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Acute Respiratory Failure is characterized by acute lung inflammation and

diffuse alveolocapillary injury with non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema.

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

ALVEOLAR OR PULMONARY CAPILLARY WALL INJURY

Increased capillary permeability

Cell Damage

Fluid protein leaks into alveoli and interstitial tissue

PULMONARY EDEMA

DECREASED SURFACTANT PRODUCTION

Decreased compliance, labored inspiration

RESPIRATORY INSUFFIECIENCY

Decreased Oxygen Exchange Hypoxemia Decreased Lung volume Atelectasis

RESPIRATORY FAILURE

MEDICAL MANAGEMENT: Diagnostic Test ABG analysis CXR ECG Pulse oximetry CBC Serum electrolytes Pulmonary artery catheterization Treatment and drugs: Cautious oxygen therapy (nasal prongs or Venturi mask) If Respiratory Acidosis persist, Mechanical ventilation with an Edotracheal is attached or Tracheostomy Antibiotics Bronchodilators Corticosteroids If cor pulmonale and cardiac output decreased administer Inotropic agents, vasopresors, and diuretics may ordered

NURSING MANAGEMENT: Orient the patient to the treatment unit to prevent anxiety To reverse hypoxemia, administer oxygen as ordered Maintain patent airway Monitor BP, RR and PR Place patient in semi-fowlers position