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fax (724) 776-0790 e-mail: email@example.com web site: www. Traction.sae. Warrendale.Other SAE books on this topic: Electronic Braking. PT-76) VDC Where Will the Edited ABS - TCS - Technology Lead Us? by Josef Mack (Order No. PT-57) For more information or to order this book. Jürgen (Order No. PA 15096-0001 (724) 776-4970. contact SAE at 400 Commonwealth Drive. and Stability Control Edited by Ronald K.org/BOOKSTORE .
Pa. Engineers. . Inc.Brake Design and Safety Second Edition Rudolf Limpert Society of Automotive Warrendale.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Limpert. — 2nd ed. Rudolf Brake design and safety / Rudolf Limpert. I. Inc.50. Permission to photocopy for internal or personal use. Automobiles—Brakes—Design and construction.2'46—dc21 98-53284 CIP Copyright © 1999 Society of Automotive Engineers. Title.50 per page is paid directly to CCC. R-198 . ISBN 1-56091-915-9 All rights reserved.. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. or the internal or personal use of specific clients. provided that the base fee of $. TL269. Printed in the United States of America. ISBN 1-56091-915-9 1. is granted by SAE for libraries and other users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC). p. MA 01923. 222 Rosewood Dr. l-56091-915-9/99-$. Special requests should be addressed to the SAE Publications Group. SAE Order No.L56 1999 629. Danvers.
Brakes system technology has attained a high standard of quality over the last decades. The brake expert will find all the analytical tools to study and determine the potential causes of brake failures. the application of sound engineering concepts. Mistakes found in the First Edition were corrected. Nearly all automobiles are now equipped with antilock brakes.Preface to the Second Edition The Second Edition continues to provide a systems approach to designing safer brakes. Federal braking standards require commercial vehicles to use antilock brakes. Improvements in brake systems will only be achieved through basic research. Revolutionary innovative brake designs are not expected. objective of the Second Edition is to assist the brake engineer in accomplishing his task to design safer brakes that can be operated and maintained safely. The Second Edition is expanded to cover all essential subjects including the mechanical and thermal analysis The of disk brakes. in particular the many individuals who attended my Brake Design and Safety seminars. and testing resulting in small yet important design two changes. I thank all those who have made valuable suggestions and comments and helped me to understand brakes better. Rudy Limpert v . Consulting experts will find it a single reference in determining the involvement of brakes in accident causation.
design rules.Preface to the First Edition The purpose of this book is to provide a systems approach to designing safer brakes. discussed and analyzed in Brake force distribution. Much of the material presented was developed during my work as a brake design engineer. guidelines. Chapter 4 briefly reviews basic concepts involved in analyzing mechanical brake systems. In Chapter 2. Vll . consulting as a brake expert. and product liability issues. accident reconstruction experts. and vehicle stability during braking for the single vehicle are analyzed in Chapter 7. technical consultants. are Air brake systems and their components Chapter 6. Brake torque computations are shown for different drum and disc brake designs. the analysis of braking performance. and teaching brake design. and product liability factors. Practical temperature equations are shown whenever possible. and lawyers involved with the design of brake systems. The operation and design of hydraulic brakes are discussed in Chapter 5. drum and disc brakes are discussed. The book is written for automotive engineers. conducting automotive research. Chapter 1 reviews basic stopping distance performance. Junior engineers will benefit from the book by finding in one single source all essential concepts. braking efficiency. and design checks required for designing safer brakes. Temperature and thermal stresses are analyzed in Chapter 3. optimum brake force distribution.
Important elements of anti-lock braking performance and design are introduced in Chapter 9.Brake Design and Safety Car-trailer and commercial truck-trailer braking is discussed in Chapter 8. . are Brake failures discussed in Chapter 10.
3 1.3 Lining Wear and Pressure Distribution.7 2.4 1.18 Basic Safety Considerations.7 Vehicle Deceleration and Stopping Distance.2 Brake Shoe Adjustment.5 1.2 1.23 Elements of Product Liability.73 Effect of Shoe and Drum Stiffness on Brake Torque.1 Different Brake Designs.31 Chapter 2 Design and Analysis of Friction Brakes.162 Design of Heavy Equipment Disc Brakes.11 2.Ill Thermal Stress Analysis. and Safety.1 3.151 Thermal Design Measures.8 1.2 3.68 Brake Torque Analysis.3 3.105 Thermal Analysis of Friction Brakes.6 2.92 Analysis of External Band Brakes.66 Brake Lining Materials.25 Elements of Braking Safety Standards.100 Analysis of Sealed Brakes.164 IX .157 Test Results.9 Elements of Braking Performance. Ill Chapter 3 3.65 Disc and Drum Brake Comparison.1 Functions of aBraking System.1 1.1 Brake System Overview.2 Pedal Force and Pedal Travel.63 2.37 2.28 Basic Brake System Design Considerations.46 2.4 Parking Brake Design.6 1.5 Temperature Analysis. Design.8 2.12 Disc Brake Installation.49 2.37 2.96 Auxiliary Brakes.7 1.4 3.5 2.Table of Contents Chapter 1 1.9 2.10 2.8 Elements of Engineering Design.
181 Chapter 6 Analysis of Air Brake Systems.323 7.173 4.179 Boost System Analysis.213 Dynamic Response of Hydraulic Brake Systems.311 Optimum Braking Forces.4 5.313 Fixed Brake Force Distribution Analysis.173 Wheel Brakes.7 7.3 5.315 7.3 Brake System Components.2 5.8 Vehicle Deceleration.334 7.5 7.3 General Observations.290 Chapter 7 7.1 Basic Concepts.1 4.1 5.5 Brake Torque.350 x .Brake Design and Safety Chapter 4 Analysis of Mechanical Brake Systems.283 Response Time of Air Brake Systems.1 7.2 4.199 Brake Fluid Volume Analysis.308 Braking Efficiency.6 6.12 Braking Dynamics While Turning .7 6.6 7.176 Chapter 5 5.249 6.2 7.341 7.293 Static Axle Loads.2 Brake System Plumbing Schematics.10 Vehicle Stability Analysis.4 Air-Over-Hydraulic Brake Systems.8 Tire-Road Friction Utilization.293 Dynamic Axle Loads.3 7.9 Variable Brake Force Distribution Analysis.249 6.278 6.179 Manual Hydraulic Brakes .174 Driveshaft-Mounted Brake.307 Comparison of Optimum and Actual Braking Forces.250 6.5 Brake Line Pressure Control Devices.277 6.243 Analysis of Hydraulic Brake Systems.284 Braking by Wire .4 Single Vehicle Braking Dynamics .257 6.11 Braking Dynamics for Three-Axle Vehicle.295 7.297 Actual Braking Forces Developed by Brakes.
1 10.8 Analysis of Brake Failure.446 Chapter Basic Considerations.4 Car-Trailer—No Brakes on Trailer.3 8.Table of Contents Chapter 8 Braking Dynamics of Combination Vehicles.2 10.361 Braking Dynamics for Trailer with Surge Brakes.361 8.6 10.425 Historical Overview .6 Anti-Lock Brake Systems (ABS)...466 Hydraulic Systems.509 About the Author.399 Chapter 9 9..4 9.9 Seal and Rubber Materials.425 Fundamentals of ABS Analysis.428 ABS System Components.496 10.364 Braking ofThree-Axle Tractor-Trailer Combination (2-S1) .500 10.473 Comparison of Dual Brake Systems.367 Braking Dynamics of Combination Vehicle Equipped with Tandem Axles.494 Degraded Braking Due to Air Inclusion.1 9.2 8.5 10. 10.456 ABS Systems for Air Brakes.462 In-Use Factors and Operation of ABS Systems.7 10.525 ISBN:978-0-7680-2710-5 Copyright © 1999 SAE International XI .3 10.499 10. Conversion of Units.5 9.2 9.505 Index.471 Appendix A.1 8.472 Analysis of Partial Brake Failure.491 Vacuum Assist Failure.10 Failure of Air Brake Systems.495 Brake Fluid Considerations in Design and Failure Analysis.471 Development of Brake Failure.4 10.494 Full Power Brake Failure.3 9.503 References.
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