A. The Background of Study

Language has important function in communication. Though language, we can improve our knowledge, language is so many function in the life of human being. William A. Haviland states that Language is a sound system that when combined according to certain rules that lead to meaning can be captured by everyone who speaks in the language1. By this function English as medium in international communication has played its rules and shown its important in a lot international activities. English is an international language spoken by almost millions of people all over the world. In Indonesia, English has been taught since junior high school even from elementary school up to universities. All student should study it so that they may be able to communicate with other people from other countries. As we know that most of books available in the libraries are written in English. If the student do not have any background of knowledge in English, they will encounter a lot of complain of difficulties. They face this condition when they study at university or other higher institution. There are four skills in English in they are: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Grammar a part of English skills that should be learnt by all of leaner. One of the problems in learning


http://carapedia.com/pengertian_definisi_bahasa_menurut_para_ahli_info494.html accessed on January 28-2012



English is about how discriminate situating of preposition on, in, at, and etc, we know that preposition is one of part of speech which is very important in mastering English.

In grammar preposition is a part of speech that introduces a prepositional phrase, for instance, "The cat sleeps on the sofa", the word "on" is a preposition, introducing the prepositional phrase "on the sofa". In English, the most used prepositions are "in” at" and "on". In brief, a preposition indicates a relation between things mentioned in a sentence.2 The fenomenon that occured in the field that are many student do not understand about preposition and how to put the preposition well in context. Sometime they are very difficult to use on, in, at, and act how to put those in the simple sentence. The writer do this research because he want to know the ability of students in using proper preposition on in, at, and etc contextually, to the eight student at MTsN Geudubang Aceh.

B. Research Questions Considering what the writer has discussed in the background, the problem of study can be stated the follow: 1. How is the ability of students in using of preposition on in, at, and etc contextually to the eight student at MTsN Geudubang Aceh? 2. What are the problem faced by the students about preposition on in, at, and etc contextually to the eight student at MTsN Geudubang Aceh?


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Preposition_and_postposition taked on mey 08-2011


C. Purpose of Study The purposes of study in this research are: a. To find out what the problem face by students to use preposition on in, at, and etc contextual to the eight student at MTsN Geudubang Aceh b. To find out the the ability of students to use preposition on in, at, and etc to the eight student at MTsN Geudubang Aceh. D. Significance of Study In this research, the writer wants to write the benefit of doing this research as below: 1. To provide information of students to understand their writing in using preposition 2. To be useful for teacher in dealing with students’ errors 3. To be useful for teacher to arrange new methods of teaching 4. To be beneficial for students to write better writing in good arrangement of tense. 5. To be useful for students to make self correction 6. To increase English department students competence in mastering grammar 7. To be useful for the researcher to avoid doing the errors in using preposition


E. Limitation of Problem

In this research, the writer only focuses two kind of preposition, there are, preposition of place (on, in, at and over) and preposition of time (on, in, at and over)

F. Terminology a. Preposition According to Winston Churchill preposition is a part of speech that introduces a prepositional phrase. For example, in the sentence "The cat sleeps on the sofa", the word "on" is a preposition, introducing the prepositional phrase "on the sofa". In English, the most used prepositions are "in” at" and "on". b. Analysis The word analysis is the adaptation of the English word, which means the description of analysis, elaboration, separation, examination in detail. Hasan Sadily the Encyclopedia defines the word analysis "means an examination of something by making all the basic elements and relationships between the elements concerned.3 the analysis can also be interpreted as an investigation of an event, essays, deeds and so on to find out the real situation, causes, and so the case sits. 4

3 4

Ar. Adi Candra dan Pius Abdillah, op. cit., p. 20. Hasan Sadily, Ensiklopedia (Jakarta: Ikhtiar Baru Van Houve, 1980), p, 206.



LITERATURE REVIEW Preposition are always followed by a noun or a noun phrase and indicate, preposition describe position of noun. The writer state that prepositions are short words that are usually located before the noun and a few prepositions followed by a gerund Verb. Martin Parrot states that many learners often see prepositions as a major problem5. There are so many prepositions in English (many more than in a lot of other language) and a learner often have to make choices and distinctions that are not necessary in their own language.6 Many choices have little or nothing to do with meaning, and are therefore particularly difficult to remember.7 The statement above indicates that many students still difficult how to put correct preposition. Even though some of the students have already known of preposition, they still can make the wrong pattern in put the preposition well. The errors can be found in students constructing the context whether in that context should be used preposition. It also can be happened in choosing others kind of preposition in others situation or context.

Martin Parrot, Grammar for English Language Teachers, (Printed in United Kingdom : Cambridge University Press, 2000 ) P. 83 6Ibid., 7 Ibid.,



A. Definition of Preposition Frank Marcella said that preposition is classified as a part of speech in traditional grammar8. A preposition may be defined as connecting word showing the relation of a noun or a noun substitute to some other word in the sentence (the squirrel in the tree; the preposition in shows the relationship between the squirrel and the tree.) Over ninety percent of preposition usage involves these nine prepositions: With To From at in of by for on

Prepositions cause problems because sometimes they can be used interchangeably (He sat on the chair: He sat in the chair), because prepositions are often combined with verbs to create phrasal verbs (to look after someone; to look down on someone), and because a single preposition can be used to express several different ideas (He is tall for his age; I swam for an hour)9 B. Function of Preposition The main functions of preposition are: starting a prepositional phrase, i.e., a phrase which consists of prepositional and noun, or other elements that function like a noun, pronoun, numeral, gerunds, noun phrase and others.10


Frank Marcella..Modern English : a Practical Reference Guide, ( New York University 1972) p. 163

9 http://rwc.hunter.cuny.edu/reading-writing/on-line/prep-def.html. accessed on October 2011 10 Hilman Fariz Mukti, about preposition p.352 Accessed on October 11- 2011


The writer state that preposition is to explain position of something, preposition is very important to explain relation a thing to another thing, preposition is used to communicate between one word of the other word, for instance:


The pen is in the cupboard The ruler is on the table He looks at me

From the example above we can see the relation between one thing to other thing. The firs relation between a pen and cupboard, the second relation between rulers and the table, and the third is relation between the persons with the first person, the relation is place or position of a noun.

C. Kind of Preposition Prepositions are used to express a number of relationships, including time, location, manner, means, quantity, purpose, and state or condition. 11 The following outline demonstrates the uses of common prepositions.

1. Prepositions for Time. (In, on, at) Prepositions used for time of different natures are in, on at etc.12 Preposition Time Nature In 1. Month or Year. e.g. in January, in 1985 2. Particular time of day or month or year

Accessed on 22-

October 2001

Ibid….Accessed 22 October 2011




e.g. in morning, in evening, in first week of January, in summer, in winter 3. Century or specific time in past etc e.g. in 21st century, in stone age, in past, in future, in present 1. Day e.g. on Monday 2. Date e.g. on 5th of March, March 5 3. Particular day e.g. on Independence Day, on my birthday, 1. Time of clock e.g. at 5 O’clock, at 7:30 PM 2. Short and precise time e.g. at noon, at sunset, at lunch time, at bed time, at the moment, at the same time

Examples: - He was born in 1945. - She will go to New York on 25th of March. - The concert will begin at 7 O’clock. - He gets up early in the morning. - We enjoyed a lot in the summer. - The president will deliver speech to public on Independence Day.

2. Preposition for Place. (In, on, at) Prepositions “in, on or at” are usually used for different places.

Preposition Place Nature Place having some boundary (physical or virtual In boundary) Examples. In hall In school In a building In a box




In a car In library In garden In America In room In cupboard Surface of something. Examples. On a table On blackboard On a page On the wall On the roof On a map Specific Place. Examples. At the entrance At the bottom of glass At front of the chair At bus stop At the edge of roof

Examples - She lives in New York. - Students study in library. - The wedding ceremony will be held in the hall. - There are some books on the table. - The teacher wrote a sentence on blackboard. - He was flying kite on the roof. - Her parents were waiting for her at the entrance of school - There was a huge gathering at bus stop. - His house is at the end of street.


3. Preposition for Direction (to, toward, through, into)

Prepositions like to, towards, through, into are used to describe the direction.13 Following examples will help in better understanding.

Examples: She went to the library. He jumped into the river. He ran away when he felt that someone was coming toward him.

4. Preposition for Agent. (by)

Preposition for agent is used for a thing which is cause of another thing in the sentence. Such prepositions are by, with etc.14 Following examples will help in better understanding.

Examples: This book is written by Shakespeare. The work was completed by him. The room was decorated by her.

D. Use some of The Preposition is often confusing There are some preposition is often confusing to loyal learner as an Example:



Ibid…,Accessed on October 22-2011 Ibid..


a. Above - over –on 1. Above Describes an object whose position is higher than other objects the second object does not intersect, and a higher object should be right on top of another object.15

Example: - The plane flew above the cloud - The bird flew above the cloud 2. Over Describes an object whose position is higher than other objects The second object may intersect or not intersect16 Example: - The sky is over our heads - The plane is over our home 3. On Describes an object whose position is higher than other objects the second object is touched or attached.17 Example: - The book lies on the table - The pen on the table

15 16

Hilman Fariz Mukti, about preposition……….Accessed on October 22-2011 Ibid…, 16 Ibid...,


b. At – in 1. At At used before the name of a small town or village and to talk about a distant place. Example:

They passed their holidays at langsa I go to Kuala Simpang at Kota Lintang streets’

2. In

In used before the name of the country or city or place a person's name during the speech. Example: - They lived in Paris - I live in Jakarta c. At- In – On ( for Time ) 1. At Example: - We arrived at two o’clock - At midnight, at lunch time


2. In In usually use to say the name of month, year and season and sometime two prepositions can be used with the same noun, but the meaning is different.18 Lessons begin at 8.30 and I always arrive on time (=8.30) Lessons begin at 8.30 and I always get there in time. (=before 8.30 I’m not late)

Example for month and weather: He arrive In April He come In the winter

We use for longer periods of time: Example: we are in the time for the train (before the train start) E. Extended Time, Starting At One Point And Ending At Another. 1. Since Since is use with a point in time never for place the action is use in time expressions either began at this point or continued to the rime of speaking or accrued in the period between this point and the time of speaking. Example: - I have seen him twice since May

Redmen, Stuart. English Vocabulary In Use. Cambridge University England, Jakarta erlangga,2001. P.34


- I have waiting for you since yesterday 2. By By is specific a commencement point, Contrast: example by the time he was exhausted. This mean that by Phrases do not accurate with the verbs of durative meaning by used of travel also there are many expression formed by a preposition + noun a preposition is used with a particular meaning in a number of expressions, so they are many common.19 Example: by bus, by car, by train, by boat My father went to Malaysia by plane20 3. From From can be used for place and time For time example: he waited from 6.00 till 6.30 For place example: I went from Westmister Bridge to the tower of London 4. Until Until can used for place and time For place: she is going to company me until the station (she leave me then) For timer: I did not sleep until midnight (I started sleeping then)


Redmen, Stuart. English Vocabulary In Use. Cambridge University England, Jakarta Erlangga,2001. P.34 20 Ibid…,P.34


5. For For is used with period of time, definite in length but otherwise indefinite. It’s usually followed by singular noun preceded by a plural noun, an adjective of quantity or over: Example - I go to Medan For a long time - We are free For five days For is however often used before known periods of time with action. Which are intended to last for the whole period? These actions are usually planned. In advance and there is sometimes an idea of purpose. The verbs: go, come, be, stay, rent, hire, and lend are often used with for in this way. Example: - Went there for July - They hired a car for their holidays 6. During During is placed before know periods of time example those know by name, such as: lent, taster or those previously defined. It is, therefore, usually followed immediately by the name of period or by the, this, that, these or those. Example: She is coming during the summer. Shi is staying with her grandmother during the winter


7. Before Before is as preposition these accrued almost exclusively as preposition of time and are followed by a temporal noun phrase. Example: - Send this letter before next week. - I eat before hungry 8. After After is the same like before, this preposition are followed by temporal noun phrase. Example: - Send this letter after tomorrow I was resting after sport.

F. Place Position and Direction 1. Position a. The point it self

1. In – or - inside Hang your coat in the closet. (In give s the area of something enclosed a container, a drawer, a room, a building, the world).21 Example: There was no one inside the house. (Inside emphasizes the containment).


Marcella Frank, Modern English A Practical Reference Guide, ( Printed in United States of America: Printice Hall, 1972 ),p. 164


3. On Put the dishes on the table. (On indicates the surface of something a floor, a wall, a ceiling, a desk, a street). 4. At Example: He is at school (at church, at the store).

At is also used for addresses with street numbers. For instance: hi lives at 200 Park Avenue 22

b. Higher or lower than a point 1. Higher point Martin Hewing said in his book “we can use above or over when we say that one thing is at a higher level than another”.23 a. Over The plane flew over the mountains. (Over is felt to be generally higher than a point).24 b. Above He lives on the floor above us (above is felt to be directly higher than a point). This distinction between over and above is not always carefully observed.25
22 23

Ibid….,P.164 Ibid…., P.164 24 Martin Hewings, Advanced Grammar In Use. Cambridge University, New York 2005. P.176


c. Lower point a. Under


A subway runs under this street. (Under is felt to be generally lower than a point).26

b. Underneath Example:

He swept the dirt under (Neath) the rug (underneath expresses the idea of close under, especially so as to be hidden).27



Example: He lives on the floor below us. ( below is felt to be directly lower than a point) d. Neighboring the point a. Near

Example: He lives near the university (near has the most general meaning of neighboring a point). By is synonym for near. Close to means very near.

25 26

Marcella Frank..Modern English…………………..”,P.165 Ibid…P.165 27 Ibid,...P.165


b. Next to Example: The theater is right next to the post office. (With nothing else between them). c. Beside

Example: He sat beside his wife during the party. ( on one side of a person or thing than has two sides) b. Between Example:

He sat between his two sons. (On each side of a person or thing that has two sides). If more than two persons or things are positioned around a point, among is used example: he sat among all his grandchildren.28



Example: The museum is just opposite the post office. (Directly facing someone or something else).


Marcella Frank..Modern English…………………..”,P.165


2. Direction (Movement in regard to a point) The kind of movement designated by each preposition given below is illustrated by the diagram below.29 a. To – From

- He always by walks to school from his home. - I usually go to market from their home
To From

b. Toward - The pilgrims headed toward Mecca - They move away from their old neighborhood Toward away from


In ( to) – out of

- He run into the house quickly - They go out of the house Into Out of


Marcella Frank..Modern English…………………..”,P.166


d. Up – down - He climbed up (or down) the stairs. - They go down from the stairs.


Down e. Around

- The ship sailed around the island - I around that city

Around f. Through - You can drive through that town in an hour - I go to school through that mosque




Past or by

- He walked past ( or by ) his old schoolhouse without stopping - She went past her grandfather house.


h. As far as ( up to)

- We will walk only as fare as ( up to) the old schoolhouse. Then we will turn back - I will go to your house only as far as the big house. Then I will turn back.

As far as

Many of these Preposition of place can also begin adjective phrase that modify a noun or pronoun. Example: The cabinet above the sink is very dirty Everyone in the room was shocked by his remarks



METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH A. Approach and kinds of research In this research, the writer uses qualitative approach. descriptive analysis and data, ability the in method, which the writer does collecting Namely data, data

arrange a conclusion in the field of

research. in collecting students’ about

writer make some tests, The writer wants to know mastering English preposition.

So to get the fact

students’ ability, the writer should does observation in the field of research. B. Presence of Researcher. The writer will teach little explanation about preposition to

students and then gives them tests about the preposition. Then the writer observes result of the tests that is done by students. The writer only

gives to the student test because preposition has learned in this class. The writer only provides little information about the preposition before

administering the test with the students.



C. Place and Time of Research 1. Place of Research MTs Negeri Geudubang Aceh is state Islamic secondary school which is under the control of the Department of Islamic. It is located at Kebun Baru streets’. The writer conducted research in MTsN Geudubang Aceh as schools that have English lessons in it. The writer takes this location to do research because these schools have English as one of several ministries there. Furthermore, the preposition has also been studied by students at that school was making it easier for writer to take a data of the sample. Because it has been learned about the preposition, then it is suitable for the title that the writer wants to analyze students' ability in using preposition. The writer just gives them a test. 2. Time of Research The writer gives students test about the 2012. And the writer collect the data at that day. D. Population and Sample 1. Population Zuriah opinioned that population is the whole object which the researcher pays attention to it in the certain time.30 Sugiyono also states that population is preposition on March 20 -


Nurul Zuriah, Metodelogi Penelitian Sosial dan Pendidikan, ( Jakarta : Bumi Aksara, 2007 ), P. 116


general area which consist of object / subject have quality and characteristic needed by researcher to do research and then make the conclusion of it.31 The population in this study to the eight grade students at MTsN Geudubang Aceh. There are three units in eight semesters. Unit I consist of 39 students, unit II consist of 39 students, and unit III consist of 40 students. Thus, all the students are 118 students. The writer chooses them to be his population in this research because they have learned preposition with their teacher before. 2. Sample The people who provide the data in this study is called the sample. In this study, The writer chooses the eighth grade students as subject of the research, the eighth grade is the middle level at Junior High School, which these students had been studied about some preposition in the first grade with their teacher. The writer use Random Sample to take sampling, (Suharsimi Arikunto, 1997) state that The sample mix researchers mix the subjects that are considered equal in population, so researchers have the same rights to each subject for the opportunity to be selected as a sample.32 The writer take a sample of each the three classes by random. Here the writer collects data based on the result of the tests that are answered by the students and the writer observes how are students answer the questions.


Sugiyono, Metode Penelitian Pendidikan Pendekatan Kuantitatif, Kualitatif, dan R & D, ( Bandung : ALfabeta, 2008 ), P. 117


http://idtesis.com/teknik-teknik-dalam-menentukan-pengambilan-sampel-penelitianskripsi/accessed on mart 4-2012


E. Techniques of Data Analysis Through qualitative research, analysis process and data interpretation need how to think creatively and carefully of a researcher. There is no special formula to data analysis in qualitative, but the data has been collected influence model of data analysis. In this case, the writer applies

matrix analysis, namely singular descriptive. The singular descriptive has functioned to analyze and interpret the data that come from a result of observation, such as individual, class or group. By singular descriptive, the writer will analyze the data has been collected, then the writer arranges an interpretation or conclusion of the data. F. Steps in the research This research is done to know the kinds of students’ ability in using preposition contextually. There are the steps uses in doing this research: 1. Giving test for the students in three classes and collects it in that day. 2. Analyze students’ test and find the ability that they made in using preposition in answer it contextually. 3. Analyze the test that were answered by the students, giving the score for each optional answer and classify it in the table. 4. Making the conclusion based on the research.


After these process, the writer observes an English teacher in the class. After that, the writer collects the data through result of the tests and observation, then the writer tries to analyze the data.


CHAPTER IV DISCUSSION A. Students’ Ability In Mastering Preposition As we know that ability of each people is different, because of that, the researcher should determine variable in a research. The writer wants to know the ability of each subjects or students in mastering English preposition at MTsN Geudubang Aceh, especially in the second grade.

Generally, the students’ ability in mastering preposition is only mastering about the two kinds of preposition. This matter is demonstrated by the test. The writer gave students tests to collect data, there are two kinds of preposition that are tested by the writer that are preposition of time and preposition of place. First test (T1) second test (T2), there are thirty questions of each the test. Then the writer puts result of the test in a table as follow; Table 4.1 : List of the grade second students’ name and score of adverbs tests No 1. 2. 3. Students’ Name Ade M. Rahmad Ainul Mardhiah Almalikul Mulki T1 52,5 75 50 T2 45 77,5 52,5 Average 48 77 42,5



4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

Ami Riski Andre Mulya Sukma Chairul Syahputra Eka Suriana Giovani Firmansyah Herdy Pratama Iqbal Riski Mahendra Lulu Afifah Melani Hartati Muchtar Muhammad Husni Muhammad Syahrul Mustafa Nadila Sawitri Nova Leni Novitasari

45 82,5 60 60 45 70 67,5 67,5 47,5 77,5 32,5 40 40 67,5 67,5 55 37,5

57,5 65 55 62,5 27,5 65 72,5 67,5 35 77,5 55 32,5 40 57,5 70 45 35

40 66 62,5 65 39 62 73 67 28 76 61 38 42 72,5 69 37 33


21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

Ridwan Harben Riska Indayani Riska putri Ryan Syahputra Sriwulandari Sumiarti Sutrisno Wika Andini Yuliana Zulfahmi

45 55 72,5 77,5 55 70 57,5 60 40 22,5

60 45 62,5 77,5 55 57,5 60 62,5 55 25

57,5 40 61 80 42 55 58 52 41 22,5

B. Result of Research Based on the table above, the result of the research showed that score of each students are variety, there are students have ability in T3 and there are students ability in T1 and T2. But in average, the higher score is 80 and only thirteen students who have completeness score of standard score at this school, which the standard score is 60. So, students’ ability


in mastering the adverbs is about 43,3 %, it means that students’ ability in mastering adverbs is low. They do not understand yet about form and using of adverb, position of adverb in sentence. The writer describes the score in detail too, which the score based on the students’ ability of each kinds of the adverb, the writer finds that students’ ability in mastering adverb of place is about 54 %, adverb of time is 49,3 %, adverb of manner is 37,3 % and adverb of frequency is 53 %. In this case, we know that students’ ability in

mastering adverb of manner is lowest, it means that adverb of manner is most difficult for the students. Besides that, while the writer observes students in Teaching-Learning Process, the writer looked that students can not apply adverb in a sentence well. Then while an English teacher ask students to make a sentence, they seldom put adverb in a sentence. Because of that, students look difficult in mastering adverbs.


CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION A. Conclusion Some conclusions of the discussions, namely; 1. The purpose of this research is to know students’ ability in

mastering adverbs, the result is that students’ ability in mastering adverbs is low. They just can tell about the four kinds of adverb, but they do not understand about form and the way of adverb and positions of adverbs well. 2. Based on the test’s score of the four adverbs, the writer finds that the second grade students’ ability in mastering adverb is low. Generally, the students’ ability is about 43,3 %, students fell

difficult in mastering adverb of manner, It is showed by their ability in mastering manner adverb is 37,3 %, and this adverb’s score is lowest than all of the other adverbs’ score. B. Suggestions Based on the result of research at MTs. S istiqamah Desa Alur Cucur, the writer will give several suggestions, may these are useful suggestion in knowing or understanding adverbs.


The writer gives suggestions as follow; 1. In teaching-learning process, while giving examples, such as a sentence or paragraph, every teachers should tell about grammar, although not in
29 detail. So, the students can know an adverb in the sentence.

2. The writer hopes a teacher can give explanation about adverbs in detail, so that the students understand form of adverb, using of adverb and position of adverb. So, students can apply adverb in a sentence well. 3. Students must often read sentence or paragraph that contain adverb, so that students understand position and using of adverb. Then students should try to make or arrange the sentence their selves.



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Stefanie Boucher. 2008. Make grammar a laughing matter. London : Oxford University Simanjuntak, Harpinus, 2003. Bahasa Inggris Sitem 52m, Jakarta: visipro Wren,P.C. dan Martin, 1980. High school English grammar. New Dehli : S, CHAND and COMPANY LTD.

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