referred to as chiller tonnage. TR = Q xCp x(Ti To) / 3024 Where Q is mass flow rate of coolant in kg/hr Cp is coolant specific heat in kCal /kg deg C Ti is inlet, temperature of coolant to evaporator (chiller) in 0C To is outlet temperature of coolant from evaporator (chiller) in 0C. 1 TR of refrigeration = 3024 kCal/hr heat rejected

3.1.2 Specific Power Consumption

The specific power consumption kW/TR is a useful indicator of the performance of a refrigeration system. By measuring the refrigeration duty performed in TR and the kW inputs, kW/TR is used as an energy performance indicator. In a centralized chilled water system, apart from the compressor unit, power is also consumed by the chilled water (secondary) coolant pump, the condenser water pump (for heat rejection to cooling tower) and the fan in the cooling tower. Effectively, the overall energy consumption would be the sum of:

Compressor kW Chilled water pump kW Condenser water pump kW Cooling tower fan kW, for induced / forced draft towers The kW/TR, or the specific power consumption for a certain TR output is the sum of: Compressor kW/TR Chilled water pump kW/TR Condenser water pump kW/TR Cooling tower fan kW/TR

Coefficient of Performance
The theoretical Coefficient of Performance (Carnot), (COPCarnot, a standard measure of refrigeration efficiency of an ideal refrigeration system) depends on two key system temperatures: evaporator temperature Te and condenser temperature Tc. COP is given as: COPCarnot = Te / (Tc - Te) This expression also indicates that higher COPCarnot is achieved with higher evaporator temperatures and lower condenser temperatures. But COPCarnot is only a ratio of temperatures, and does not take into account the type of compressor. Hence the COP normally used in industry is calculated as follows: Cooling effect (kW) COP = Power input to compressor (kW) where the cooling effect is the difference in enthalpy across the evaporator and expressed as kW. Figure

Assessment of Air Conditioning

For air conditioning units, the airflow at the Fan Coil Units (FCU) or the Air Handling Units (AHU) can be measured with an anemometer. Dry bulb and wet bulb temperatures are measured at the inlet and outlet of the AHU or the FCU and the refrigeration load in TR is assessed as: Where, Q is the air flow in m3/h is density of air kg/m3 hin is enthalpy of inlet air kCal/kg hout is enthalpy of outlet air kCal/kg Use of psychometric charts can help to calculate hin and hout from dry bulb and wet bulb temperature values which are measured during trials by a whirling psychrometer. Power measurements at compressor, pumps, AHU fans, cooling tower fans can be taken with a portable load analyzer. Estimation of the air conditioning load is also possible by calculating various heat loads, sensible and latent, based on inlet and outlet air parameters, air ingress factors, air flow, number of people and type of materials stored. An indicative TR load profile for air conditioning is presented as follows:

Small office cabins = 0.1 TR/m2 Medium size office i.e., = 0.06 TR/m2
10 30 people occupancy with central A/C Large multistoried office = 0.04 TR/m2 complexes with central A/C

3.3 Considerations when Assessing Performance

3.3.1 Accuracy of flow and temperature measurements

In a field performance assessment, accurate instruments are required to measure the inlet and outlet temperatures of chilled water and condenser water, preferably with a count of at least 0.1 oC. Flow measurements of chilled water can be made with an ultrasonic flow meter directly or can be determined based on pump duty parameters. Adequacy checks of chilled water are often needed and most units are designed for a typical 0.68 m3/hr per TR (3 gpm/TR) chilled water flow. Condenser water flow can also be measured with a non-contact flow meter directly or determined by using pump duty parameters. Adequacy checks of condenser water are also needed often, and most units are designed for a typical 0.91 m3/hr per TR (4 gpm / TR) condenser water flow.

3.3.2 Integrated Part Load Value (IPLV) Although the kW/ TR can serve as an initial reference, it should not be taken as an absolute since this value is based on a 100% equipment capacity level and on design conditions that are considered most critical. These conditions may only occur during % of the total time the equipment is in operation throughout the year. For this reason, it is essential to have data that reflects how the equipment operates with partial loads or under conditions that demand less than 100% capacity. To overcome this, an average kW/TR with partial loads has to be determined, which is called the Integrated Part Load Value (IPLV). The IPLV is the most appropriate reference, although not considered the best, because it only captures four points within the operational cycle: 100%, 75%, 50% and 25%. Furthermore, it assigns the same weight to each value, and most equipment operate between 50% and 75% oftheir capacity. This is why it is so important to prepare a specific analysis for each case that addresses the four points mentioned, as well as developing a profile of the heat exchanger's operations during the year.


This section includes areas for energy conservation in refrigeration plants.

4.1 Optimization of Process Heat Exchangers

There is a tendency to apply high safety margins to operations, which influence the compressor suction pressure / evaporator set point. For instance, a process-cooling requirement of 15 oC would need chilled water at a lower temperature, but the range can vary from 6 oC to about 10 oC. At chilled water of 10 oC, the refrigerant side temperature has to be lower (about 5oC to +5oC). The refrigerant temperature determines the corresponding suction pressure of the refrigerant, which in turn determines the inlet duty conditions for the refrigerant compressor. Applying the optimum / minimum driving force (temperature difference) can thus help to reach the highest possible suction pressure at the compressor, thereby minimizing energy consumption. This requires proper sizing of heat transfer areas of process heat exchangers and evaporators as well as rationalizing the temperature requirement to highest possible value. A 1oC raise in evaporator temperature can save almost 3 % of the power consumed. The TR capacity of the same machine will also increase with the evaporator temperature, as given in the table below.

In order to rationalize the heat transfer areas, the heat transfer coefficient on the refrige rant side can range from 1400 2800 watts /m2K. The refrigerant side heat transfer areas are of the order of 0.5 m2/TR and above in evaporators. Condensers in a refrigeration plant are critical equipment that influence the TR capacity and power consumption demands. For any refrigerant, the condensation temperature and corresponding condenser pressure are dependent on the heat transfer area, the effectiveness of heat exchange and the type of cooling chosen. A lower condensation temperature means that the compressor has to work between a lower pressure differential as the discharge pressure is fixed by design and performance of the condenser. The choice of condensers in practice is between air-cooled, air-cooled with water spray, and heat exchanger cooled. Larger shell and tube heat exchangers that are used as condensers and that are equipped with good cooling tower operations allow operation at low discharge pressure values and improve the TR capacity of the refrigeration plant. If the refrigerant R22 is used in a water-cooled shell and tube condenser then the discharge pressure is 15 kg/cm2. If the same refrigerant is used in an air-cooled condenser then the discharge pressure is 20 kg/cm2. This shows how much additional compression duty is required, which results in almost 30 % additional energy consumption by the plant. One of the best options at the design stage would be to select large sized (0.65 m2/TR and above) shell and tube condensers with water-cooling, rather than less expensive alternatives like air cooled condensers or water spray atmospheric condenser units.

Maintenance of Heat Exchanger Surfaces

Once compressors have been purchased, effective maintenance is the key to optimizing power consumption. Heat transfe r can also be improved by ensuring proper separation of the lubricating oil and the refrigerant, timely defrosting of coils, and increasing the velocity of the secondary coolant (air, water, etc.). However, increased velocity results in larger pressure drops in the distribution system and higher power consumption in pumps / fans. Therefore, careful analysis is required to determine the optimum velocity. Fouled condenser tubes force the compressor to work harder to attain the desired capacity. For example, a 0.8 mm scale build-up in condenser tubes can increase energy consumption by as much as 35 %. Similarly, fouled evaporators (due to residual lubricating oil or infiltration of air) result in increased power consumption. Equally important is proper selection, sizing, and maintenance of cooling towers. A reduction of 0.55oC in temperature of the water returning from the cooling tower reduces compressor power consumption by 3%. * 15 ton reciprocating compressor based system. The power consumption is lower than that for systems typically available in India. However, the percentage change in power consumption is indicative of the effect of poor maintenance

Multi -Staging For Efficiency

Efficient compressor operation requires that the compression ratio be kept low, to reduce discharge pressure and temperature. For low temperature applications involving high compression ratios, and for wide temperature range requirements, it is preferable (due to equipment design limitations) and often economical to employ multi-stage reciprocating machines or centrifugal / screw compressors. There are two types of multi-staging systems, which are applicable to all types of compressors: compound and cascade. With reciprocating or rotary compressors, two-stage compressors are preferable for load temperatures from 20oC to 58oC, and with centrifugal machines for temperatures around 43oC. In a multi-stage operation, a first-stage compressor that sized to meet the cooling load, feeds into the suction of a second-stage compressor after inter-cooling of the gas. A part of the high-pressure liquid from the condenser is flashed and used for liquid sub-cooling. The second compressor, therefore, has to meet the load of the evaporator and the flash gas. A single refrigerant is used in the system, and the two compressors share the compression task equally. Therefore, a combination of two compressors with low compression ratios can provide a high compression ratio. For temperatures in the range of 46oC to 101oC, cascaded systems are preferable. In this system, two separate systems using different refrigerants are connected so that one rejects heat to the other. The main advantage of this system is that a low temperature refrigerant, which has a high suction temperature and low specific volume, can be selected for the lowstage to meet very low temperature requirements.

4.4 Matching Capacity to System Load

During part- load operation, the evaporator temperature rises and the condenser temperature falls, effectively increasing the COP. But at the same time, deviation from the design operation point and the fact that mechanical losses form a greater proportion of the total power negate the effect of improved COP, resulting in lower part- load efficiency. Therefore, consideration of part-load operation is important, because most refrigeration applications have varying loads. The load may vary due to variations in temperature and process cooling needs. Matching refrigeration capacity to the load is a difficult exercise, requiring knowledge of compressor performance, and variations in ambient conditions, and detailed knowledge of the cooling load.

4.5 Capacity Control and Energy Efficiency

The capacity of compressors is controlled in a number of ways. Capacity control of reciprocating compressors through cylinder unloading results in incremental (step-by-step) modulation. In contrast, continuous modulation occurs in centrifugal compressors through vane control and in screw compressors through sliding valves. Therefore, temperature control requires careful system design. Usually, when using reciprocating compressors in applications with widely varying loads, it is desirable to control the compressor by monitoring the return water (or other secondary coolant) temperature rather than the temperature of the water leaving the chiller. This prevents excessive on-off cycling or unnecessary loading / unloading of the compressor. However, if load fluctuations are not high, the temperature of the water leaving the chiller should be monitored. This has the advantage of preventing operation at very low water temperatures, especially when flow reduces at low loads. The outgoing water temperature should be monitored for centrifugal and screw chillers. Capacity regulation through speed control is the most efficient option. However, when employing speed control for reciprocating compressors, it should be ensured that the lubrication system is not affected. In the case of centrifugal compressors, it is usually desirable to restrict speed control to about 50 % of the capacity to prevent surging. Below 50%, vane control or hot gas bypass can be used for capacity modulation. The efficiency of screw compressors operating at part load is generally higher than either centrifugal compressors or reciprocating compressors, which may make them attractive in situations where part-load operation is common. Screw compressor performance can be optimized by changing the volume ratio. In some cases, this may result in higher full-load efficiencies as compared to reciprocating and centrifugal compressors. Also, the ability of screw compressors to tolerate oil and liquid refrigerant slugs makes them preferred in some situations.

4.6 Multi -level Refrigeration for Plant Needs

The selection of refrigeration systems also depends on the range of temperatures required in the plant. For diverse applications requiring a wide range of temperatures, it is generally more economical to provide several packaged units (several units distributed throughout the plant) instead of one large central plant. Another advantage would be the flexibility and reliability. The selection of packaged units could also be made depending on the distance at which cooling loads need to be met. Packaged units at load centers reduce distribution losses in the system. Despite the advantages of packaged units, central plants generally have lower power consumption since at reduced loads power consumption can reduce significantly due to the large condenser and evaporator surfaces.

Many industries use a bank of compressors at a central location to meet the load. Usually the chillers feed into a common header from which branch lines are taken to different locations in the plant. In such situations, operation at part- load requires extreme care. For efficient operation, the cooling load, and the load on each chiller must be monitored closely. It is more efficient to operate a single chiller at full load than to operate two chillers at partload. The distribution system should be designed such that individual chillers can feed all branch lines. Isolation valves must be provided to ensure that chilled water (or other coolant) does not flow through chillers not in operation. Valves should also be provided on branch lines to isolate sections where cooling is not required. This reduces pressure drops in the system and reduces power consumption in the pumping system. Individual compressors should be loaded to their full capacity before operating the second compressor. In some cases it is economical to provide a separate smaller capacity chiller, which can be operated on an on-off control to meet peak demands, with larger chillers meeting the base load. Flow control is also commonly used to meet varying demands. In such cases the savings in pumping at reduced flow should be weighed against the reduced heat transfer in coils due to reduced velocity. In some cases, operation at normal flow rates, with subsequent longer periods of no- load (or shut-off) operation of the compressor, may result in larger savings. 4.7 Chilled Water Storage Depending on the nature of the load, it is economical to provide a chilled water storage facility with very good cold insulation. Also, the storage facility can be fully filled to meet the process requirements so that chillers need not be operated continuously. This system is usually economical if small variations in temperature are acceptable. This system has the added advantage of allowing the chillers to be operated at periods of low electricity demand to reduce peak demand charges. Low tariffs offered by some electric utilities for operation at nighttime can also be taken advantage of by using a storage facility. An added benefit is that lower ambient temperature at night lowers condenser temperature and thereby increases the COP. If temperature variations cannot be tolerated, it may not be economical to provide a storage facility since the secondary coolant would have to be stored at a temperature much lower than required to provide for heat gain. The additional cost of cooling to a lower temperature may offset the benefits. The solutions are case specific. For example, in some cases it may be possible to employ large heat exchangers, at a lower cost burden than low temperature chiller operation, to take advantage of the storage facility even when temperature variations are not acceptable. Ice bank systems, which store ice rather than water, are often economical.

4.8 System Design Features

In overall plant design, adoption of good practices improves the energy efficiency significantly. Some areas for consideration are: Design of cooling towers with FRP impellers and film fills, PVC drift eliminators, etc. Use of softened water for condensers in place of raw water. Use of economic insulation thickness on cold lines, heat exchangers, considering cost of heat gains and adopting practices like infrared thermography for monitoring - applicable especially in large chemical / fertilizer / process industry. Adoption of roof coatings / cooling systems, false ceilings / as applicable, to minimize refrigeration load. Adoption of energy efficient heat recovery devices like air to air heat exchangers to precool the fresh air by indirect heat exchange; control of relative humidity through indirect heat exchange rather than use of duct heaters after chilling. Adopting of variable air volume systems; adopting of sun film application for heat reflection; optimizing lighting loads in the air conditioned areas; optimizing number of air changes in the air conditioned areas are few other examples.

This section includes most important energy efficiency options. Cold Insulation: Insulate all cold lines / vessels using economic insulation thickness to minimize heat gains; and choose appropriate (correct) insulation. Building Envelope: Optimize air conditioning volumes by measures such as use of false ceiling and segregation of critical areas for air conditioning by air curtains. Building Heat Loads Minimization: minimize the air conditioning loads by measures such as roof cooling, roof painting, efficient lighting, pre-cooling of fresh air by air- to-air heat exchangers, variable volume air system, optimal thermo-static setting of temperature of air conditioned spaces, sun film applications, etc. Process Heat Loads Minimization: Minimize process heat loads in terms of TR capacity as well as refrigeration level, i.e., temperature required, by way of:

Flow optimization Heat transfer area increase to accept higher temperature coolant Avoiding wastages like heat gains, loss of chilled water, idle flows. Frequent cleaning / de-scaling of all heat exchangers At the Refrigeration A/C Plant Area: Ensure regular maintenance of all A/C plant components as per manufacturer guidelines. Ensure adequate quantity of chilled water and cooling water flows and avoid bypass flows by closing valves of idle equipment. Minimize part load operations by matching loads and plant capacity on line and adopt variable speed drives for varying process load. Make efforts to continuously optimize condenser and evaporator parameters for minimizing specific energy consumption and maximizing capacity. Adopt a VAR system where economics permit as a non-CFC solution. Ensure that the AC does not get overloaded and check the fuse or circuit breaker if the AC does not operate. Replace or clean the filter and clean the evaporator and condenser coils regularly, for the air conditioner to cool efficiently. Clean the thermostat regularly and replace it if necessary. If a compressor does not work properly, call a service person immediately Any noise that your AC makes needs to be checked by your mechanic. A good air filter will extend the life of your air conditioner because the important parts, like the blower assembly, the cooling coil, and other inner parts will stay cleaner, operate more efficiently and last longer. Avoid frequent opening of doors/windows. A door kept open can result in doubling the power consumption of your AC. Ensure direct sunlight and heat do not enter the air-conditioned space, particularly in the afternoons. Most people believe that a thermostat set to a lower temperature than desired will force your air-conditioner to cool faster, not really, all it does, is make your air-conditioner operate for longer. Moreover, you will have an unnecessarily chilly room and wasted power. Every degree lower on the temperature setting results in an extra 3-4% of power consumed. Hence, once you found yourself a comfortable temperature and set the thermostat at that level, avoid changing the thermostat settings.

Once an air-conditioning system has been designed and installed avoid any major change in the heat-load on the AC. This will add to wasted power A clogged drain line is usually caused by algae (the green moss- like stuff!) build-up inside the drain line. The air handler provides a cool, damp environment for development of molds and mildew and if left untreated these growths can spread into your ductwork. Get rid of these molds by using a disinfectant (consult your dealer). Make sure that the face of the cooling or evaporator coil is clean so that air can pass through freely. If you have an air return duct in a hot area such as an attic or garage, make sure that this duct is not broken, split, or disconnected and sucking in hot air. Window unit should tilt down slightly on the outside. The part that removes humidity (where water accumulates) is the front coil, which is inside your home. Normally, there is a trough and/or a drain tube that lets the water run to the rear of the unit. If the drain gets clogged, water will back up and leak inside. Ask your mechanic to clean the chassis and make sure all screws are tight. Heat load can be reduced by keeping a false ceiling in offices. Curtains/ blinds /sun film on windows reduces heat input into the room. Insulating the ceiling, which is exposed to the sun with 50- mm thermocole drastically, reduces heat input into the room. Check for duct leaks and crushed ductwork. All air leaks should be sealed with a good quality duct sealant (not duct tape). Inspect the chiller as recommended by the chiller manufacturer. Typically, this should be done at least quarterly. Routinely inspect for refrigerant leaks. Check the compressor operating pressures. Check all oil levels and pressures. Examine all motor voltages and amps. Check all electrical starters, contactors, and relays. Check all hot gas and unloader operations. Use superheat and subcooling temperature readings to obtain a chiller's maximum efficiency. Take discharge line temperature readings. Some Rules of Thumb are:

Refrigeration capacity reduces by 6 percent for every 3.5 C increase in condensing temperature. Reducing condensing temperature by 5.5 C results in a 2025 percent decrease in compressor power consumption. A reduction of 0.55 C in cooling water temperature at condenser inlet reduces compressor power consumption by 3 percent. 1 mm scale build-up on condenser tubes can increase energy consumption by 40 percent. 5.5 C increase in evaporator temperature reduces compressor power consumption by 20 25 percent.

The condensed refrigerant in the condenser is in condition A which lies on the line for the boiling point of the liquid. The liquid has thus a temperature tc, a pressure pc also called saturated temperature and pressure. The condensed liquid in the condenser is further cooled down in the condenser to a lower temperature A1 and now has a temperature tl and an enthalpy h0. The liquid is now sub-cooled which means that it is cooled to a lower temperature than the saturated temperature. The condensed liquid in the receiver is in condition A1 which is sub-cooled liquid. This liquid temperature can change if the receiver and liquid is either heated or cooled by the ambient temperature. If the liquid is cooled the sub-cooling will increase and visa versa. When the liquid passes through the expansion valve its condition will change from A1 to B. This conditional change is brought about by the boiling liquid because of the drop in pressure to p0. At the same time a lower boiling point is produced, t0, because of the drop in pressure. In the expansion valve the enthalpy is constant h0, as heat is neither applied nor removed. At the evaporator inlet, point B, there is a mixture of liquid and vapour while in the evaporator at C there is saturated vapour. At the evaporator outlet. 4. Refrigeration process, pressure/enthalpy diagram point C1 there is super-heated vapour which means that the suction gas is heated to a higher temperature than the saturated temperature. Pressure and temperature are the same at point B and at outlet point C1 where the gas is super-heated the evaporator has absorbed heat from the surroundings and the enthalpy has changed to h1.

When the refrigerant passes through the compressor its condition changes from C1 to D. Pressure rises to condensing pressure pc. The temperature rises to thot-gas which is higher than the condensing temperature tc because the vapour has been strongly superheated. More energy (from the electrical motor) in the form of heat has also been introduced and the enthalpy therefore changes to h2. At the condenser inlet, point D, the condition is thus one of superheated vapour at pressure pc. Heat is given off from the condenser to the surroundings so that the enthalpy again changes to main point A1. First in the condenser there occurs a conditional change from strongly superheated vapour to saturated vapour (point E), then a condensation of the saturated vapour. From point E to point A the temperature (condensing temperature) remains the same, in that condensation and evaporation occurs at constant temperature. From point A to point A1 in the condenser the condensed liquid is further cooled down, but the pressure remains the same and the liquid is now sub-cooled. tc = condensing temperature pc = condensing pressure tl = liquid temperature t0 = evaporating temperature p0 = evaporating pressure Expansion valve Receiver Pressure Heat

Refrigeration plant main components

The job of the compressor is to suck vapour from the evaporator and force it into the condenser. The most common type is the piston compressor, but other types have won acceptance, e.g. centrifugal scroll and screw compressors. The piston compressor covers a very large capacity range, right from small single cylinder modeIs for household refrigerators up to 8 to 12 cylinder modeIs with a large swept volume for industrial applications. In the smallest applications the hermetic compressor is used, where compressor and motor are built together as a complete hermetic unit.

For medium sized plants one of the most common compressors is the larger sizes of hermetic compressors in either piston or scroll versions. The applications are both air conditioning, general commercial refrigeration and chillers. For larger plants the most common is the semihermetic compressor. The advantage here is that shaft glands can be avoided; these are very difficult to replace when they begin to leak. However, the design cannot be used on ammonia plants since this refrigerant attacks motor windings. Still larger HFC compressors, and all ammonia compressors, are designed as open compressors, i.e. with the motor outside the crankcase. Power transmission can be direct to the crankshaft or through a V-belt drive. For quite special applications there is the oil-free compressor. But lubrication of bearings and cylinder walls with oil is normally always necessary. On large refrigeration compressors oil is circulated by an oil pump. Vapor compression refrigeration, as the name suggests, employs a compression process to raise the pressure of a refrigerant vapor flowing from an evaporator at pressure p1 to p2, as shown in Figure 8.2. The refrigerant then flows through a heat exchanger called a condenser at the high pressure, p2 = p3, through a throttling device, and back to the low pressure, p1, in the evaporator. The pressures p2 = p3 and p4 = p1 correspond to refrigerant saturation temperatures, T3 and T1 = T4, respectively. These temperatures allow natural heat exchange with adjacent hot and cold regions from high temperature to low. That is, T1 is less than TL; so that heat, QL, will flow from the cold region into the evaporator to vaporize the working fluid. Similarly, the temperature T3 allows heat, QH, to be transferred from the working fluid in the condenser to the hot region at TH. This is indicated by the arrows of Figure 8.2. Thus the resulting device is one in which heat is transferred from a low temperature, TL, to a high temperature, TH, using a compressor that receives work from the surroundings, therein satisfying the Clausius statement. The throttling device, as shown in Figure 8.2, restrains the flow of refrigerant from the condenser to the evaporator. Its primary purpose is to provide the flow resistance necessary to maintain the pressure difference between the two heat exchangers. It also serves to control the rate of flow from condenser to evaporator. The throttling device may be a thermostatic expansion valve (TEV) controlled by evaporator exit temperature or a long, fine-bore pipe called a capillary tube.

For an adiabatic throttling device, the First Law of Thermodynamics requires that h3 = h4 for the irreversible process, because Q and W are zero and kinetic energy change is negligible. Thus saturated liquid at T3 flashes to a mixture of liquid and vapor at the evaporator inlet at the enthalpy h4 = h3 and pressure p4 = p1. Also the evaporator entrance has the quality x4 and temperature T4 = T1. Heat from the cold source at TL > T4 boils the mixture in the evaporator to a saturated or slightly superheated vapor that passes to the suction side of the compressor. The compressor in small and medium-sized refrigeration units is usually a reciprocating or other positive-displacement type, but centrifugal compressors often are used in large systems designed for commercial and industrial service. It may be noted from the T-s diagram in Figure 8.2 that the vapor compression cycle is a reversed Rankine cycle, except that the pressure drop occurs through a throttling device rather than a turbine. In principle, a turbine or expansion device of some kind could be used to simultaneously lower the refrigerant pressure and produce work to reduce the net work required to operate the compressor. This is very unlikely because of the difficulty of deriving work from a mixture of liquid and vapor and because of the low cost and simplicity of refrigeration throttling devices. An exploded view of a through-the-wall type room air conditioner commonly used in motels and businesses is shown in Figure 8.3. A fan coil unit on the space side is the evaporator. A thermally insulating barrier separates a hermetically sealed, electric-motor-driven positive displacement compressor unit and a finned-tube heat exchanger condenser from the room on the outdoor side.

Figure 8.4 shows a packaged air-conditioning unit designed for in-space use or for a nearby space with short duct runs. Units sometimes are designed to operate with either one or two compressors, coils, and fans to better accommodate varying cooling demands. A unit with watercooled condensers such as that shown requires an external heat sink, usually provided by a nearby ground-level or rooftop evaporative cooling tower. Rather than being combined in a single enclosure, refrigeration units frequently are installed as split systems. Figure 8.5 shows an uncovered rooftop condensing unit that contains a compressor and air cooled condenser. Such units are, of course, covered to resist the outdoor environment over many years. Cooled refrigerant is piped in a closed circuit to remote air distribution units that contain cooling coils (evaporators) and throttling devices. Figure 8.6 shows a skid-mounted air-cooled condensing unit also designed to function with remote evaporators in applications such as walk-in coolers.

Refrigerants are specially selected substances that have certain important characteristics including good refrigeration performance, low flammability and toxicity, compatibility with compressor lubricating oils and metals, and good heat transfer characteristics. They are usually identified by a number that relates to their molecular composition.

The ASHRAE Handbook (ref. 1) identifies a large number of refrigerants by number, as shown in Table 8.1. Inorganic refrigerants are designated by 700, plus their molecular weight. For hydrocarbon and halocarbon refrigerants, the number scheme XYZ works as follows: (1) Z, on the right is the number of fluorine atoms; (2) Y is the number of hydrogen atoms plus one; and (3) the leftmost digit, X, is one less than the number of carbon atoms in the compound. Two important examples are refrigerants R-12 and R-22. R-12, dichlorodifluoromethane, has two fluorine, one carbon, and two chlorine atoms in a methane-type structure. Thus the halogens

chlorine and fluorine, replace hydrogen atoms in the CH4 molecular structure as shown in Figure 8.7. R-22, monochlorodifluoromethane, has a similar structure to R-12, except for a single hydrogen atom replacing a chlorine atom. Charts of the thermodynamic properties of these refrigerants are given in Appendix F. The commonly used chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants are a cause of great concern, because their accumulation in the upper atmosphere creates a .hole. in the ozone layer that normally shields the earth from solar ultraviolet radiation (refs. 8 and 9). In 1987, more than 35 countries, including the United States, signed the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The Montreal Protocol called for a freeze in 1989 and reductions in the 1990s on the production levels of R-11, R-12, R-113, R-114, and R-115. The halocarbon refrigerants, some of which are also widely used as aerosol propellants, foams, and solvents, are now categorized as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), or hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). The HFCs, lacking chlorine, are no threat to the ozone layer but are not in common usage as refrigerants. CFCs, which contain more chlorine than do HCFCs, are the most serious offenders, are very stable, and do not break down rapidly in the lower atmosphere. The Clean Air Act of 1990 (ref. 15) mandated termination of production in the United States of all CFCs such as R-12 by the year 2000. Government data indicate that, because of the structural difference between them, R-12 has twenty times the ozone-depletion potential in the upper atmosphere of R-22. Nevertheless, R-22 and other HCFCs are also scheduled by the law for phaseout of production by the year 2030.

Thus, the search for alternate refrigerants to replace those used in existing applications (worth hundreds of billions of dollars) has assumed enormous importance. It is a difficult, expensive, and continuing task to which industry is vigorously applying its efforts. Charts of thermodynamic properties for two of the newer refrigerants, R-123 and R134a, are given in Appendix F.

Vapor-Compression Cycle Analysis

A vapor-compression cycle was shown in Figure 8.2, The work required by the refrigeration compressor, assuming adiabatic compression, is given by the First Law of Thermodynamics: w = h1 . h2 [Btu/lbm | kJ/kg] (8.1) where the usual thermodynamic sign convention has been employed. The enthalpies h1 and h2 usually are related to the temperatures and pressures of the cycle through the use of charts of refrigerant thermodynamic properties such as those given in Appendix F. In the ideal vapor compression cycle, the compressor suction state 1 is assumed to be a saturated vapor. The state is determined when the evaporator temperature or pressure is given. For the ideal cycle, for which compression is isentropic, and for cycles for which the compression is determined using a compressor efficiency, state 2 may be defined from state 1 and the condensing temperature or pressure by using the chart of refrigerant thermodynamic properties. Assuming no heat exchanger pressure losses, the evaporator and condenser heat transfers are easily determined per unit mass of refrigerant by application of the First Law of Thermodynamics: qL = h1 . h4 [Btu/lbm | kJ/kg] (8.2) qH = h3 . h2 [Btu/lbm | kJ/kg] (8.3) The evaporator heat transferred, qL, is commonly referred to as the refrigeration effect, RE. The product of the refrigerant mass flow rate and RE, the rate of cooling produced by the unit, is called the refrigeration capacity [Btu/hr | kW]. Applying the First Law to the refrigerant in the system as a whole, we find that the work and heat-transfer terms are related by qL + qH = w [Btu/lbm | kJ/kg] (8.4) where qH and w are negative for both refrigerators and heat pumps. Hence qL + |w| = |qH| [Btu/lbm | kJ/kg] (8.5) Equation (8.5) is written here with absolute values to show that the sum of the compressor work and the heat from the low-temperature source is the energy transferred by the condenser to the high-temperature region.

This may be seen graphically by addition of the enthalpy increments representing Equations (8.1) to (8.3) in the pressure-enthalpy diagram shown in Figure 8.8. The p.h diagram is applied often in refrigeration work because of its ease of use in dealing with enthalpy differences and constantpressure processes.

For an ideal vapor compression refrigeration system operating with refrigerant 22 at an evaporator temperature of 0F and condensing at 100F, find the following: the compressor suction and discharge pressures, enthalpies, and specific volumes; the condenser discharge pressure and enthalpy; the refrigeration COP; and the refrigerant mass flow rate and power requirement for a 10-ton refrigeration unit. Solution Following the notation of Figures 8.2 and 8.8, from the chart (Appendix F) for refrigerant 22 at T1 = 0F, the other properties at state 1 are p1 = 38 psia, h1 = 104 Btu/lbm, v1 = 1.4 ft3/lbm, and s1 = 0.229 Btu/lbm-R. The saturated-liquid condenser discharge properties at T3 = 100F are p3 = 210 psia and h3 = 39 Btu/lbm. The compressor discharge-state properties at s2 = s1 and p2 = p3 = 210 psia are h2 = 123 Btu/lbm, T2 = 155F, and v2 = 0.31 ft3/lbm. The evaporator inlet enthalpy is the same as that at condenser discharge, h4 = h3 = 39 Btu/lbm. The refrigeration effect and the compressor work are then RE = h1 . h4 = 104 . 39 = 65 Btu/lbm w = h2 . h1 = 123 - 104 = 19 Btu/lbm Thus COPr = RE /w = 65/19 = 3.42. The rate of cooling, or cooling capacity, for a 10-ton unit is 10200 = 2000 Btu/min. The refrigerant mass flow rate is the capacity divided by the refrigeration effect = 2000/65 = 30.8 lbm/min. The power required by the compressor is the product of the mass flow rate and the compressor work = 30.819 = 585.2 Btu/min, or 585.260/ 3.413 = 10,290 W, or 10.29 kW. The ideal EER may then be calculated from the capacity and power as 200060/10,290 = 11.7 Btu/Watt-hr, or from the COP as 3.4133.42 = 11.7 Btu/Watt-hr.

While most small- and medium-capacity refrigeration systems use hermetically sealed, electricmotor- driven compressor units or open (externally powered) reciprocating compressors, centrifugal compressors are frequently found in large units for cooling buildings and for industrial applications. The reciprocating compressor has much in common geometrically with a simple two-stroke reciprocating engine with intake and exhaust valves. As in that case, the compressor clearance volume Vc is the volume at top center, and the piston sweeps out the displacement volume, as indicated in Figure 8.9. The processes 1-2-3-4-1 on the idealized pressure-volume diagram represent the following: _ 1.2 Both valves are closed. Compression of the maximum cylinder volume V1 = Vc + Vd of refrigerant vapor through the pressure ratio p2/p1 to a volume V2. _ 2.3 Exhaust valve is open. Discharge of refrigerant through the exhaust valve at condenser pressure p3 until only the clearance volume V3 = Vc remains when the piston is at top center. _ 3.4 Both valves are closed. Expansion of the clearance gas with both valves closed from V3 to V4. Note that the inlet valve cannot open until the cylinder pressure drops to p4 = p1 without discharging refrigerant back into the evaporator. _ 4.1 Intake valve is open. Refrigerant is drawn from the evaporator into the cylinder at constant pressure p1 through an intake valve by the motion of piston. Refrigerant in the amount V1 . V4 is processed per cycle. Assuming polytropic compression and expansion processes with the same exponent k: V4 = V3( p3/p4)1/ k = Vc( p2/p1)1/

Then the volume of refrigerant vapor processed per cycle (or per shaft revolution) V1 . V4 = Vd + Vc . Vc ( p2/p1)1/ k = Vd . Vc [( p2/p1)1/ k . 1] is less than the displacement volume and depends on the compressor pressure ratio. Neglecting the difference between the refrigerant density leaving the evaporator and that in the compressor cylinder just before compression, we may write the compressor volumetric efficiency as the ratio of V1 . V4 to the displacement:

_v = (V1 . V4)/Vd = 1 . (Vc /Vd) [( p2/p1)1/ k . 1]

Examination of the compressor processes for different pressure ratios, as in Figure 8.9 ( p2 /p1, for example), shows that the refrigerant volume processed per cycle, and thus the volumetric 298 efficiency, decreases with increasing pressure ratio. It is also evident that the clearance volume must be kept small to attain high volumetric efficiency. It is clear that, for a given positive displacement compressor, the volumetric efficiency limits the usable pressure ratio and thus the difference between the condensing and evaporating temperatures.

Suction and Subcooling Considerations

Lets examine two items of concern with respect to some vapor compression systems. In systems with reciprocating compressors, there is a danger that, due to changing cooling loads, that the liquid refrigerant in the evaporator may not be completely vaporized, causing slugs of liquid to 299 enter the compressor. Because liquids are essentially incompressible, positive-displacement compressors with fixed clearance volumes can be damaged when such "slugging" occurs. The use of a thermostatic expansion valve (TEV) that responds to change in the degree of superheat in the suction line provides one solution to this problem. A bulb filled with refrigerant attached to the suction line, when heated by superheated vapor, transmits an increasing pressure signal to a diaphragm in the TEV, which adjusts the valve flow area and in turn changes the mass

flow rate of refrigerant. This control is usually set to maintain a minimum of about five degrees of superheat to avoid liquid slugs entering the compressor inlet. A second concern is the possibility of entry of vapor into the throttling valve if the refrigerant at the condenser exit is not completely condensed. Because vapor occupies much more space than liquid, the throttling valve will not function properly if vapor can enter from the condenser. One approach to dealing with this is to locate a liquid receiver downstream of the condenser to assure the availability of liquid to the expansion device. Both of the above concerns may be dealt with simultaneously by the addition of a suction-line heat exchanger that superheats the evaporator discharge about five degrees, ensuring that only vapor enters the compressor. The heat exchanger that provides suction superheat from state 6 to state 1 in Figure 8.12 may be set up to receive heat from the subcooling of the condenser discharge from state 3 to state 4. This ensures the absence both of vapor entering the throttling valve and of liquid slugs entering the compressor. Note that the subcooling also tends to increase the refrigeration effect over that of the ideal cycle by decreasing the enthalpy entering the

Combining Heating and Cooling in a Single System

It is possible to combine both heating and cooling functions in a single system by providing heat exchangers that can operate as both evaporator and condenser and a control system that can reroute the flow of refrigerant when switching functions is required. Figure 8-13 presents a 302 schematic diagram for such a system, commonly called a heat pump (context usually determines whether the term .heat pump. refers to a device that heats only or that combines heating and cooling functions). The key component in a commercial heat pump is a reversing valve. With the valve shown in the figure, rotation through an angle of 90 reroutes the flow of refrigerant from the indoor coil to the outdoor coil, and vice versa. As a result of this change, the indoor coil that served as a condenser in the winter becomes an evaporator in the summer. The outdoor coil changes accordingly. Separate throttling devices may be used to accommodate differing load conditions in winter and summer. One-way check valves ensure that refrigerant flow is through the appropriate throttling device during each season. 8.3 Absorption Refrigeration Example 8.3 shows that vapor compression refrigeration requires a significant supply of work from an electric motor or other source of mechanical power. Absorption refrigeration is an alternate approach to cooling that is largely thermally driven and requires little external work. This form of refrigeration is growing in importance as energy conservation considerations demand.

closer scrutiny of the disposition of heat rejection from thermal processes. Absorption refrigeration provides a constructive means of utilizing waste heat or heat from inexpensive sources at a temperature of a few hundred degrees, as well as directly from fossil fuels. The eventual abolition of the use of CFCs may also boost absorption refrigeration technology.

This system relies on the fact that certain refrigerant vapors may be dissolved in liquids called absorbents. For instance, water vapor is a refrigerant that tends to dissolve in liquid lithium bromide, an absorbent. Just as when they condense, vapors release heat when they go into solution. This heat must be removed from the system in order to maintain a constant temperature. Thus, cooling causes vapor to be absorbed in absorbents, just as cooling causes vapor to condense. On the other hand, heating tends to drive vapor out of solution just as it turns liquid to vapor. This solution phenomenon and the fact that pumping liquid requires a relatively small amount of work compared with that required to compress a gas are the secrets of absorption refrigeration. Consider the schematic diagram in Figure 8.14, which shows a basic absorption refrigeration unit. The condenser / throttling valve / evaporator subsystem is essentially the same as in the vapor compression system diagram of Figure 8.2. The major difference is the replacement of the compressor with a different form of pressurization system. This system consists primarily of an absorber at the pressure of the evaporator, a vapor generator at the pressure of the condenser, and a solution pump. A second throttling valve maintains the pressure difference between the absorber and the generator. The system operates as follows: Refrigerant vapor from the evaporator flows into the absorber, where it mixes with the absorbent. The mixture is cooled by heat transfer QA to air or water at the temperature of the environment, causing the vapor to go into solution. The refrigerant-absorbent solution flows to the solution pump where it is pressurized to the pressure level of the generator and condenser. Heat from an energy source, QG, then drives the vapor from the cold liquid solution.



Refrigeration cycle
In the refrigeration cycle, a heat pump transfers heat from a lower-temperature heat source into a higher-temperature heat sink. Heat would naturally flow in the opposite direction. This is the most common type of air conditioning. A refrigerator works in much the same way, as it pumps the heat out of the interior and into the room in which it stands. This cycle takes advantage of the way phase changes work, where latent heat is released at a constant temperature during a liquid/gas phase change, and where varying the pressure of a pure substance also varies its condensation/boiling point. The most common refrigeration cycle uses an electric motor to drive a compressor. In an automobile, the compressor is driven by a belt over a pulley, the belt being driven by the engine's crankshaft (similar to the driving of the pulleys for the alternator, power steering, etc.). Whether in a car or building, both use electric fan motors for air circulation. Since evaporation occurs when heat is absorbed, and condensation occurs when heat is released, air conditioners use a compressor to cause pressure changes between two compartments, and actively condense and pump a refrigerant around. A refrigerant is pumped into the evaporator coil, located in the compartment to be cooled, where the low pressure causes the refrigerant to evaporate into a vapor, taking heat with it. At the opposite side of the cycle is the condenser, which is located outside of the cooled compartment, where the refrigerant vapor is compressed and forced through another heat exchange coil, condensing the refrigerant into a liquid, thus rejecting the heat previously absorbed from the cooled space. By placing the condenser (where the heat is rejected) inside a compartment, and the evaporator (which absorbs heat) in the ambient environment (such as outside), or merely running a normal air conditioner's refrigerant in the opposite direction, the overall effect is the opposite, and the compartment is heated. This is usually called a heat pump, and is capable of heating a home to comfortable temperatures (25 C; 70 F), even when the outside air is below the freezing point of water (0 C; 32 F). Cylinder unloaders are a method of load control used mainly in commercial air conditioning systems. On a semi-hermetic (or open) compressor, the heads can be fitted with unloaders which remove a portion of the load from the compressor so that it can run better when full cooling is not needed. Unloaders can be electrical or mechanical. ] Humidity Air conditioning equipment usually reduces the humidity of the air processed by the system. The relatively cold (below the dew point) evaporator coil condenses water vapor from the processed air, much as a cold drink will condense water on the outside of a glass. The water is drained, removing water vapor from the cooled space and thereby lowering its relative humidity.

Some air conditioning units dry the air without cooling it. These work like a normal air conditioner, except that a heat exchanger is placed between the intake and exhaust. In combination with convection fans, they achieve a similar level of coolness as an air cooler in humid tropical climates, but only consume about one-third the energy.



American Society Heating Refrigeration and Air Conditioning. ASHRAE Hand Book. 2001 Arora, C.P. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning. Second edition. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd. 2000. Bureau of Energy Efficiency, Ministry of Power, India. HVAC and Refrigeration Systems. In: Energy Efficiency in Electrical Utilities, chapter 4. 2004 Compare India. Munters. Pre-Cooling of Gas Turbines Evaporative Cooling. 2001. National Productivity Council, Ministry of Industries, India. Technology Menu on Energy Efficiency. Plant Services Magazine. US Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.