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MITOCHONDRIA AND BIOENERGETICS

Mitochondria Cellular

Discovery Structure Function Origin

Respiration Glycolysis Pyruvate Oxidation (Preparatory Reaction) Krebs Cycle Electron Transport System

MITOCHONDRIA

rod-shaped

organelles that can be considered the power generators of the cell

vary

greately in both size (0.5 micrometers - 10 micrometers) and number (1 - over 1000) per cell of oxidative phosphorylation

site

provide

the chemical energy necessary to carry out the various cellular activities

DISCOVERY
Early

1850s - Rudolf Klliker, a German biologist describe the presence of what he called ordered array of particles in muscle cells.
- The term 'mitochondria (meaning thread-like granules) was coined by Carl Benda.

1898

1957

- Philip Siekevitz dubbed them 'the powerhouse of the cell'.


- Richard Altmann, established them as cell organelles and called them 'bioblasts'.

1984

STRUCTURE
contains

outer and inner membranes composed of phospholipid bilayers and proteins. Because of this double-membraned organization, there are five distinct compartments within the mitochondrion. They are:

the outer mitochondrial membrane, the intermembrane space (the space between the outer and inner membranes), the inner mitochondrial membrane, the cristae space (formed by infoldings of the inner membrane), and the matrix (space within the inner membrane).

Mitochondria

semi-autonomous in that they are only partially dependent on the cell to replicate and grow. They have their own DNA, ribosomes and can make their own proteins. Similar to bacteria, mitochondria have circular DNA and replicate by a reproductive process called fission.

Due

to the independence from the nuclear DNA and similarities with bacteria, it is believed that mitochondrion have originated from bacteria by endosymbiosis.

ENDOSYMBIOTIC HYPOTHESIS

Symbionts live together in a situation in which both benefit mitochondria have their own DNA and ribosomes

They also divide just like bacteria

So, it could be that mitochondria are bacteria that invaded eukaryotic cells. Both would benefit

FUNCTION
production

of energy

Site
It

of cellular respiration

is important to maintain proper concentration of calcium ions within the various compartments of the cell. Mitochondria help the cells to achieve this goal by serving as storage tanks of calcium ions.

Mitochondria

helps in the building of certain parts of the blood, and hormones like testosterone and estrogen.
in the liver cells have enzymes that detoxify ammonia.

Mitochondria

Other

functions of the mitochondria include controlling the cell cycle - signaling, differentiation, growth and death - and assisting with cellular aerobic respiration.

CELLULAR RESPIRATION

CELLULAR RESPIRATION

enzymatic breakdown of glucose (C6H12O6) in the presence of oxygen (O2) to produce cellular energy (ATP)

Overall

reaction: C6H12O6 + 6O2 -------> 6 CO2 + 6H2O + 36 ATP

TYPES OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION

1.

There are two types of cell respiration aerobic and anaerobic. Aerobic respiration occurs in the presence of oxygen.

2. Anaerobic respiration occurs in the absence of oxygen.

3 STAGES OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION

Glycolysis

Oxidation of Pyruvate

Krebs

Cycle Electron Transport System

GLYCOLYSIS
Breaking

down glucose glyco lysis (splitting sugar) starting point for all cellular respiration in cytosol 10 steps inefficient generate only 2 ATP for every 1 glucose

GLYCOLYSIS
Glycolysis

can occur with or without oxygen. In the presence of oxygen, glycolysis is the first stage of cellular respiration. Without oxygen, glycolysis allows cells to make small amounts of ATP. This process is called fermentation. reaction (Aerobic): Glucose + 2 NAD+ + 2 Pi + 2 ADP 2 pyruvate + 2 NADH + 2 ATP + 2 H+ + 2 H2O+energy

Summary

FERMENTATION

TWO PHASES

Energy

Investment Phase ATP is consumed Energy Pay-off Phase ATP is produced

PYRUVATE OXIDATION
Conversion Overall

of pyruvate into Acetyl Coenzyme A

reaction:

2PA + 2CoA+ 2NAD ---> 2 Acetyl CoA + 2Co2 + 2


NADH+H

KREBS CYCLE

THE KREB S CYCLE


Hans Adolf Krebs a British biochemist who recognized it in 1937 occur in the matrix (inner compartment) of the mitochondria. aerobic process (require O2) Sources of compounds

Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins

ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN


inner membrane of the mitochondria. the site of oxidative phosphorylation in eukaryotes NADH and succinate generated in the citric acid cycle are oxidized, providing energy to power ATP synthase

OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION
Krebs cycle produces NADH and FADH2 in the matrix, CO2 is generated in process of producing ATP. Protein complex in inner membrane removes electrons from NADH and FADH2 Protein complexes transport H+ ions from matrix to the intermembrane space. A pH and electrical gradient are created across the inner membrane by H+ into the intermembrane space. Channel Protein assist ATP synthase by allowing protons in intermembrane to flow back into matrix.

CHEMIOSMOSIS
Oxidation Phosphorylation

Krebs Cycle produce NADH and FADH2 Electrons are removed from NADH and FADH2 H+ ions are transported to intermembrane pH and electrical gradient are created ATP synthase generates ATP